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The History of the 


Featured in the museum's logo and on 
the front cover of this volume is the male 
of Queensland's tropical Birdwing 
Butterfly, Ornithoptera priamus. 



The History rfthe 



with N.H. Agnew (assistant editor), A. Bartholomai, R. Belcher, RA Coleman, 

J.C.H. Gill, D.K. Griffin, G.J. Ingram, G.B. Monteith, M.C. Quinnell, 

DJ. Robinson, I.G. Sanker, S. Turner, D.P. Vernon, E.P. Wixted, M J. Wade. 

Published as volume 24 of the Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 

Dedicated to past directors of the 
Queensland Museum, and to those who 
worked with them, unremittingly, to 
build a museum worthy of 'this great and 

varied territory ' (Board of Trustees 

Annual Report 1879-80) 

Previous page: The southern sky from the 
Darling Downs, where the first free 
immigrants to Queensland had taken up 
land in 1840 (photograph by courtesy 
Bryan Bridge). 



Preface, ix 

1 THE STAGE IS SET Queensland in the 1860s, i 

2 SHEER WANT OF SPACE Museum Buildings, 13 


4 SHOWANDTELL Displays, 67 

5 DIALOGUE The Community and the Museum, 101 

6 ALL THAT GLITTERS Mineralogy, m 


8 SCALES, FEATHERS AND FUR Vertebrate Zoology, m 

9 SINGLE CELLS TO SPINY SHELLS Invertebrate Zoology, 173 

10 PEOPLES AND LIFESTYLES Anthropology, 199 

11 MAN AND MACHINES History and Technology, 221 

12 PANDORA'S BOX Maritime Archaeology, 243 


14 MEN OF GOODWILL The Boards of Trustees, 275 

15 IN PERPETUITY The Museum's Continuing Role, 301 

Charles Coxen, 310; Karl Theodor Staiger, 311; 
Charles Walter de Vis, 313; Kendall Broadbent, 315; 
Ronald Hamlyn-Harris, 320; Heber Albert Longman, 321; 
George Mack, 323 

THE STAFF 1862-1970 Appendix 2, 325 

INDEX, 353 


The Contributors 

The authors of this history are all closely associated 
with the Queensland Museum. J.C.H. Gill is chairman of 
the board of trustees; DP. Vernon is a long-time member 
of the staff now retired; E.P. Wixted is the museum 
librarian; N.H. Agnew is scientist in charge of materials 
conservation; D.K. Griffin is officer-in -charge of the 
education section; Susan Turner is an honorary 
associate; and architect R. Belcher is the museum 
display officer. Other authors are curators in the 
Queensland Museum. The design of the volume is the 
work of staff artist, Paul Ramsden. 

There are others who have helped. Janet Hogan of 
the Queensland Art Gallery read the manuscript and 
gave it careful and constructive appraisal. Professor SA 
Prentice contributed the account of the Queensland Hall 
of Science, Industry and Health Development Committee 
in Chapter 11; Peter Heyworthof the Historic Buildings 
Section of the Department of Works supplied information 
on the work done on the Gregory Terrace Building in 
Chapter 2; the discussion of the architecture of the 
Gregory Terrace Building was contributed by Teresa 
Robertson. Stephen Cook searched the museum's 
negative files and found many of the illustrations and he 
searched time books and correspondence files to help 
produce the list of staff in Appendix 2, Contributors have 
also benefited from the assistance of staff in Queensland 
State Archives, the John Oxiey Library and the 
Parliamentary library. 

Through his knowledge of the history of Queensland 
and of the museum, Daniel J. Robinson, curator of 
history and technology, has contributed to the accuracy 
of many sections of this work, and his copied and 
abstracted documents from museum and state archives 
have removed the necessity for many long searches. 
Donald P. Vernon, through his involvement with the 
museum spanning 36 years, his first hand experience 
and often participation in many of the events recounted, 
his sensitivity and understanding of the personalities 
involved and of the pressures and restraints that affected 
decisions of the time, has enhanced the quality and 
humanity of this history. Neville Agnew, as assistant 
editor, has contributed to style and consistency 

In addition to her responsibilities as editor and her 
sole and joint authorship of a number of chapters, 
Patricia Mather has collaborated closely with the other 
authors. She has made a significant contribution to the 
content and presentation of all sections of the work and 
to the planning and co-ordination of the whole volume— 
Irom the inception of the project in November 1984 up to 
its publication. 

The authors of each respective chapter are set out 

SHEER WANT OF SPACE-P. Mather, R. Belcher 
SHOW AND TELL-D. Vernon, B.M- Campbell 
DIALOGUE-DJ. Robinson. D.K. Griffin 

P. Mather 
IN PERPETU1TY-A. Bartholomai 
C.W. de Vis, R. Hamlyn-Harris); DJ. Robinson 
CK.T. Staiger); S. Turner (HA Longman); DP. Vernon 
(K Broadbent, G. Mack) 
THE STAFF -P. Mather 

A. Bartholomai 



In this, its 125th year, the Queensland Museum has opened in its new 
building in the Queensland Cultural Centre. The occasion is celebrated in 
this account of the museum's history— written principally by members of 
its staff, and published by its board of trustees as a special commemorative 
volume of the Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 

The museum was founded by the Queensland Philosophical Society 
on 20 January 1862 and right from the beginning the Queensland 
government was involved with its operation. The government had 
provided a room for the museum as well as a £100 grant to further the 
society's aims — and one of its principal aims was the establishment of a 
permanent, public museum. To this end the society had built up its own 
collections of natural history and was caring for mineralogical collections 
made by the government geologists. Although the government set up a 
display of this mineralogical material toward the end of June 1871, the 
Philosophical Society was reluctant to relinquish its reponsibilities for that 
material until the terms of its custodianship had been satisfied— until a 
permanent public museum was erected. The society's scruples were 
removed when, in October 1871, the minister for Public Works appointed 
the Philosophical Society's vice-president— Charles Coxen— as honorary 
curator of the museum. The government had thus acknowledged its 
responsibility for staffing the museum— albeit by an honorary 
appointment — as well as providing its accommodation. Custodian Karl 
Theodor Staiger, the first permanent member of the museum staff, was 
eventually appointed by the government in 1873. 

In the pages that follow, the commitments and endeavours of the men 
and women who served the institution are recounted. They worked to 
record and to understand the colony— ultimately the state— of Queensland 
and to bring that understanding to the people. 

That their efforts were fruitful is evident in the Queensland Museum 
of today. It is an institution respected in the world of science as well as by 
Queenslanders from every corner of the state who use its services. 

I congratulate the Queensland Museum on its past achievements and 
wish it an ever increasing measure of success and prosperity on the South 
Bank of the Brisbane River. 

The Hon. Peter McKechnie MLA, 
Minister for Tourism, National Parks, 
Sport and the Arts. 




Peter McKechnie, 

Minister for Tourism, National 

Parks, Sport and The Arts 




Queensland Museum 


© Queensland Museum 

PO Box 3300, SouthBrisbane 4101, Australia 

Phone 06 7 3840 7555 

Fax 06 7 3846 1226 



National Library of Australia card number 
ISSN 0079-8835 


Papers published in this volume and in all previous volumes of the Memoirs of the 
Queensland Museum maybe reproduced for scientific research, individual study or other 
educational purposes. Properly acknowledged quotations may be made but queries regarding 
the republication of any papers should be addressed to the Editor in Chief. Copies of the 
journal can be purchased from the Queensland Museum Shop. 

A Guide to Authors is displayed at the Queensland Museum web site 

A Queensland Government Project 

Typeset at the Queensland Museum 


in the 1860s 

The colony of Queensland was created on 6 June 1859. On that 
day it was separated from New South Wales by Letters Patent 
under the Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Ireland, and over the signature of Queen Victoria 1 . Sir George 
Ferguson Bowen KCMG was duly appointed governor. On 
arrival in its capital, Brisbane, some five months later, on 10 December 
1859, he proclaimed the colony and set about the appointment of the first 

For 18 years this frontier of Queen Victoria's empire, that was to 
become Queensland, had been growing. The operation of the Moreton Bay 
penal settlement was being wound up from 1839 2 , and in 1842 Captain 
Wickham RN had become police magistrate of the newly proclaimed free 
town of Brisbane. Settlers, previously excluded from the area within a 50 
mile radius, could now use Brisbane's port facilities, and many moved 
north from New South Wales to join the first pioneers in taking up the rich 
agricultural and grazing lands that were known to exist on the Darling 
Downs and to the north. Between 1842 and 1862 there were also many 
settlers who came direct from Europe to this northern district of the 
colony of New South Wales— Moreton Bay. The new settlement was 
fortunate in the quality of its immigrants for many were men of ability, 

Previous page: Brisbane 1830. The 
Windmill, later to become the first home 
for the museum, is on the skyline. To its 
right is the Convict Barracks building 
that was to be the museum's second 
home (painting, by Cedric Flower after a 
contemporary sketch in the Mitchell 
Library, in the Civic Art collection. 
Reproduced by courtesy of the Brisbane 
City Council). 

energy and some means. Some of the outstanding leaders in the 
community had arrived in one or another of the three ships chartered by 
Dr John Dunmore Lang, who had returned to Europe in 1840 with a vision 
of a new England in the South Seas. He set out to induce 'skilled and 
scholarly men of sound moral and religious principles' 3 to migrate to what 
he referred to as 'Cooksland'— Moreton Bay. Not content with mere 
representation in the parliament in Sydney, these men worked 
successfully for separation and the constitutional autonomy of an 
independent colony. Primarily they were motivated to achieve the just and 
democratic regulation of property. 

Like other parts of Australia, Queensland was dominated by its urban 
communities. It was a product of the industrial revolution 45 . Instead of 
taking up land for farming and grazing, many newcomers had settled in 
the towns, becoming merchants and traders, manning the ports, and 
starting industries to serve the growing urban and rural communities. 
Even the pastoral and agricultural ventures were run as businesses rather 
than the feudal peasant farms from which European communities had 

At the time of separation from New South Wales there were about 
28,000 Queenslanders of European origin. About half lived in the country, 

Sir George Ferguson Bowen KCMG, 
captain general and first governor of the 
colony of Queensland. 

St. Patrick's Tavern, east side of Queen 
Street, Brisbane, between Edward and 
Albert Streets, about 1860 (photograph 
by courtesy Monier Roof Tiles). 

The Reverend John Dunmore Lang who 
persuaded many of the 'skilled and 
scholarly men', who subsequently 
became leaders of the Brisbane 
community, to migrate to Cooksland — 
Moreton Bay — before its separation 
from New South Wales. 

The Hon. R.G.W. Herbert, first colonial 
secretary and premier of Queensland. 

scattered over an area that extended north to Rockhampton and inland 
about 250 miles. The other half were equally divided between Brisbane- 
Ipswich and the smaller provincial towns 6 . 

Work was plentiful everywhere and property ownership was high. 
Graziers, in particular, were desperately short of labour but there was also 
a sound level of employment in the cities. Schemes that were suggested to 
supply a cheap work force included re introduction of convict 
transportation or importation of labourers from India or China. These 
ideas were not developed. Efforts were made, however, to attract migrants 
from Great Britain. On 9 October 1860, on the recommendation of a Select 
Committee on Immigration, a certain Henry Jordan was appointed as 
Queensland's representative in London to encourage immigration. The 
enticements offered were grants of land under a land order system, and an 
assisted passage scheme. It was a very active public relations programme 
that Jordan pursued. In his final report he stated that between January 
1861 and December 1866 he had delivered 192 lectures to a total audience 
of 161,200 people and had despatched 85 ships carrying 35,725 persons 7 — 
more than 20% of the number he had addressed. 

The Queensland government also sent a representative— John 
Heussler— to Europe to recruit migrants under the land order system. Dr 
Lang, the influential supporter of immigration, strongly supported the idea 
of having some from Germany. Heussler himself had come from Germany, 
so it was not surprising that most of the migrants he recruited came from 
that country —where political unrest made his job easier". Many of the 
Germans who came to Queensland had a farming background, and rather 
than remain in the towns as many of Jordan's settlers did, they chose to 
settle in rural areas 9 . 

Governor Bowen reported on the Queensland of 1860 in glowing 
terms— thereby increasing the influx of immigrants: public revenue was 
nearly three times the average of that for Great Britain; housing was 
generally of a good standard 10 . Again quoting Bowen— after his trip to the 
Darling Downs in 1860: 

I have also found in the houses of the long chain of settlers who have 
entertained me with such cordial hospitality, all the comforts and 
most of the luxuries and refinements of the houses of country 
gentlemen in England ll . 

It was an exciting time as this great flood of migrants poured into 
Queensland. Most came to make their fortunes and many believed that 
this could be done through the acquisition of land. 

However, there were few people with experience of either 
government or politics. To make up for the lack of a legislature, 
Queenslanders had adopted, enthusiastically, the use of public meetings to 
resolve political differences 12 . Brisbane had elected its first municipal 
council only two months before the governor's arrival 13 , so experience, 
even at a local government level, was lacking. 

When Bowen arrived in Brisbane and proclaimed separation from 
New South Wales, a public service had to be created and legislation 
enacted. As an interim measure, the first Executive Council and 
legislature were not elected but were appointed by the governor. As 
premier, Bowen appointed 29 year-old R.G.M. Herbert who had 
accompanied him to Queensland. Despite his youth and lack of local 
experience, Herbert was well qualified for the job, for he previously had 
been Gladstone's private secretary and had a knowledge of government 
that was rare in the colony 12 . The first elections for the Legislative 



v, i | 



by Hit Erecllenqy But i Imbue Perol-sos Bow km, Knight. Commander uf the Mont Distin^i 

■ .1 9fc, Michael and St. George, Captain-General and I u -Chief of the Colony 

Cif Oueeuslaiid and ita Dependencies, and Vice- Admiral uf (be Mine, <ie,, Jfcc, &o. 
\\niEKKAS Vy an ActTtassod in the Session of Parliament holden in the igb Benti im 
* ' ti-oiiil' ycftfi -i toe Keigu of Her Majesty! politied, " ,4*i .-L-/ *» enable Her MajeMy to ■ 
•■^ud Bitloi amended of t&cLnguiatitre <f AV» &ruA& Hafe* * fci tbxfer a Constitution (>n Aev 
" ■ .VeuM l-l'.n'.-.-, und to ero«( a r ? .- ,,' ftuj to #iw NcJ/Mfy,' ' it was amongst Other tilings enacted 
that it should ho lawful for Her Majesty, by Letters IV. at, to be frum time to time issued under the 
Great Seal of ilie United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to ewot into a separata Colony or 

itties, any Icrrit'iri ■■- v I n : ralfld froni New South Wales by such alteration an 

therein was nienttoued, of tiie northern boundary Iheruuf \ and in mid bv snob Letter? Patent, or by 
Order iu Council, to make pruviViuu tor the Government of any nd ftrt the entable- 

ment uf ji Legislature therein, in manner a* nearly thu form oM.invernmcnt and L 

laturc whieh .should be at such time established in New South Wales oh the eiioum^tances of such 
Colony will allow ; and that full pon '^" iu and by sucn Letters Patent, or Order in 

i the Legislature of the said Colony, to make further provision in that behalf And wl 
Her Majesty, in exereifiC uf the pOWCTS 90 vested IU Her Majesty, b«S by Her Commission under the 
tirciL Seal of bllfl United Kingdom, bearing date the sixth ihy uf June, In the year of our L>rd ■■>>• 
thousand ei^ht hundred wad fifty-niu'-'. appointed tfaftt fr" 1 liH BOld 

Letters Patent in the Counties itf New South Wales and Queensland, the Territory described in the 
said letters Patent should be separated from tliC said Colunv uf New Smith Wale* and be erected 
into the separate Colony of Queensland: No,-. therefore, 1 Sir Georoe Fbrouson Bo wen, the 
Governor of Queensland, in pursuance of the authority invested in ine by Her Majesty, do hereby 
proclaim and publish the said Letters Patent in the words and figures following, respectively. 


LETTERS PATENT erecting More.ton Jlao 
into a Colony, under the name of QUEENS- 
f.ANH, and appointing 8m GbuHOJ-: FbH* 

aveon Bowkv, KC.M.O, to i>e Cfapfcn'v 

General and Govrrn\>r-in-t' hie/ of the sans. 
VICTORIA, by the Grace of God, of the Doited 

Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
Queen, Defender of the Faith, ti» Our trunty 
and well-beloved Sir 1'kruuson 
Bowen, Knight Commander of Our most 
distinguished Order of St Michael and St. 


WberRaS, by a reserved Bill of the Legislature 
uf New South Wales, passed in the seventeenth 
year of oar reign, as amended by an Act passed 
in the Session of Parliament holden in the eight- 
eenth and nineteenth years of our reign, entitled, 
" An Act to enable Her Majesty to assent to a 
Bill, as amended, of the Legislature of New South 

to confer a Constitution on New South 
Wales, and to grant a Civil Lifltto Her ftfajfl 
it Willi enacted that nothing therein contained 
loomed to prevent us from altering tbe 
boundary of the, Colony uf New Smith Wales on 
i ml! m Bliob a manner as to "* raigbtseem 
fit; and it was further enacted by ihe said Isnt 
-1 Act, that if Wfl should at any time exer- 
cise tiie power gircn to Us by the said rawrved 
Bill of altering tho northern boundary of our said 
colony, it should be lawful for Vtt by any Letters 
Patent, t*> be from time to time issued undor the 
Great Seal of our United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland, tocrect into a separate Colony 
or Colonies any territories which might be sepa- 
rated from our said colony of New Sooth Wales 
by such alterations as aforesaid of the northern 
boundary thereof, and in nnd by such Letters 
Patent, Off bv Order in Council, to make provi- 
sion fur the ("invernnient of any such separate 
colony, and for the establishment of a Legislature 
therein, in manner as nearly resembling the form 

Proclamation uf the colfl 

Assembly were held on 27 April I860 14 . The right to vote was limited to 
males and was based on the ownership of property. The success of 
Queensland's early settlers in acquiring property is evident in the fact that 
the percentage who voted was almost as great as that in New South Wales, 
where property ownership was not a prerequisite. 

The traditional view of Queensland political life at the time of 
separation has been one of conflict between conservative squatters in the 
country and town liberals. However, since 'all classes were aiming at the 
acquisition of property and the removal of all obstacles thereto' 12 , the real 
political activity was that of 'faction among different types of property 
owners, rather than of growing party schism on a basis of principle' 12 . 
Because the worker still hoped to become a property owner there was no 
strong Labour movement in local political life— though the beginnings of 
this show in the arrival of the eight hour day movement in Brisbane in 
March 186L 

In the first session of the Queensland parliament, four Land Bills 
were passed, defining the conditions under which pastoral and agricultural 
land could be held 15 . The first sections of the public service to be set up 
were land titles offices, a survey office, and a police force. Thus the taking 
up of land had been expedited. Law and order now could be enforced. 
Communities were becoming affluent and stable. 

In the first four years the Queensland population had more than 
doubled 6 . By 1864 there were 37,710 Queenslanders who had come from 
Great Britain and 9,592 had been born in the colony, 7,205 had come from 
other Australian states and New Zealand and 6,360 were foreigners 6 . 
Foreigners included 4,395 German immigrants, some of whom had set up 
a mission to the Aborigines at Zion Hill, Nundah, in 1838 and stayed on as 
settlers after the failure of the mission. From 1861 on there was a regular 
flow of migrants from Germany and other parts of war-torn and depressed 
Europe 16 . Trade and commerce, skilled artificers, providers of food, drink 
and accommodation, and hired servants accounted for almost 25% of the 
workers between the ages of 15 and 60. Approximately 25% were women 
engaged in unpaid domestic duties, and there was a handful, 3%, of public 
servants, legal, clerical and medical men and teachers. More than 25% of 

A view from Wickham Terrace looking 
southwest, in the year of separation from 
New South Wales— 1859 (photograph 
from Queensland 1900, Alcazar Press, 


jd "^§ 


WOk£- a BAi'ui* 

the 40,000 people of working age were engaged in agricultural or pastoral 
activities, reflecting the popular belief in land as the way to fortune. 

At the same time, the Aborigines, whose tribes had occupied this land 
for more than 40,000 years, were dispossessed. Timbergetters, graziers 
and farmers excluded them from traditional hunting grounds, and tribal 
boundaries and the fabric of the ancient ways of life were breaking down. 
In May 1860 Governor Bowen reported on the distribution of clothes and 
blankets to Aborigines. The occasion was the Queen's birthday and 'about 
500 Blacks of different clans and speaking different dialects had 
assembled' 17 from their camps around Brisbane, including the present day 
suburbs of Toowong, Enoggera, Alderley and Clayfield w . By 1870 many of 
the Aboriginal traditional ceremonies had died out and many of the people 
had succumbed to European diseases — such as smallpox, measles and 
veneral disease — to which they had no natural immunity. 

In their single-minded pursuit of the development of the economic 
welfare of their colony, and of their own fortunes, the settlers were 
excluding the ancient people who had occupied the land before them. As 
newcomers they were ignorant and careless of the evidence of Aboriginal 
cultures and were alienating large parts of the natural environment. The 
level of education in the Queensland of the early 1860s was, by present 
standards, low and the people, mostly, seemed not to recognise their 
impact on both the indigenous people and the natural environment of the 
land they had occupied. 

At separation in 1859 there were two national schools, one at Drayton 
and one at Warwick. The Brisbane National School opened at the end of 
the year. In addition to these government operated schools there were six 
run by the Church of England, four by the Roman Catholic Church, and 
over 30 private schools, some with church affiliations, in the colony 19 . The 
1864 census listed 17,893 students, but of these 13,814 were receiving 
tuition at home and only 5,079 were attending school. Nevertheless, the 
1864 census statistics on literacy indicate that only 38,409 of the 61,467 
people in Queensland could read and write. It was not until 1870 that fees 
at state schools were abolished, leading to a considerable increase in 
school attendance. Secondary education did not come to Queensland until 

*b t-'\- *. 

Looking south along Queen Street from 
Edward Street, Brisbane, in 1860. The 
Parliamentary building— originally the 
Barracks building— that became the 
second home for the museum is at the 
top of the street on the right (photograph 
from Queensland 1900, Alcazar Press, 

the Ipswich Grammar School was established in 1863. It was followed by 
Brisbane Grammar School in 1869 20 . 

Fortunately, there were some who were not insensitive to their 
adopted land and its native people, both of which were being changed so 
radically and abruptly. At this time, there was wide European interest in 
Australia and all things Australian. The early collecting efforts by Sir 
Joseph Banks in northern Queensland had created an avid interest in its 
plants, animals and inhabitants. This interest was reflected in the 
enthusiasm of the great museums of Europe for acquiring collections of 
material from Australia; and it filtered through to those who lived in the 
new colony, some of whom, no doubt, felt pride in their remarkable 
environment that was the subject of so much international attention. 
The settlers could not fail to be impressed that scientists invariably 
accompanied expeditions of exploration — for instance, the North 
Australian Expedition led by A.C. Gregory, setting out from Brisbane in 
August 1855, included a geologist, a "botanist, a naturalist and a collector 21 . 
Charles Coxen, the founder of the Queensland Museum, was certainly 
influenced by the visit of his brother-in-law, the famous naturalist, John 
Gould, who came on a collecting trip to New South Wales in 1839 22 . 
Governor Bowen, a scholarly man who had been president of the 
University of Corfu, and who was an enthusiastic supporter of exploration 
and scientific study, wrote to Newcastle expressing the hope 'hereafter to 
be the promoter of exploring expeditions which, while developing the 
almost unlimited resources of Queensland, will add new conquests to 

Civilization and to Science ,23 . Many of the early settlers, such as those 

who had arrived as migrants under the auspices of Dr Lang, had received 
a broad, general education in Great Britain. They may have known 
something of natural history studies and understood the excitement 

associated with Charles Darwin's theory expressed in the Origin of Species 
published in November 1859. 

Thus, in this Queensland community— otherwise so intent on 
property and profit— there existed a nucleus of settlers who were aware 
of their unique inheritance and, in an otherwise raw colony, sought 
intellectual stimulation and a cultural focus. When Charles Coxen and 
others formed the Queensland Philosophical Society 24 in March 1859, 
these people were brought together. They shared strong interests in the 
science and technology of the day, and considerable curiosity about 
Australia and a desire to understand it and its Aboriginal people. The 
government gave temporary use of rooms in the Windmill on Wickham 
Terrace and a grant of £100 in 'furtherance of the aims of the society' and, 
toward the end of January 1862, the Philosophical Society began to display 
its collections 25 . The press of the day reported on the event, the Moreton 
Bay Courier stating: 

A large room has been set aside in the Windmill to receive 
contributions of specimens of natural history for classification and 
arrangement. It is to be hoped this will provide the nucleus of a 
Queensland Museum. This followed action by the Philosophical 
Society 26 . 

So, the Queensland Museum was founded on 20 January 1862, two 
years after the colony had been proclaimed 27 . It was operated by the 
Philosophical Society with some assistance from the government until, 
from 1871, the government assumed the primary responsibility for it 28 . The 
windmill overlooked a Brisbane that was a scattered assembly of buildings 
set along dirt streets and dominated by churches and a few structures of 
more than one storey 29 ; and — 

looking towards the western suburbs little could be seen but 

forest trees, with an occasional patch of cleared ground, cultivated 
for the production of maize, potatoes, pumpkins and lucerne, while 
the banks of the small creeks which entered the river on the Milton 
Reach held tangled vine scrub 30 . 

In December 1862, with 29 members, the society elected its first 
office bearers— the governor, Sir George Bowen, president; Coxen, 
vice-president; and a council of five that included H. Rawnsley and 
S. Diggles 24 — and its first report was read, in which were stated its 
intentions in regard to the museum: 

to procure a site for a permanent Museum in such a location as shall 
be accessible to those who desire to consult the specimens and 
preparations it may contain, and also to render the collections as 
complete and valuable as the means at the disposal of the Society 
will admit of 25 . 

Many citizens, beginning to appreciate their unique environment, 
donated items to the society, and in due course the museum became a 
scientific and cultural focus for residents and visitors to the colony. In 
fact, until the university was founded in 1910, it was the only scientific 
institution in Queensland. 

In New South Wales the Sydney Colonial Museum had been 
established in 1829 with the appointment of a carpenter, W. Holmes, as 
custodian— the same man who in 1831 was accidentally shot and killed 
while collecting at Moreton Bay 312 . Five years after its foundation, its 
name 'Colonial Museum' was changed to the 'Australian Museum'. This 
name, which the New South Wales state museum— the largest and oldest 
of all the state museums — retains to this day, reflects the history of the 



Ceramic medal celebrating the 
proclamation of Queensland. The medal 
is in the museum's collection. 

'Pastoral tenant of the Crown' - building 

a new homestead (from a hand-coloured 
photograph by Richard Daintree in the 

i ion). 

settlement of Australia 31 . It seems likely that the men responsible for the 
establishment of the Queensland Museum had some of their guidance 
from the museums of Europe, especially from the British Museum, 
However, despite the six to eight days sailing time between Sydney and 
Brisbane, there were ties and communication with the museum in Sydney, 
Although Charles Coxen had sent collections of birds back to the London 
Zoological Society and the British Museum, he also sent material to the 
Australian Museum- 11 ; and while in Sydney in 1839 John and Elizabeth 
Gould had stayed with Dr George Bennett — the honorary secretary of the 
Australian Museum — before their four months long visit to Elizabeth 
Gould's brothers, Charles and Stephen Coxen, on their property near 
Scone, NSW 33 . From 1861 under the effective direction of Gerard Krefft, 
and accommodated in its handsome building, the Australian Museum did, 
indeed, provide a model for the Queensland colonists to emulate 31 . After 
he had visited it in 1871, when the fledging Queensland Museum occupied 
two small rooms in the Parliamentary building, Silvester Diggles 'longed 

for the time when we should have a similar library and a similar museum 
established amongst us in Brisbane' M . 

The realisation of the Philosophical Society's aspirations for its 
museum was not immediate. There were more pressing priorities that 
reflected the needs of the majority of the voters. Although the general 
impression was one of prosperity and rapid progress, not everything was 
satisfactory. Many of the migrants attracted to Queensland by Henry 
Jordan's activities in England were less than content, as an anonymous 
composition shows: 

Now Jordan's land of promise is the burden of my song. 
Perhaps you've heard him lecture, and blow about it strong; 
To hear him talk you'd think it was a heaven upon earth. 
But listen and I'll tell you now the plain unvarnished truth. 

Here snakes and all vile reptiles crawl around you as you walk, 
But these you never hear bout in Mr Jordan's talk; 
Mosquitoes, too, and sandflies, they will tease you all the night, 
And until you get colonized you'll be a pretty sight 

To sum it up in a few short words, the place is only fit 

For those who were sent out here, for from this they cannot flit. 

But any other men who come a living here to try 

Will vegetate a little while and then lie down and die s . 


Accommodation was one of the main problems. In 1864, there were 
reported to be 2473 dwellings in Brisbane, of which 383 were brick, 1923 
were of sawn timber, 150 were slab and 15 were aboard vessels 6 . The 
Courier referred to 'the want of decent house accommodation at a 

reasonable rent ' and 'paltry humpies which are neither air-tight nor 

water-tight in flooring, walls or roofs ,36 . Parts of Elizabeth and Queen 

Streets were described as 'an open cesspool' 37 . The further one moved 
from Brisbane, the rougher the dwellings became and the quality of other 
amenities deteriorated. The lack of public sanitation was to lead to a rapid 
deterioration in health. Already in 1857 typhoid fever was occurring in 
Brisbane 38 . Conditions deteriorated during the following two decades to 
the extent that in 1878 Brisbane suburbs were recording an infant 
mortality rate of 47%. Typhoid was not controlled until the epidemic of 
1884 led to the Public Health Act 1884 which resulted in gradual 
improvements 39 . 

It is not surprising that the government took no strong interest in 
developing the museum until, during the mineral booms of the late 1860s, 
it was persuaded that displays of minerals could help prospectors in their 
identification of further profitable discoveries. 

It was a slow development, from that beginning on 20 January 1862, to 
this Queensland Museum of 1986. As we trace its history in the pages that 
follow, the museum of today, from its new home on the south bank of the 
Brisbane River, pays its tribute to the relatively small band of men and 
women who are part of that story. They are the staff members of the 
museum, and supporters and friends in public life and from amongst the 
general public. They worked, often in political and social environments 
that understood neither the need for, nor the role of a museum; and they 
worked through years of economic depression, poorly paid and in 
understaffed and inadequate buildings with few facilities and little 
equipment. Nevertheless, from the beginning, they made a contribution to 
knowledge and to the quality of life in this state. It is not a new museum 
that you see today, but one that has come of age, that was conceived by the 
Philosophical Society in the Brisbane of 1862. 

Midday Camp (from a hand-coloured 
photograph by Richard Daintree in the 
museum's collection). 

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IP&F&iKV* ■.-'••.. : V , . 

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Previous page: The Exhibition building. 

Through the 125 years of its history, from 1862 to 1986, the 
Queensland Museum has had many homes. Only twice— once 
in 1879 and now, in 1986 — have buildings been designed and 
built specifically for it. Perhaps the institution's drive and 
vitality grew from the efforts and personal commitments that 
were needed to make its second-hand accommodation 
functional. Despite inconveniences caused by a sometimes critical 
unsuitability for museum purposes the buildings reflect the development 
of Brisbane from a convict settlement to the large modern city that it is 

The Windmill 

The first housing for the fledgling Queensland Museum, triumphantly 
announced by the Moreton Bay Courier in January 1862, was a 'large 

room in the Windmill' 1 . In December 1862 the Philosophical Society, in 

its first report, refers to the 'temporary' space granted to it by the 
government for the 'nucleus of a museum of natural science' in the 
'Windmill Tower'. It was modest accommodation indeed. 

The Windmill still stands, high on Wickham Terrace, overlooking the 
city in which it is the oldest surviving building and now one of only two 
that remain from the penal settlement, the other being the Commissariat 


The Windmill, 1865. It was already 
operating as a telegraph and signal 
station and the Philosophical Society's 
museum had been installed there from 
1862 (wood engraving first published in 
the Australian Journal 1868. By courtesy 
John Oxley Library). 

Store. It was built between 1827 and 1828 under Commandant Logan to 
grind the colony's corn and wheat 2 - 3 . Because of inadequate maintenance 
and repair it did not perform properly under the prevailing winds and 
often it was out of service altogether. Therefore a treadmill to be worked 
by convicts was erected beside it. The treadmill could accommodate up to 
25 convicts at one time, but was operated by as few as six when used as 
punishment 2 . However, as there was no resident millwright in Brisbane, 
things often went wrong, and then it was necessary to send to Sydney for a 
convict millwright to carry out repairs. This could take several weeks as 
the sea journey each way took from six to eight days under favourable 
sailing conditions. In 1835 the windmill completely broke down. Some 
months later— 

On the 20th February 1836 lightning struck the upper most arm of 
the Windmill, shattering to pieces the sweep and backstock, and 
entering the Tower by the opening for the windshaft, in its descent 
struck the spur wheel tearing away all the brackets, bursting 2 arms 
and one of the quarters of the wheel and descending onto the 
platform floor, broke the Treadmill hopper to pieces and bursting 
open all doors that way escaped 3 . 

Such severe damage was not repaired for a long time. It was May 
1837 before both the windmill and treadmill were working again. Later 




_ J¥ _081CI»AL vmitMft 



r - "i c 

• o IO 'in 


The Windmill — architectural drawings 
(redrawn from dimensions in Steele, 
1975 2). 

that year the newly appointed foreman of works in the penal settlement, 
Andrew Petrie, arrived from Sydney and discovered that the machinery 
had never been properly assembled. That was probably the reason for it 
being in continual need of repair 2 . 

The windmill appears to have become derelict between 1841 and 1849 
and was advertised for sale — for removal. However, then, as now, there 
were people who wanted to preserve their city's landmarks. The Moreton 
Bay Courier observed on 8 December 1848 that— 

we are glad to learn that an effort is to be made to secure this 
building for the public. It would be a great pity to destroy a structure 
which adds so much to the picturesque beauty of the town. 

Later, on 5 January 1850, under the headline 'Another Appeal for the 
Old Windmill', that same newspaper in 'advocating its preservation' quotes 
'for cursed is he that removeth his neighbour's landmark' 3 . Apparently the 
government retained possession and it was not pulled down. In 1855 there 
is a suggestion that the tower be a signal station and in October 1861 its 
conversion for use as a telegraph as well as signal station was complete 3 . 
The conversion was planned by colonial architect Charles Tiffin, a 
prominent member of the Philosophical Society. Tiffin submitted his 
estimates to the principal under secretary on 20 February 1861 for— 

removal of old arms, wheels, top and other ponderous timbers inside, 
laying floors on each storey, putting in new doors and windows and a 
new weatherproof floor on top with iron railing, a new staircase or 
ladder from bottom to top, repairing the stone and brickwork and 
plastering, building two brick rooms for keeper 12 feet by 12 feet 
each with water closet and fencing a small triangular plot of ground 
to make the whole complete 3 . 

So when the Philosophical Society's museum was set up in its large 
room in the windmill tower, it was a fully operational signal and telegraph 
station — signalling arrivals of steamers and sailing vessels, from Sydney, 
northern ports and other colonies, strangers from British or foreign ports, 
warships, ships with English mail or with immigrants on board, schooner, 
brig or barque 3 . A time ball was hoisted each day at five minutes to LOO 
pm and dropped precisely on the hour— by which clocks in the colony 
could be set right, for there was no observatory in Brisbane at the time. 
Telegraph signals were transmitted to and from Sydney. 

The Parliamentary Building 

For a while the windmill accommodation was adequate, but at the 
December 1866 meeting of the Philosophical Society an occurrence was 
reported that was to be repeated many times in the museum s history— 
'the cases in the Windmill have suffered considerably during the late 
heavy rains' 4 . So in October 1868 the society was given the room formerly 
occupied by the parliamentary library in the Parliamentary building in 
Queen Street. In January 1869 it was moved to a smaller room in the same 
building— so small that most of the specimens remained in their boxes. 

In June 1869 the parliament had resolved that a sum of £300 be set 
aside 'to initiate the formation of a Free Library and Museum in 
Brisbane' 5 and there seemed every possibility that there would be a new 
building. However, the government was persuaded that a mineralogical 
museum would boost the mining boom— then showing signs of slowing 
down, and in 1870 only £100 was set aside solely for a mineralogical 
museum 5 . Former government geologist, C. D'Oyly Aplin, noting the £100 
that was available, wrote to the minister on 1 June 1871 suggesting that 
rooms be made available in the Parliamentary building for a mineralogical 


museum, and offering his services' 1 . So, that same month a second room 
was found in which D'Oyly Aplin arranged the mineralogical specimens— 
those that he had collected as well as those collected by the other 
government geologist, Daintree, that had been held by the Philosophical 
Society. The two small rooms in the Par] lament ary building that Karl 
Staiger refers to as containing the museum when he was appointed 
custodian in 1873 were the one containing the minerals and the other the 
zoological specimens 7 . Although, in April 1871 Coxen, Diggles and 
Bancroft— prominent members of the Philosophical Society— had again 
raised the need for a museum building with the minister for PubLic Works, 
who had appeared to favour the idea, the government appears to have 
forgotten all about the proposal for the time being. 

The Parliamentary building, located on the north-western side of 
Queen Street from the present corner of Albert Street towards George 
Street, had been erected as a convict barracks in 1826-1829* In 1839 part 
of it was used as a police court —the first in Queensland. Much later, in 
May 1857, the Supreme Court was also accommodated in the building. In 
1860 part was converted to provide a temporary home for the first 
Queensland houses of parliament". They moved to their new building at 
the end of George Street in 1868, just before the museum moved down 
from the Windmill. However, parliamentary messengers and the clerk of 
the Legislative Assembly stayed in the old Parliamentary building until 
about 1879*. In that year— 1879— the Supreme Court moved to its new 
location and the old building was demolished soon after, in 1881. There 
no available records of the alterations carried out to adapt it to its 
changing uses, although the original plan is preserved. 

For the museum, the move from the Windmill to premises in a 
conspicuous and central location was advantageous, for here it became a 
well established part of the life of the community. Indeed, the building 
itself was particularly conspicuous for when Brisbane had become a free 
settlement in 1859 the surveyors had submitted various plans for the town 
to Governor Gipps in Sydney. In all plans Queen Street was to be the mam 
street and about one and one half chains (20 metres) in width, the 
remaining streets to be one chain wide. Governor Gipps rejected this plan 
and ordered all streets to be one chain wide, His statement was 'Oh! the 
idea of wasting such a lot of land for a street in a place that will be nothing 

The Barracks building, subsequently the 
Parliamentary building. The museum 
was mOVGc) Co a nx>m here in 1869. 
Between 1871 and 1873 it occupied two 
of the rooms (redrawn from archival 
drawings in Steele, 1975 *). 

i| a| mft in 

auun sT&m 


Apartment 3 of this building became the 
Post Office and, in 1873, the museum. 
The additional space the museum 
subsequently acquired in this building 
included the Long Room— but it is not 
known which room this was (redrawn 
from archival drawings in Steele, 1975 2 ). 

else but a paltry village' 2 . Subsequently, Queen Street was made the 
originally specified width by moving back the north-western side of the 
street, leaving the old convict barracks building projecting into the street. 

Although the building was central and accessible as well as being 
familiar and conspicuous, the space in it occupied by the museum was far 
too small 7 . On 26 July 1872 Coxen wrote to the secretary for Works 
directing his attention to the museum's needs: 

the pressing desirability for providing more suitable accommodation 
and space than now exists 10 . 

Written in the margin of that letter is the minister's response: 

Inform Mr Coxen that the colonial architect has orders to prepare 
plans of a museum with a view to immediate steps being taken to 
build one 10 . 

F.D.G. Stanley, the colonial architect, recommended that the Servants 
Home in Ann Street— which is today the restored School of Arts 
building— be purchased and altered to provide a home for the museum. 
He estimated that £246 would be needed for the alterations but £30 could 
be saved if the upper floor was left unfinished u . This plan was soon 
abandoned. Meanwhile a third temporary home had been found for the 
museum — further up Queen Street, in the accommodation vacated by the 
General Post Office, when, in 1873, it moved to its present location at the 
other end of the same street. Planning for a new museum building was 
again deferred. 

No I 


No 2 

Mo 2 

Mo 4 

No 5 


The General Post Office and the new 
Brisbane City Hall about 1864. The 
museum moved into the Post Office 
building in 1873. The arched doorway to 
the nght of the Post Office was the 
entrance lo the solitary cells in Ihe days 
of the convict settlement (photograph by 
courtesy Oxley Library). 

The Post Office Building 

The building, standing between the site now occupied by Lennons 
Hotel and George Street, had originally consisted of six apartments, 
comprising barracks and sergeants quarters (Apartments 5, 6), solitary 
cells (Apartment 4) and a house for the superintendent of convicts. In 
1839, a free-man, William Whyte, in charge of the records in the 
commandant's office and described as the commandant's clerk and 
postmaster, moved into apartment 2 which became the Post Office. In 1864 
a verandah was added to apartment 3 and to the kitchen of apartment 2 
and both these rooms were combined to provide space for the General 
Post Office. Apartments 5 and 6, which were where that part of Lennons 
Hotel nearest George Street now stands, were demolished for construction 
of the Brisbane Town Hall which was completed in 1864 \ 

In 1873 Staiger obtained rooms for an office and laboratory and a 
larger one for a mineral display 7 and the next month asked for, and 
received, additional space— the Long Room in the building 12 . However, it 
was not long before it was recognised that the old Post Office building was 
not an ideal home for a museum. Early in 1875, only two years after it had 
moved in, A.C. Gregory, the Queensland government surveyor and 
distinguished explorer reported to the secretary of Public Works: 

The museum is at present located in the Old General Post Office, the 
entrance being by a narrow passage from Queen Street. The 

specimens are contained in a wooden building 20 feet by 72 

feet The laboratory is 19 feet x 21 feet, badly lighted and 

imperfectly ventilated. The lecture room is 15 feet x 26 feet and an 
office and store room for arrangement of specimens is about lit feet x 
24 feet, giving a total floor space of 1216 sq feet. These 

buildings are unadapted to the purpose of the museum and there 

is no available space for additions 13 . 

Gregory recommended its sale, the land being of great value for 
commercial premises, to realise — 

a sum equal to the cost of building suitable premises in a better 
position, for the main street of a city is not suited for such a purpose, 
not only on account of the dust, but also (because) the class of 


Built in 1879, this was the first building 
constructed for the museum, which 
occupied it until 1899. After the museum 
moved to Gregory Terrace this building 
became the State Library (photograph by 
courtesy Oxley Library). 

persons who visit Museums prefer a more quiet approach and space 
where carriages can stand without risk of disturbances. 

Further, Gregory thought it was— 

not desirable that laboratory experiments and assays of minerals 
should be conducted in a densely occupied locality. 

Gregory's idea of a museum was that it would have space not only for 
a building to contain specimens of minerals and natural history but also for 
a laboratory with a small crushing machine and other machinery 
(including furnaces) for the assay of metallic ores. The only three portions 
of land in the hands of the government that appeared to him to be suitable 
for this purpose were at the corner of George and Ann Streets on a site 
occupied by the Volunteer Drill Room; vacant land at the corner of George 
and Turbot Streets; and the irregular portion of land bounded by Roma 
Street, Saul Street, and a street unnamed. The site he most strongly 
recommended for a museum was the Brisbane Grammar School— since it 
had been suggested that the school be removed following resumption of 
some of its land for the Roma Street Station. In fact, his letter contains 
details of the ways that the school buildings could be adapted to 
accommodate the museum. 

In 1876 the Queensland government gave, as the first task for the 
museum's new board of trustees, the job of deciding on the site (see 
Chapter 14). While these negotiations went on, the board sought temporary 
accommodation into which the museum could expand. In June 1876 the 


trustees acquired the detectives' room in the Post Office building, but 
their efforts, in July 1876, to have the hospital dispensary moved were not 
so successful. Therefore, when, on 6 February 1877, they were offered the 
use of the railway messengers' waiting room at the Brisbane Station for 
museum storage, the trustees saw a solution. On 29 May 1877 they wrote 
to the minister — 

strongly representing that the hospital dispensary should be 
removed to the (Railway) messengers quarters and the two rooms at 
present used for the former purpose be placed at the disposal of (the) 
Board, attention being drawn to the desirability of this course, 
particularly with regard to the injury caused to the museum by the 
presence of so many HospitaJ patients and also the risk of fire caused 

by the explosive materials being stored on the premises by the 

hospital authorities 1,1 . 

On 18 July 1877 the hospital dispensary at last vacated its two rooms 
in the Post Office building which the custodian hoped then to be able to 
use for the geological and mineralogicaJ collections^. 

The First New Museum Building 

The site that was eventually chosen for the first purpose-built 
Queensland Museum was in William Street The building was completed 
in 1879 and cost £10,706. It still stands— as the State Library and John 
Oxley Library. The building was designed in the Colonial Architect's 
Department under the supervision of the colonial architect, F.D.G. Stanley. 
The building has concrete foundations, front walls of stone, the remainder 
of brick finished with stucco, with a roof of copper. There was a basement 
with a large room in which the board met and which was used for a 
library; the curator's office — in which the Philosophical Society met from 
20 April 1881 until de Vis was appointed curator in 1882; and a 
taxidermist's room. The main entrance floor and an upper floor with a 
mezzanine floor, 13 feet (4 metres) wide, were used for displays. 
Additional space was created on 16 February 1881 when the rest of the 
area beneath the building was levelled for use as storage for specimens 
and other materials, although the floor was asphalted only in June 1882. In 
October 1882 the basement was lit by gas. It was all a very great 

The ground floor of the State Library in 
1930. Apart from the mezzanine floor 
which was added alter ihe m useum 
moved out 30 years before, it is much as 
it was when it was the museum. The 
internal stairs to the basement can be 
seen beneath the mezzanine— behind the 
reception desk; the front entrance is to 
the right of the photograph and the stairs 
to the first floor are in the upper right 
corner (photograph by courtesy Oxley 


The Exhibition building from the air, 


.-,* A'- 


improvement on the previous accommodation available to the museum, 
which had vastly expanded its collections. 

However, before long, as a result of the collecting programmes that 
started from 1882, even this building proved to be too small, and in 1884 
the government set aside a sum of £40,000 for another new building. In a 
debate in the Legislative Assembly following this decision a Mr Morehead 
voiced a widely held view of the William Street building in terms that 
would do justice to some parliamentary debates today: 

a more wretched abortion of a building was never evolved, even from 

the brain of a Stanley He (Mr Morehead) was glad to hear that 

something was to be done towards getting a new museum building 
and he hoped some hon. members would be preserved in it 16 . 

Mr Archer, in the same debate, suggested that 'he thought a museum 
building should be on such a plan that it could be extended every ten or 
twelve years' 16 . Eventually tenders were called for a new building in 1890 
but none were accepted and the idea appears to have been dropped. The 
depression occurred soon after, in 1893, and by the time it was over an 
alternative had been found. 

In 1895 the National Agricultural and Industrial Association of 
Queensland (NALAQ) was in financial difficulties and could not service the 
loan it had obtained for the construction of its new Exhibition building. 
Accordingly in 1897 the government took over the building and plans were 
put in hand to convert part of it for use as a museum 17 . 

Exhibition building, elevation to south 
(original architectural drawing in the 
Works Department) 


The Exhibition Building 

The building, which was to be home for the Queensland Museum for 
86 years, is an impressive blend of Romanesque, Byzantine and Baroque 
influences in polychromatic brick work in a style generally known as 
'Victorian Revival' architecture. At the time it was built it was unique in 
Brisbane and it is one of the few examples of its style to be found in 
Queensland. It is a well-known and much-loved landmark, now listed by 
the National Trust of Queensland and the Australian Heritage Commission 
as part of the National Estate. 

It was built after the original timber exhibition building of the NAIAQ 
(later the Royal National Association) was destroyed by fire— an act of 
arson said to have been perpetrated by a lessee who used it for a skating 
rink 17 . The NAIAQ decided to erect a more permanent structure and 
engaged G.H.M. Addison to design a building on a 17 acre (6.8 hectares) 
site in Bowen Park that was leased from the Acclimatisation Society w . 

A contract was signed, on 9 February 1891, with the builder, John 
Quinn, at an estimated cost of £20,400. This figure was to rise to over 
£30,000 on completion. The contract time was 12 months, but the northern 
wing was ready for occupation within 23 weeks. The roofing iron left 
England in March and was in place by the 23 June 1891 Some 16 million 
locally made bricks from the Brick Manufacturing Association were used. 
The joinery was made on site where four steam engines were used to 
power the milling machines. When the brickwork was being done there 
were up to 300 men of all trades at work at one time 19 . 

Lion to ^cxiin 


The Exhibition building, probably taken 

time of the 1897 International 
Exhibition, the year of Queen Victoria's 
Jubilee— celebrated in the banner 
hanging over the front entrance in this 

At the time the Exhibition building was under construction 
Queensland was in the grip of a severe economic depression and several 
hundred tradesmen and labourers would queue outside the site gates 
every morning in the hope of gaining employment. J.B. Chapel relates how 
his father, a bricklayer, would leave home with his tool bag over his 
shoulder at 4 am each day to walk from Greenslopes to the site so as to be 
near the front of the queue 20 . 

The architect, George Henry Male Addison, born in Llanelly, Wales in 
1857 or '58, a graduate of the Royal Academy School of Architecture in 
London, had come to Australia in 1883 soon after graduating. By 1886, 
when he first came to Brisbane to work on the London Chartered Bank 
building, he was a partner in the Melbourne firm of Terry, Oakden and 
Addison 21 . Presumably it was during this project that he made the contacts 
that resulted in his appointment as architect for the Exhibition building; 
and subsequently resulted in his move to Brisbane. His other buildings 
include Somerville House School, The Mansions in George Street and the 
Albert Street Methodist Church. 

In 1891, the year the Exhibition building was completed, the Crystal 
Palace in London (also constructed speedily— in nine months) was then 40 
years old, the Melbourne Exhibition building was 11 years old and the 
Royal Pavilion at Brighton nearly 70 years old. These all refected the 
fashion for flamboyant exhibition buildings and the Brisbane Exhibition 
building was no exception. However, it was not only exhibition buildings 
that influenced Addison's design— although it was built for a social 
function, the Brisbane Exhibition building, externally, is reminiscent of a 

In a florid lecture delivered before the Queensland Art Society, the 
architect revealed his concept of the importance of architecture: 


the embodiment of noble aspirations in the monuments of one 

generation helps to keep those aspirations alive in the next and if 

we are to continue to be a race capable of higher aims than 
accumulating money and eating good dinners, we cannot afford to 
ignore any of the agencies which help to develop man's higher ethical 
nature. Amongst the most potent of these agencies are Architecture 
and decorative Arts 22 . 

Addison believed that every civilisation contributed its own 
characteristic elements to architecture, each 'an exact index to the national 
character that produced them'; and he believed in using these elements — 
drawing on the old with the aim of reassembling it anew. If he liked a 
feature and it could be of use, then he would fit it into the design. 

In the Gregory Terrace building Addison combined many known 
styles of architecture and added other exotic motifs to enhance the facade. 
The decorative polychromatic brickwork and polygonal domes on the 
towers are Byzantine; there are Moorish tiles on the portico; the arches 
on the northern aspect are Romanesque and enclose decorative roundels; 
there are traces of medieval towers and turrets in the southern — concert 
hall— entrance; in the flat western facade there is a great Gothic 
cathedral-style window that contrasts with the towers, turrets, dormers, 
gable roofs and recessed arches of the other aspects of the building; and 
the roof is corrugated iron. Constructive features aid the ornamentation 19 . 
For instance the turrets contain internal staircases that once led to concert 
balconies and the roundels outlined in decorative brickwork sometimes 
contain a dormer window for extra light. However, although the facade is 
elaborate and fanciful, it covers a very simple and plain building. 

In England some buildings of the late Victorian era— Victoria Station, 
the Imperial War Museum in Lambeth, Westminster Cathedral and Keeble 
College in Oxford — illustrate the fact that Addison was not unique in 
collecting many styles under one roof— or dome 23 . Eclecticism has really 
always existed as architects from the Romans to the 20th century have 
transferred remembered forms to new contexts. In the Exhibition building 
as in many late Victorian buildings, invention was stimulated by the great 
variety of forms from which to choose. 

A Museum, A Concert Hall, An Art Gallery 

The Exhibition building is T-shaped in plan. The northern wing (the 
top of the T) was originally one open, single-storied exhibition hall with a 
balcony at the eastern end and exposed steel Fink trusses supporting the 
steeply pitched corrugated iron roof 34 . Arches led from this hall into the 
southern leg of the T which again was open and single storied — a concert 
hall with balconies on three sides. 

In 1892 the NAIAQ had installed, in the concert hall, a large four- 
manual organ from Henry Willis and Sons, London. In 1900 the Brisbane 
City Council leased the concert hall from the state government, arid 
bought the organ— £1000 of the £6000 purchase price being raised by 
public subscription. Thus, the function of the concert hall did not change 
from that intended by the NAIAQ when it was built 25 . It was used for 
many functions. Paderewski gave recitals there and so did Dame Nellie 
Melba. It was also used for University of Queensland graduation 
ceremonies 26 . 

When the new Brisbane City Hall was completed in 1930 the City 
Council moved out of the Exhibition building, and the concert hall became 
the home for the Queensland Art Gallery. Changes that were made to the 
concert hall in 1930 to accommodate the art gallery included the removal 

Addison's design for the terracotta tiles 
over the front entrance to the concert 
hall in the Exhibition building (original 
architectural drawing in the Works 


Demolition of the caretaker's cottage 

near the railway line, 1973. The site was ^ 

used later as a car park. 

of the concert platform and the jacking of the sloping floor up to a level 
surface. The balconies were cut back and boxed in to cover the tiered 
seating, platforms and partitions were erected to form offices and store 
rooms and, again, staircases were altered. Clear storey lights were 
installed in the roof. At some stage, possibly in the 1940s, a hessian ceiling 
was suspended by wires over the exhibition space. In the late 1950s new 
doorways were provided to the entrance. 

It was the northern wing of the building, the exhibition hall, that was 
converted to house the museum. On 7 May 1898 Director de Vis inspected 
the building and discussed, with the colonial architect, the alterations that 
would be required. It was estimated that they would cost £8000 and take 
18 months to complete. The museum moved in between October and the 
end of December 1899 and by that time the alterations had, indeed, been 
completed. Arches between the two halls of the building were bricked up 
and staircases had been altered. A first or mezzanine floor with three large 
light wells had been added, leading off the eastern balcony. This floor was 
supported on fluted columns of local hardwood with cornices and panelled 
dados. The mezzanine and ground floor were to house the displays and the 
basement of the building had been converted into offices for the museum 
staff. A caretaker's cottage had been built in the grounds. The 
specifications for the work included extensive repairs to brickwork and the 
replacement of cracked lintels 27 — for, despite its much admired ornate 
exterior, the enthusiasm and excessive haste of its construction, along 
with the lack of foresight in detailing was the cause of major maintenance 
problems from the beginning. At the board of trustees meeting on 26 May 
1900 attention was called — 

to the want of drinking water in the building Dr Marks 

recommended the purchase of a Pasteur filter and the curator was 

authorised to procure one The need of a urinal for the use of the 

staff was also pointed out. 

The trustees eventually left the matter in de Vis' hands. He intended 
to divert a waste water pipe from the laboratory sinks to the urinal, 
suggesting that chemical wastes and a constant flow of water 'would 
alleviate any nuisance'— the trustees being worried about the odours 
generated by a urinal. There is no further discussion of these problems 


recorded in the board minutes and de Vis undoubtedly made some 
arrangements. However, 10 years later Robert Etheridge jnr, curator of the 
Australian Museum, was to describe them: 

in a dark corner of the basement are some dirty hand basin(s) and 
contiguous to them an unenclosed urinal-basin 28 . 

There was no proper lavatory in the basement. Upstairs on the 
ground floor were the earth closets for the use of visitors to the galleries. 
The area was not sewered until 1927 and the museum was connected to 
the sewerage only in 1930. 

There was no love lost between the museum trustees and the original 
lessees of the concert hall— the City Council. For one thing, the trustees 
had wanted the concert hall for extra space for the museum. There was 
also an extra insurance premium to be paid because the concert hall was 
hired out for public functions; and, since the gas engine to operate the 
organ was in the basement of the museum, the organ blower needed 
access at difficult hours 29 . In their annual report of 1902, the museum 
trustees refer to their neighbour in the Exhibition building: 

Looking across the fields from the 
museum to the Brisbane General 
Hospital about 1920. 

This much admired bushhouse, 
photographed in 1906, was the work of 
John Jordan, curator of the museum 
gardens from 1897 to 1929 {Chapter 3 ^ 
Visitors could enter the museum through 
the bushhouse and the eastern verandah 
and so avoid the tell-tale at the front 
entrance to the gallery {photograph by 
courtesy Oxley Library). 


[ pi .. : .. : . : 




j — *-*- 


Architectural drawings of the Exhibition 
building showing alterations made for 
the museum (redrawn from Works 
Department drawings in Queensland 
State Archives). 

The erection of a Town hall in which to put their organ seems to be 
indefinitely postponed. Meanwhile we are compelled to pay thrice 
the ordinary premium for insurance against fire in consequence of 
the concert hall being held to be in dangerous contact with the 

At the board meeting of 31 March 1900 the trustees had decided that 
the Department of Agriculture — from which the City Council leased the 
concert hall— should pay the museum's extra insurance premium. They 
reasoned that the department profited from the use that was made of the 
concert hall. Of course the department refused. So in November the board 
refused to pay a share of the rates. However, on 26 April 1902, its budget 
halved as a result of the depression of the 1890s, the board had to stop 
insuring the collections altogether and it finally agreed to contribute to the 

A Fire Trap and a Joke 

When the museum moved into the Exhibition building at the end of 
1899 it had more space than ever before. However, the collections 
continued their astonishing growth, and despite the alterations, the 
building was never altogether satisfactory for a museum. The annual 
report of the trustees for 1899 had predicted the problem of a shortage of 
space right from the beginning— when they had not been successful in 
getting the concert hall as well as the exhibition hall 30 . 

In 1933 a Mr S.F. Markham, honorary secretary of the Museums' 
Association of Great Britain, visited Brisbane on behalf of the Carnegie 
Corporation of New York. He inspected the museum with Professor 
Richards of the University of Queensland and they reported that the risk 
of fire in the building was too high to be allowed to continue 31 . Almost a 
year later Markham 's report, in which he referred to the museum building 
as a fire trap, and a joke because it was so unsuitable, was released in 
London. The Brisbane press was aghast that it should have been the cause 
of such derision 32 . However the state was still in the grips of the great 
depression and although the situation was deplored, the Courier Mail 
editorial echoed what appeared to be the government's view— that too 
many people took money out of Queensland instead of using it to endow 
institutions such as the museum. Premier Forgan Smith said that his 
government would welcome a new museum building, but should not bear 
its whole cost 32 . So the old one continued to age and deteriorate. 

Attendants mopping up storm water in 
the main gallery in the 1960s. 


In the late 1960s portions of the porch over the art gallery entrance 
collapsed, and the leaking roof was causing damage to the collections of 
both the museum and art gallery. At some expense the whole building was 
re-roofed and the brickwork repaired. Unfortunately, the many box gutters 
were repaired rather than replaced and the building continued to leak in 
an unpredictable manner, particularly during hailstorms when the gutters 
rapidly clogged with ice 33 . Rain, with its consequent risk of water damage 
to the collections, was an ever-present fear, especially in the savage 
storms of the summer months. Cyclonic storms provided several anxious 
moments during the 1970s. One storm lifted the whole northern roof to the 
extent that the roof purlins came off the fixing cleats. On another occasion 
the large stained glass western window shook and threatened to collapse 
as rain and wind battered it incessantly. Fortunately, apart from an 
incident in 1917 when a projection lantern was knocked down in the bird 
display, there were never any fires. 

Cramped accommodation, Queensland 
Museum 1982. The sections of molluscs 
and mammalogy shared one internal 
room, partially divided down the centre 
with shelving. The entrance to the shell 
collection is shown behind Curator J. 
Stanisic's desk. 

With the promulgation of the Queensland Museum Act 1970, the new 
museum board was required to take over, from the government, 
responsibility for the museum's insurance. Similarly the art gallery was 
responsible for its own insurance. To satisfy their separate insurers, a 
brick fire wall was built between the museum and the art gallery. The 
museum installed a sensitive smoke detection system and moved the 
spirit store from the centre of the basement to a new fire resistant 
building in the grounds. At last there had been some response to 
Markham's criticisms of 1933. 

In 1973 a large outbreak of termite infestation was discovered. 
Sporadic infestations had been recorded over the years. There is an 
account from Dibbs and Co. dating from the late 1890s referring to 
treatment for white ant 27 . In more recent years five different species of 
termite have been found to be active in the building, the most troublesome 
being the introduced West Indian termite Cryptotermes brevis. However, 
the large holes in some of the hoop pine structural members that 
workmen thought were signs of an infestation of giant borers in the 


Artificer's shed, Queensland Museum. 

A corner of the metals workshop, 
Queensland Museum, 1982. 

In 1974, after the Queensland Art Gallery 
vacated it, the art and photography 
sections of the museum occupied the 
south wing — formerly the concert hall — 
of the Exhibition building. Here the 
displays for the new building on the 
South Bank were prepared. 


building were indeed the result of borers, but of marine borers that had 
invaded the logs as they were originally rafted to sawmills or port facilities 
in the Maryborough-Fraser Island or Logan river areas. 

Investigations in 1973 resulted in the closure of the art gallery due to 
concern over the stability q{ the concert [tall section of the building and 
continuing leaking during heavy rain. Rout trusses uf hoop pine which 
were over-stressed to nearly 7 mPa in full section, had been eaten out by 
Up to lO'/'c of the section and some areas — fortunately under minor 
stress — had been eaten out completely. The roof trusses were repaired 
with steel cord stiffeners and tie rods and, in 1974, the museum 
expanded into the space vacated by the art gallery 1 It was used as work 
areas lot the art, photography and geology sections of the museum and 
this alleviated the pressures elsewheu- 

However, more and more adjustments had to be made to a building 
that was urgently in need of restoration and that was required to house a 
staff that had grown from four persons when it first occupied the buildii 
to 25 in 1970, and that was to grow to 75 in 1980. More space was needed 
for staff accommodation, workshops and laboratories, storage for the 
growing collection and more and better display facilities to satisfy a more 
sophisticated public that was used to the visual impact of modern 
television presentations. 

A large galvanised iron shed was used to house part of the techni 
collection and the workshop. Later, prefabricated buildings were set up in 
the grounds to house the conservation laboratory, preparators, artificers, 
education and maritime archaeology sections and the administration staff! 
In the main building, the earth-floored basements were sealed with 
concrete — although they continued to be referred to, affectionately, as the 
earth basements— to create storage areas for the ever-growing history, 
technology, and geology collections; and the five species of termite, thus 
disturbed from their usual routes, made new and alarming appearances. 
Every summer, storms created acute risk of water damage to valuable 
collection items. Damp walls creating high humidity were frequent hazards 
and required constant vigilance and enterprise on the part of curators — 
especially those responsible for anthropology and Australian ethnography 
collections that were housed along the outer walls 

A Museum worthy of the City and the State 

The board of trustees, as one of its first tasks following its re- 
esiablishment in 1970, had begun to urge the state government to make 
provisions for adequate housing for its museum, and to consider sites for a 
new building (see Chapter 14). Eventually, it was the state government's 
decision to develop, on the south bank of the Brisbane River, a cultural 
complex that would include the museum, theatres and the state library, as 
well as the art gallery. The new museum building was stage 3 of this 

Robin Gibson of Brisbane was the architect chosen for the Cultural 
Centre. The white concrete buildings, spread along the rivet bank opposite 
the main commercial and administrative centre of the city, have brought 
Brisbane to the forefront of urban architecture. The six climate-controlled 
levels of the museum building, rising behind the art gallery, include all the 
facilities needed — facilities that previously have not been available to the 
museum nor, indeed, to many museum's elsewhere. 

There are three display floors comprising 5,000 square metres and an 
extfii uaJ geological garden. On the upper two stories are offices, 
laboratories, collection storage areas and the library. On the first floor, 

Collection storage in the Varth 

basement'. Queensland Museum, 1982. 


which at its southern end contains lecture theatres and classrooms for the 
education section, are art and prepartorial sections, photography studios 
and dark rooms, artificers and metal workshops, aquarium room, live 
animal room, deep freeze, skeletal and fossil preparation and sorting areas. 
Architect Robert Wilson has been the consultant to the museum to help 
plan the fittings it would need in the new building. Solved, at last, is the 
problem of a refreshment room for visitors that confounded the board of 
trustees when, on 23 February 1901 it sent a deputation to discuss the 
matter with the minister. Solved also are the serious conservation 
problems arising from overcrowding, humidity, variable temperature and 
rainwater that through the years have challenged the museum's capacity 
to preserve the material record of the state's history. 

The Queensland Museum will assuredly continue its development. 
Branches to interpret and display aspects of the state's history and to 
serve the communities in regional centres are now opening, and more are 
being planned. However, for the foreseeable future, the museum will have 
as its headquarters and focus of its activities this fine and well-equipped 
new building, that will help it to execute its wide and diverse 
responsibilities more effectively than at any other time in its history. 


A new building for the museum in the 
Queensland Cultural Centre. l£ft: under 
construction, 1982; below, nearing 
completion, 1984 — the museum is in the 
centre of the picture, the windows of the 
two upper levels looking north across the 
roof of the art gallery (centre foreground). 





The Staff 

Previous page: Museum staff in the early 
1920s. Standing L to R: A. Fenwick, 
librarian; William Baillie, attendant; 
Thomas C. Marshall, assistant 
preparator; A. Gorman, attendant; R.V. 
Smith, attendant. Seated: Eileen Murphy, 
stenographer; Heber A. Longman, 
director; Henry Hacker, entomologist. 
Absent: E. Varey, attendant. 

The staff establishment of the museum grew very slowly 
indeed, and from time to time suffered serious setbacks 
associated with the economic depressions and wars that 
alternated through the long middle years of its history. Between 
1873 and 1945, through the good years, the retrenchments and 
subsequent recoveries, the staff sometimes numbered four and seldom 
was more than 12. Only once, in 1912, had the numbers risen to 15. 

It was the successive curators-in-charge, ultimately called directors, 
who determined the direction that the institution took and who 
simultaneously did the work of administrators, accountants, public 
relations and education officers and curators right up to the expansion of 
the past two decades. However, almost without exception, those who 
served under these men did so with loyalty and zeal, for without both the 
museum could not have operated and it may not have survived. 

The Slow Beginning 1862-1893 

At first, in 1862, in the Windmill on Wickham Terrace, there were the 
members of the Philosophical Society: the vice-president Charles Coxen 
and H.C. Rawnsley who, with taxidermist E. Waller, had given collections 
of birds and shells 1 . Probably Silvester Diggles, who was to be one of the 
society's honorary curators from 1869, was helping too. Elizabeth Coxen 
may have been there — arranging the shells. In 1868 they moved the 
collections down into the Parliamentary building in Queen Street after 
cases were damaged by rain in the Windmill. C. D'Oyly H. Aplin, formerly 
the government geologist for south Queensland, and his assistant, Hacket, 
worked there arranging and cataloguing mineralogical specimens from the 
end of June to September 1871 Despite Aplin s attempts to become the 
museum curator he was forestalled by Coxen, who almost certainly had a 
good prior claim and had friends in high places— the minister was a 
member of the Philosophical Society —whereas Aplin was a relative 
newcomer. However, the main reason was that although the government 
had requested that any geological specimens collected by government men 
and held by the Philosophical Society be handed over to Aplin for display, 
the Philosophical Society maintained that it was responsible for much of it 
until such time as a public museum was erected. So, in October 1871 the 
minister for Public Works did the next best thing. He satisfied the society's 
scruples by appointing its vice president— Coxen— as honorary curator of a 
public museum in the Parliamentary building 1 - 2 (see Chapter 4). Aplin, 
having been informed 'that the government is not prepared to incur any 
further expenditure for increasing the collection or for continuing my 
services' 3 was told to hand over the collections to Coxen. There were no 
other staff members— visitors were admitted by the parliamentary 
messengers 2 (see Chapter 2). Coxen's was the first official appointment to 
the museum. He worked there on his own until, in 1873, the government 
appointed a permanent officer, Karl Staiger, as custodian of the museum 
and government analyst, although Coxen appears to have had the primary 
responsibility for the museum until the board was appointed. The natural 
history and mineralogical collections must have been moved from the 
Parliamentary building to accommodation in the Post Office building soon 
after Staiger's appointment 4 . 

Coxen observed that revenue from Staiger's assay work between 
November 1873 and July 1874 was 'more than equal to the salary received 
by Mr Staiger' 5 . Despite his involvement with assays, Staiger was 
concerned about the natural history collections, complaining that he did 
not have appropriate reference books to identify zoological material (see 


Chapter 13). It was probably Staiger's efforts that made it possible for the 
trustees to comment that — 

In regard to the condition of the museum at the time the present 
trustees entered on their charge, they desire to record their opinion, 
that taking into consideration the great difficulties their 
predecessors had to encounter, the condition and arrangement of the 
collections reflects the highest credit on their administration 6 . 

When the board of trustees was appointed, early in 1876, Coxen had 
relinquished his role as honorary curator. At the board meeting of 21 
March 1876— a few months before he died — he seconded a unanimous 
resolution that the government be asked to formally appoint Staiger as 
curator as he was 'at present performing all the duties of that office 
without the title'. Apparently Staiger, rather than the board, had taken 
over Coxen's duties. Nevertheless, Staiger's title was not changed — he 

Charles Coxen, founder of the 
Queensland Museum and its honorary 
curator from 1871. 


REQriSrTJON tot tti<j uml.-r-raeutninea A.W1CLE5 for Uie Oic of /ft& W &a^c£S Js&<&*4*Z?*3n 



ITTH.T 1 t >KI ■.lit .ITltUl 

■jrirnrm or ui' 

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Ittt* ii' iv. 

.-.«* ••uniw 

.■Jl. Ill J O. > L .tU ,T Ctl. 

j%-ifajf *£*^<c 


/>fu*~ r UiX~J* 






Custodian Staiger's stationery 
requisition, authorised by the hone 
Curator Charles Coxen. 1874. 

(PUmuki ti»uy 

^7 £~*S $&**0***r f(£. 



remained 'custodian*. Until relieved, in August 1878, by one of the trustees, 
Bernays, Staiger was also secretary to the board. Even the board minutes 
are in his hand up to March 1878, when a clerical assistant, Charles 
Chester, was appointed. 

Also on the staff were an assistant, E. Curtis, who did the skinning 
and a museum porter/messenger, G. Walker. The board minutes of 
8 October 1878 record that Walker was the hero of a fire — 

made by some person in the large fig tree at the rear of the museum 
premises which, but for the vigilance of the messenger, might have 
caused the destruction of the whole building. 

After Coxen s death, on 20 June 1876, the museum trustees 
considered a letter from his widow, Elizabeth, asking if she could, at the 
price of a small remuneration, continue her connection with the museum, 
and offering 'certain boxes, bird skins etc. for sale'. She was remarkable 
for her time — the only woman who ever attended a meeting of the 
Philosophical Society and, in due course, the first to become a member of 
the Royal Society. She was to become a regular attendant at Royal Society 
meetings and once read a paper on cowries', However, back in 1877, the 
trustees did not consider it appropriate that she should be appointed to 
the staff and, indeed, on 24 January 1877 they reacted strongly to that 
suggestion from the government, implying that it was an interference in a 
matter that was the board's prerogative. Instead, they set aside a sum of 
£50 for payments to her in return for her services 'at such times as might 
be found necessary'. Vouchers were passed for payments to Mrs Coxen 
from time to time until 17 February 1882. She was not only the first woman 
employee of the museum, but also the first person to be paid specifically to 
attend to the invertebrate collections. She appears usually to have been 
engaged in arranging the shells. However, she was able to help the 
trustees in many other ways, advising them on certain correspondence 
addressed to her late husband concerning museum business. For instance, 
on 6 February 1877 the trustees agreed to the wish of Mrs Coxen to send 


'one of the bowers of the bower bird of which there are two on the 
premises' to a Mr Anthony of Harvard College in exchange far some 
bones. Oil 6 March 1883 the minutes record that while in England on a 
visit she had performed a commission for the board — she had purchased a 
stock of glass eyes for bird mounts. Long after that the meterological 
reports she compiled from her house at Butimba are regularly 
acknowledged in the list of donations to the museum. 

Coxen had been responsible for the work done by F.M. Bailey, ktt , 
of the herbarium established in the museum m 1874 following a proposal 
from lhe Acclimatisation Society 7 After Coxen died the position of the 
herbarium was somewhat anomalous. Although it had been under Coxen's 
control, it was not under the control of the board of trustees and the 
trustees decided that these anomalies should be corrected' The board 
docs appear to have had some control over Bailey from that time — 
endorsing his independent reports on the herbarium and formally 
approving some of his projects. The minutes of the meeting of 16th April 
1878 record the resolution that 'Mr Bailey be requested to record all 
letters received or sent out by him in connection with the herbarium and 
to furnish a short monthly report of his movements and work'. Bailey, who 
appears to have been an ambitious man. was working hard for the 
development of the herbarium as something separate from the museum. 
On 1 September 1879, before the museum moved rnto its new building, he 
reported to the minister of Lands: 

Although 1 have not been requested to send in a report of the 
general state of (he Queensland Herbarium, yet doubtless it may not 
be deemed wrong for rut-, js the grant for its formation will shortly 
hi before the House, to furnish you with y tew remarks relative U i 
the department. I am pleased to say that the colonists generally look 
to this department as the highest botanical authority in the colony, 
and that they are continually applying lor information regarding 

nomenclature, etc,, etc 1 may state that a very large proportion of 

the Queensland flora has been collected together, named, and 
classified, so as to be of easy access for persons desirous of referring 
there to, 

I hope from the foregoing it will be seen that I have tried to lay the 
foundation of a useful Botanical Department and that at 
comparatively little cost to the colony* 

He goes on to say that he does most of his work at his 'private 

residence there being no room at my disposal ar the present museum'. 

that the museum building and the herbarium cabinets are totally 
inadequate, that he hopes his department will be allocated all the space it 
in the new building, and he asks for a free railway pass 9 . Bailey and 
the herbarium, moved to William Street a few months later with the rest 
of the museum (see Chapter 4). 

Meanwhile, on 21 November 1879, just before the museum moved into 
its new building, the board of trustees had begun to look for a curator — 
they wanted *a suitable man of scientific attainments'. William Haswell's 
name was mentioned by several of the trustees as 'although quite a young 

man (he was) already well known in scientific periodical literature ' "' 

and it was resolved to adjourn for a week to consult him. The trustees 
believed that he would be content with what they knew to be a very 
inadequate salary, but one that they could lay their hands on by diverting 
funds from those set aside for the collection. Fortunately they did not have 
to do that — Haswells salary of £200 a year was chargeable to 'unforeseen 
expenditure', pending a vote by the legislature' 1 . Even Staiger as custodian 

gentleman hete photographed with 
ife Is thought to be Karl Theorior 
Staiger, cuetodun of the Queensland 
Museum 1873 79 [by oilurtesy a\ 

Stai^cr'^ grandson, K.'I Staiger, ul hiim 
Beach, Queensland). 


had received an annual salary of £350, while the head of the Queensland 
Geological Survey was receiving £700 a year. Although Haswell did accept 
the low salary, he was assured that it was temporary. 

At the end of 1879, after Haswell had been appointed, Staiger clashed 
with one of the trustees— W.H. Miskin. It appears to have been a rather 
contrived complaint that Staiger made. Perhaps, as Miskin suggested 12 , he 
was disappointed at not being promoted to the top job in the museum. 
What Staiger did was to spread a story, through taxidermist Alder— who 
also may have wanted to discredit Miskin, that Miskin had taken 
advantage of his position as a trustee by misappropriating butterflies from 
some cabinets purchased by the board for the museum. Miskin established 
that he had bought butterflies refused by the museum in 1876, and that 
those purchased by the museum in January 1878 had not been removed 
either by himself or anyone else— although they had been lost through 
neglect. In fact, Miskin's comments about Staiger are not at all kind, and it 
appears that the custodian may have fallen out of favour with the trustees 
(see Chapter 14). Haswell took up the position of curator on 27 December 
1879 and Staiger left, taking his chemical assistant, R. Taylor with him (see 
Appendix 1). 

Queensland Museum. 

Mrisiane Ums^.,l^TS^> 



@$ crr-<?rAsJL. eJieeting of ike 

Srustee-s will he held at the *Jlu$eum on 


the [%Z...t^!.-. at &5V~p m. 


Haswell calls a meeting to inform the fp% . 

board that he has been offered a position t -nf- 

in Sydney. * m ^/C - <• 


To help Haswell establish the museum in the new building, an 
experienced taxidermist — E. Spalding— was appointed in J urn 1880 
Chapter 4). There was a carpenter, Thomas SkLnnei, sometimes wii 
assistant and there were now two messengers, J. Cormack, whu had been 
appointed in June, before Haswell arrived, and J- Lane who had succeeded 
Walker at the beginning of 1880. Haswell was secretary to I I 
its proceedings are recorded in his youthful hand— the stl - he 

clerk, R. Newton, having been dispensed with on the curator's arrival The 
addition of a real taxidermist to the staff in place of Curtis who did the 
skinning in Staiger's time was undoubtedly an improvement, as was the 
additional messenger. However the museum's new building was very 
much larger than its previous home and there were still only five stall 
members and the keeper of the herbarium — not an overall improvement. 
Any hopes that might have been held lor an expanding establishment were 
dashed when it become obvious that Haswell* 1 - salarj would not be 
increased and he left in November 1880 At a special meeting of the board 
on 12 November 1880— 

th** Curator stated that he had contemplated sending in I 

resignation as curator in consequence of the apparent ! i ion 

of the Government, as expressed in the recent Parliamentary d 
upon the museum vote— With respect to the salary ol The Curator 
He laid before the Board an offer he had received by telegraph of an 
appointment in Ihe Australian Museum at Sydney at a much hi. 

At a subsequent meeting on 18 November, the trustees deliberated at 
length upon the matter, and decided to inform the government that the 
curator's salary should be increased and — 

that unless such increase is sanctioned the Trustees will be unable to 
retain Mr Haswell 's servia ure a compe i act in 

his place and that under such circumstances the institution cannot, 
be carried on eithet with credit to the Trustees or benefit to the 

Then Haswell went to Sydney on leave. By 14 December he had 
resigned and the under secretary' had appointed Bailey temporary curator. 
However, Haswell did not go immediately to the Australian Museum. He 
was a demonstrator in the zoology department of Sydney University m 
1882; in 1883 he was acting curator of the Australian Museum while 
Ramsay, the curator, was away overseas; and in 1890 he was appointed id 
the chair of zoology in Sydney University 1 *-*. As Mack has said, it is 
probable that Haswell would still have gone to Sydney even if his salary 
had been higher' L \ Nevertheless it was a disappointment that it should 
have happened in less than a year During his short tenure he had begun 
to improve the library and the displays and had given the board and the 
community a new confidence in the museum. 

All through 1881 F.M. Bailey, the keeper of the herbarium, was 
temporary curator. The taxidermist, one carpenter and the two 
messengers were the only other staff members. Bailey WBS also secretary 
to the board, which was, no doubt, a chore he could have done without. 
Nevertheless he appears to have done it meticulously. He was a prodigious 
worker and had built up a good reputation for his botanical knowledge. He 
collaborated with the Rev. J.E. Temson Woods in producing a Census of the 
Flora of Brisbane published in 1880 and had held an appointment as 
botanist to the board inquiring into diseases of livestock and plants at the 
same time as he was keeper of the herbarium in the museum, He also 
travelled around the state— the museum board had eventually got him a 




de Vis accepts the position of curator. 

free rail pass — building up the herbarium collections. The museum 
appears to have run smoothly while he was in charge but he was only a 
caretaker in the position and was more intent on advancing the cause of 
the herbarium than of the museum. Nevertheless, it is surprising that 
neither in T. Harvey Johnston's nor C. T. White's accounts of F.M. Bailey's 
life and work is there an accurate reference to his nine years in the 
museum. In fact, his surveys of poisonous plants, grasses and native 
pastures were all done while a member of the museum's staff 16 . 

Bailey's hopes for space in the new museum building were not 
realised. In October 1383 L.A. Bernays, who had been a member of the 
museum board of trustees in 1878-9, and had worked consistently to 
develop the herbarium, was to write: 

<U£*, ^(^L^rC/^ McZ* Stay UT&eJL&cL ^Jf*^ 


1 cannot conceive a more important Branch of Museum work (than 
economic botany)— with the assistance of Sir Joseph Hooker, Mr 
Bailey has made some progress toward an illustrative collection: 
which, however, I regret to find is, together with an Excellent 
Foundation for a Herbarium, gradually but surely being squeezed out 
of the Building, owing to insufficient accommodation for other 
branches of scientific illustrations 17 . 

Soon after this Bailey was to be appointed colonial botanist and would 
leave the museum taking the herbarium with him. 

Meanwhile, before Haswell left, there were some rumours about loss 
of specimens during the move to William Street 18 (see Chapter 8). These 
rumours, probably compounded by Haswell's resignation, prompted the 
government to set up a select committee to enquire into the operation of 
the museum 19 . The trustees, in their annual report for 1882, thank the 
government for its response to their needs and it is probable that some of 
the improvements in the next decade resulted from this enquiry 15 . In fact 
the improvement started in 1881 when geology collector A. Macpherson 
was appointed. 

On 2 February 1882 the 53 year-old Charles de Vis became curator on 
a salary of £400— exactly twice the sum Haswell had received. He was 
recommended by Mr Archer of 'Gracemere', just outside Rockhampton — 
where de Vis was then living 20 . The Rev. Tenison Woods who was then 
collaborating with Bailey on botanical works also supported his 
application 21 . When de Vis took over, taxidermist Spalding was still on the 
staff, as were the carpenter and the two attendants. Newly appointed as 
clerical assistant was an entomologist, Henry Tryon, who also looked after 
invertebrates 22 . Kendall Broadbent was engaged as zoological collector at 
£3 per week from May 1882 until March 1883. de Vis did not think they 
would be able to do without him, and indeed it was not long before he had 
created a vacancy to which Broadbent could be appointed. On 1 May 1883 
de Vis reported that 'he had been compelled to suspend' messenger 
Cormack because— 

He came in a state of drunkenness to his post on Sunday last and 
after being sent home returned contrary to orders and still drunk. 

Alexander Macpherson, the geological collector, was brought in from 
the field to replace Cormack and Broadbent was appointed collector in 
Macpherson's place. Broadbent was a zoological collector and he remained 
in that position from 1882 to 1893. By contrast there was a succession of 
geological collectors between 1882 and 1893— Macpherson, H.F. Wallman, 
E.B. Lindon, H. Hurst and H.G. Stokes (see Chapter 6). 

From January 1885 Tryon's title was changed to assistant curatcr, but 
he continued with the clerical work until, in April 1887, de Vis reported to 
the board that — 

the assistant curators investigation into the life histories of the 
various insect and other enemies encountered by fruit-growers and 

into the means if any of preventing their ravages had made it 

impossible for him to prevent clerical work falling into arrears. 

So the board appointed a young man, Henry Hurst, on trial and 
without pay, to assist with the clerical and library work. Hurst became 
geological collector on 5 August 1887 after Lindon left, but for the time 
being he also continued with the clerical duties. On 7 December 1888 'a 
supernumerary officer', Mr Charles Hedley, later of the Australian 
Museum, had been retained 'at the rate of £100 per annum' to deal with 
the Mollusca, thus releasing Tryon to work on insects exclusively. 


However, Hedley only stayed a year before he went to Sydney. 

It is apparent from the minutes of the board, and also from the letters 
sent to the curator from collectors m the field, that there was a general 
enthusiasm to increase the collections. Broadbent wrote from Herberton 
in northern Queensland with the information that Australian Museum 
collectors were 'in the district, so 1 am informed. Birds ! think are new. I 
must send you quick to name'"'. Henry Hurst, the shy, timid young 
geological collector wrote from Chinchilla that he was returning to 
Brisbane with nearly 3000 specimens'- 1 . Money was never plentiful but 
somehow the collectors managed. An extra hand, Patrick Wall, was 
employed in October 1887 to accompany Hurst on a 70-day collecting trip 
on the Darling Downs. Hurst wrote to de Vis from Chinchilla on 5 
November reporting progress and including a plea: 

C \m lea Walter de Vis, curator/direc I 

Hie Queensland Museum 18&- 1905 


Rat has begged to me t») ask you to advance his wife a pound on 
account of wages. I don't know whether you are disposed to do so 
and I would not have troubled you had he not told me that she was 
next door to starving. If this is realty the case it would be rather hard 
if she could not obtain ir *'. 

On 20 November, in another letter from Hurst telling de Vis of the 
fossils he is finding, the concluding paragraph reads — 

Pat tells me you gave his wife £2.18.0 instead of £1 and says he did 
not want her to get so muc. 

On 4 January 1889 de Vis reported that he had instructed Broadbent 
to collect insects as well as birds, mammals, reptiles and fossils. Broadbent 
replied that he would, but *next season', de Vis offered his Sunday 
allowance to pay an insect collector 'if a subordinate' could replace him (de 
Vis) in the museum on Sundays. It is not clear where the money to pay the 
subordinate would have come from had de Vis' offer been accepted. 
Instead, the trustees decided to appoint insect collector C.J. Witd. Then, on 
5 June 1891, a 'boy assistant' to help with clerical duties, A. Preston, was 
appointed at six shillings a week to relieve Hurst and leave him free for 
mineralogical work. Thus, by 1891, in addition to the curator and assistant 
curator, there were two messengers, a taxidermist, a carpenter, three 
collectors, and a clerk/library' assistant on the staff— the high point to that 

On 5 June 1891 'inconveniences resulting from the decrepitude of the 
attendant, Alexander Macpherson, whose old age incapacitates him for the 
performance of the duties of his office' were reported, and he was replaced 
by Joseph Spiller. Hurst was dismissed toward the end of 1891 having 
abandoned his post — he had disappeared from Brisbane' 7 . He was next 
heard of as a member of the South Australian Museum's expedition to 
Lake CaJlabonna, helping to excavate and retrieve Pleislocene marsupials, 
including the first complete skeleton of a diprotodon^ No doubt his 
experience as a geological collector on the Darling Downs was useful to 
him on this occasion. He was replaced as geological collector by Stokes. 

Meanwhile, there had been problems developing in other 
departments of the museum. Tryon's relations with de Vis and the board 
had deteriorated from the beginning (see Chapter 9). A continuing source 
of friction was that Tryon's services were much in demand by the 
Department of Agriculture — conflicting with his work in the museum and 
undermining de Vis" and the board's authority. On 6 April 1888 the board 
minutes record that — 

the assistant curator absent from duty during most of the latter part 
of the month. No official intimation that his services were required 
elsewhere had been received, but it is understood that he has 
received instructions from the Colonial Secretin, _ 

On 7 December 1888 the curator informed the board that — 

the official relations between himself and the assistant curator had 
been for some time strained in consequence of the disrespectful and 
antagonistic attitude assumed towards himself (by the assistant 

When the board suggested that a position of entomological assistant 
be created, de Vis, with alacrity, suggested that the position of assistant 
curator be dispensed with and the salary associated with it be transferred 
to the new position. It does not appear to be a device to get rid of Tryon, 
but to get rid of him as assistant curator. The trustees did not agree— they 
pointed out that as assistant curator Tryon was bound to accept de Vis' 


directions and nothing would be gained by making a change in his title. So, 
they continued on together, the board reaffirming the curator's authority 
from time to time and insisting on its own initiatives in regard to Tryon's 
services to the Department of Agriculture. It was reported, on 5 July 1889, 
that Tryon had undertaken another report for the Department of 
Agriculture without the board's approval. It had, accordingly, withheld his 
salary* for a month, and observed that he should be transferred to another 
department. On 3 January 1890 the board had intercepted Tryon's 
application, direct to the minister, for a railway pass— he was informed 
that the application would be made by the curator and he was reminded 
that 'all officers of the museum must address all official communications to 
the curator only from whom they will take instructions as to the work they 
will undertake*. Then Tryon tried to leave— he was an applicant for a post 

•X€ -"■£/" 

Elizabeth Coxen writes to the trustees 
offering to execute commissions for the 
museum in London. She purchased a 
Stock of glass eyes for bird mounts. 

-ft &/vj?i%^*z-*~?*-^ 





/ j^ 

'ffd s&^o^'&i/ ^^-Cy^t??-*- &fc?<-£^?/c^ 

t^Un^' y ' r /r$ 


in the New South Wales Department of Agriculture in May 1890— but 
apparently was not successful. At one stage the board commented that the 
Department of Agriculture should get 'an officer of their own to do their 
work'. Neither the trustees nor de Vis were absolutely opposed to Tryon's 
expertise being used by other departments — it was an advertisement for 
the museum. What did irritate them was that the — 

services of the assistant curator had been repeatedly given to the 
Department of Agriculture which had published the resulting 
iniorrnatiori cm its own authority without giving the museum the 
slightest credit for it as its only soun 

Eventually the board resolved that Tryon's services could be available 
to the department only if his reports were addressed to the museum 
board — for communication 'at option' to the Department of Agriculture-'. 

Tryon was in effect, the agricultural entomologist: for the state— a fact 
the board recognised when on 5 August 1892 it suggested that the 
department supply some funds to support these activities. When, on 2 
September, that was refused the board refused Tryon's services. On 6 
January 1893 a letter in that day's Courier concerning friction between the 
agricultural department and the museum was referred to by the board as 
'not worthy of further notice'. The museum may reflect now that it is 
unique in Australia in having provided to its government, albeit reluctantly 
and unacknowledged, 10 years of sound advice for the pastoral industry 
through Bailey's work on poisonous plants, grasses and native pastures 
and followed this with a further 10 years of advice from Tryon on applied 
agricultural entomology. 

Just before the economic collapse of 1893 Tryon was accused of being 
less than discrete in his behaviour toward a young woman in the public 
galleries 30 , it is clear that every effort was being made to establish some 
grounds for his dismissal. This was not successful. Tryon's defence was 
that he had been solicited. In those days, as in other museums in Australia 
and in the rest of the world, the museum, being open to the public, was a 
place often frequented by prostitutes (jaee Chapter 5). The charges against 
him were not substantiated and on 7 April 1893 Tryon's suspension was 
lifted. However, most of the trustees wanted him to be transferred and the 
chairman, Norton, just wanted him to go. 

K. ndall Brofldbent, doyen of collectors, 
in the late 1870s (photograph tent by his, 
;; SJ. Ressner erf GrecevHIe). 

The Desperate Years, 1893-1910 

Then, a few months later, in June 1893, the economic depression 
descended inexorably on the museum. The minister asked the board to 
reduce its estimates and to consider retrenchments. The board avoided 
this, the minutes recording— 

that it did not (eel it necessary to propose any change, either by- 
dispensing with the services of any rnembi r ol 1 he Staff « >r bj the 
reduction of salaries, as it was generally understood that a redaction 
of salary throughout the service would be made bj the government. 

Ten days later, on 19 June, the only reply from the government was to 
repeat its request. Curator de Vis was asked to withdraw from the 
meeting, and on his return was directed to record resolutions dispensing 
with the services of the assistant curator Tryon, geological collector 
Stokes, attendant Spiller, messenger Lane, and carpenter Skinner. The 
zoological and entomological collectors — Broadbent and Wild —were to 
become attendant and messenger respectively. The board recommended 
that both Spalding and de Vis retain their positions; de Vis did, but 
apparently Spalding was retrenched with the others, There was a 


suggestion that Spalding be retained for one day per week to keep insects 
out of the cabinets but there is no evidence that this occurred and five 
years iater, on 5 February 1898, the board was to receive a letter from him 
seeking a job— there were stil! none available. It was a desperate time. 
Preston the young clerk/librarian, who was only paid 6 shillings a week, 
retained his job. de Vis' salary went from £400 to £300. 

Actually, most of the trustees were not unhappy about the loss of 
Tryon but Bancroft always had dissented from resolutions that Tryon be 
dismissed. He did again on this occasion and his minority view was 

the inconveniences which he feared would result from the loss of the 
assistant Curator's services urging that they should be retained in 
the colony if not in the museum n 

For a while Tryon was allowed to use a room in the museum and the 
library, although his use of the insect collection was to be supervised. 
Eventually, the board objected to him referring to his 'permanent room in 
the museum' 32 and he went to the Department of Agriculture, later 
becoming government entomologist and a very influential man in the 
state ^ (see Chapter 9). 

So, de Vis, Broadbent and Wild, with the young clerk Preston's help, 
were left to run the museum. Preston left in 1896 and was replaced by AJ. 
Norris on 5 April 1897 and then G.H. Hawkins from 1898. Spiller was 
reappointed on 5 April 1897 to relieve Broadbent and Wild, so that they 
could do some work on the collections and occasionally get out into the 
field, and he stayed until 1902. Only once did the board have occasion to 
refer to his behaviour. On 27 August 1898 de Vis reported that a Mrs 
Kennet of Sydney had been offended by Spiller's behaviour in the gallery. 
The trustees observed that Spiller was of good character, the charge was 
not proven, and in future attendants should not engage in conversation 
with visitors except on the subject of the exhibitions, de Vis framed the 
following regulation: 

Grave inconveniences having arisen from attendants while on duty 
in the public rooms allowing themselves to be drawn into 
conversation with, or volunteering information to visitors. They are 
instructed to refrain altogether from addressing visitors except in 
the maintenance of Order. They afe required to confine themselves 
to brief but courteous answers about exhibits and they are warned to 
be especially careful to avoid making to each other, within the 
hearing of visitors, remarks which may be misconstrued and 
complained of as offensive. 

During these years of economic stringency, when the staff consisted 
of five people, everyone did several jobs. The board minutes of 6 April 
1899 record that one weekend the attendant, Spiller, and the clerical 
assistant, Hawkins, were given railway passes to the Darling Downs and 
Toowoomba to do some collecting but found nothing to collect; while Wild 
had collected 156 species on the range during his Easter holidays. 

At the end of 1899 preparations were made to move into the 
Exhibition building. From 2 October two packers, three carpenters and 
four labourers were appointed to help with the move. Soon after, one of 
the labourers, Baxter, was dismissed — drunk— and the other two left 
before 3 March 1900. Just after the opening, on 26 January 190L de Vis 
took the opportunity provided by the board meeting to express 'pleasure 
in being able to say that all employed in the reinstallation of the museum 
have rendered loyal and zealous service'. He certainly made every effort to 
keep them all in employment. 


Dickson, the fourth of the extra hands, had become the night 
watchman. Unfortunately, on 1 January 1901 de Vis, who then was living in 
tht caretaker's cottage near the railway line, found him asleep at 8 pm and 
again at 5 am the next morning, so he was dismissed and replaced with 
F.G. Smedley. The building was then in a rural setting— cows used to 
stray into the grounds 35 — afld it must have been dark and lonely at night. 
On 30 March 1901 it was suggested that Smedley be supplied with a 
revolver 'for protection' on the advice of the police, but in April the Police 
Commissioner advised that it was not necessary. Of the three carpenters 
hired for the reinstallation, one, A. Norris may have been the A.J. Norris, 
clerical assistant, who had resigned in 1898. He did not remain on the 
payroll for very long. A.S. Russell stayed until April 1901 as assistant to J. 
Berry who became the museum's carpenter. The packers, Ern Lower and 
Joseph Lamb, became label writer-librarian and assistant messenger 
respectively; their appointments were approved by the government on 23 
February M)l at the same time as that of J.A. Smith as mineralogist— he 
had originally been hired on 31 March 1900 as an 'extra hand* temporarily 
engaged to prepare mineral exhibits. A gardener, W. Hedges was also 
appointed. It was the only time there was ever a gardener on the museum 
staff— probably the appointment was made to help J. Jordan, the head 
gardener, who was employed by the Department of Agriculture" 
Broadbent and Wild were still the attendants and Hawkins the clerical 
assistant. Thus, at the beginning of 1901 the staff had again risen to nine — 
about the same size but not as well qualified as it had been when de Vis 
first became curator It was also in 1901, on 23 February, that the board 
recommended that de Vis' title change to 'director from 'curator*. Actually 
he had been so styling himself for some time. 

There was a brief attempt to increase the professional staff by 
appointing J.D. Ogilby, a well qualified ichthyologist from Sydney who hail 
been recommended by the curator of the Australian Museum, R. 
Etheridge jnr. It is said of Ogilby, who was a son of a distinguished British 
zoologist and had studied at Trinity College, Dublin, that he had an 
extreme and undiscriminating affinity for alcohol' w . It was on this account 
that he had been dismissed from the Australian Museum in 1890. He had 
worked on contract to that institution until appointed to the Queensland 
Museum where 'the fishes were said to have been kept in formalin rather 
than alcohol' u . Ogilby took up duty as assistant in zoology on 27 April 1901 
On 29 June 1901 it was de Vis' — 

painful duty to report repeated grave misconduct on the part of the 

newly appointed assistant in natural history Monday morning he 

came on duty and remained ail day secluded in his room. At 5 pm it 
was reported to me that he was still there and in so peculiar 
condition that he could not be induced to leave. 

Ogilby resigned a month later and, despite his request, was not even 
given approval to use the laboratory. The board wanted to fill Ogilby's 
position, an ichthyologist being considered important to the fishing 
industry. A Mr R. Hall came from Melbourne and completed a 
probationary three months as assistant curator. The board recommended 
his appointment on 24 December 1901 but the minister would not approve 
it and Hall had to go back to Melbourne. Meanwhile Ogilby sought 
permission to work in the museum, refer to collections and use the library. 
Occasionally he was admitted but usually he was not. Then he was 
appointed as a 'supernumerary' to the museum as a result of an appeal he 
made to the Department of Agriculture. Payment of 30 shillings a week 


was to be from contingency funds. On 14 November 1903 the trustees 
placed on record 'that this appointment was made without their 
knowledge' and next month qualified their acceptance of the appoiniment 
by making it 'subject to immediate retirement if such should be deemed 
advisable'. On 30 January' 1904 the board decided that 'Ogilby's connection 
with the museum should altogether end', and subsequently it refused his 
request for a supply of foolscap paper Nevertheless. Ogilby's connection 
with the museum did not end. He was to be appointed part-time 
ichthyologist in 1913 in the days of Hamlyn-Harns, 

Economic recovery was slow and again, on 26 April 1902, there were 
retrenchments. Everyone lost his job except de Vis, Broadbent, Wild, and 
the so-called mineralogist J.A. Smith. This time the clerical assistant, 
Hawkins, also had to go. The staff was back to five, Later Smith resigned 
and Joseph Lamb— one of those retrenched — was given his job f again 
demonstrating de Vis' attempts to keep his staff in employment. The board 
allowed Wild to take the title 'entomologist' — in fact he was looking after 
the insect .ollection, By 26 July 1902 carpenter Berry was living in the 
Ljretaker s cottage, de Vis having found it too dusty and noisy. His part- 
time services as carpenter were retained, his accommodation serving in 
lieu of wages, de Vis made two attempts to return to the cottage — one only 
5 months after he had left it and again on 26 September 1903. However, 
the board did not support him and Berry continued to live there with his 
family until 1910. 

The retrenchments of 1893 and 1902 must have distressed de Vis, 
nevertheless he carried on, probably doing more himself and suffering a 
£10U cot in his salary, which increased slightly to £330 from 1902, but 
which was never restored to the k'400 it had been when he was first 
appointed. It was supplemented with payments from contingencies for 
Sunday work— amounting to about £50 a year On 28 May 1904 he 
certainly complained about the possibility of being deprived of the 
supplement at a time when his salary was reduced again to £300. 

Despite the depression, the new museum accommodation and the 
small staff, de Vis continued with his research, managing the museum, and 
detailing every aspect of the institution's operations in his reports to the 
board It was a time of remarkable expansion of the collections. There was 
the material that BToadbenl and the other collectors had obtained in the 
1880s as well as that from members of the public who had been alerted by 
de Vis himself to the intrinsic interest of the fauna and the museum's role 
to investigate and to preserve samples of it. There was material sent by 
those who had seen the monthly board proceedings published in the press 
and there was material from people with whom de Vis maintained a 
prolific correspondence and from whom he solicited donations. 
Ethnological material from New Guinea and the New Hebrides had begun 
to arrive in 1388 including the collections authorised by John Douglas— a 
museum trustee and special commissioner of the British Protectorate of 
New Guinea— and the large MacGregor collection. 

de Vis' tenacity and his efforts on behalf of the institution were 
sustained over a long tenure with Tew rewards except those of seeing the 
institution's collections grow, and knowledge and understanding of the 
objects in those collections increase — mainly through his own efforts. He 
was confronted with a large, unknown and unique fauna. He had no 
literature and few colleagues with whom he could discuss his work, yet he 
was the museum's first really productive staff member and possibly the 
most productive up to the present time. He had an analytical and creative 


mind. He was scientist, administrator and, if (he need arose, a clerk. He 
was a humane and compassionate man and he kept the museum operating 
in the face of incredible odds. Mack has suggested that de Vis 'would have 
been happier in a secluded room describing fossil and recent vertebrate 
animals, rather than building up the collections of a new museum' 15 . There 
is no evidence of such an inclination either in the collections themselves 
nor in the energy that de Vis applied to every aspect of the museum's 
operation. However, Mack was right when he said 'there is no doubting his 
devotion to the work he had undertaken' 15 , de Vis set a standard of 
personal commitment and achievement for the museum that has been 
followed, though never surpassed. He was the Queensland Museum's 
great director. 

CJ. Wild, acting director <>f the museum 


de Vis was retired in 1905 at the age of 76. On 31 December 1904 
Norton, then chairman of the board, had reported on 'the exertions which 
he had for some years made to avert the retirement of the director'. It was 
not that de Vis wanted to retire — he didn't — but the trustees, who had 
confidence in him, feared, in the depressed economic climate of the time, 
that if they lost de Vis he would not be replaced. They had had a warning 
that this could happen when, on 28 May 1904, the chairman had reported a 
suggestion of the minister's that 'the Director might be "retired" and the 
museum put in charge of a person at a lower salary'. Norton, in reply, had 
told the minister— 

from previous experience that no such person could be found who 
would be competent to manage the Institution with efficiency and 
with the authority given by scientific standing 

and that he, Norton, 'had spoken of the Director in very favourable 
terms'. Eventually, their fears were justified— de Vis was retired and was 
not replaced. On 26 November 1904 the Chief Secretary's Office ordered 
de Vis' retirement, which became effective in March 1905. He continued to 
attend at the museum and, to oblige the board, continued in charge of the 
museum — a course that did not please the department. Accordingly, on 
24 June 1905, the trustees ascertained that Mr R. Hall from Melbourne — 
previously recommended to succeed Ogilby in 1901— would accept the 
position of director at an annual salary of £200. This would have left £100 
for de Vis' salary as consulting scientist. The government did not accept 
that recommendation and on 26 August 1905 the board had to accept the 
government's appointment of Wild as acting director, de Vis stayed on as 
consulting scientist. A doorkeeper, B. McClelland, was appointed in 
September, presumably to strengthen the attendant staff, depleted by 
Spiller's retrenchment and Wild's promotion. The only other staff 
members were Broadbent and Lamb— the latter having become 'assistant 
in the industrial department' instead of 'mineralogist'. 

This year and the next, 1905-6, were probably the nadir in the 
museum's fortunes. In July 1906 Benjamin Harrison replaced McClelland. 
In 1907 there was a breakthrough— W.E. Weatherill, described as boy 
assistant, was appointed in January; H.B. Taylor, office boy in April; and 
Anthony Alder was appointed taxidermist in September, Weatherill 
becoming his assistant. 

Anthony Alder was an expert at casting. He had learnt his trade from 
his uncle, who had a taxidermy business, Alder and Co., Islington, 
London 35 , and had won a gold medal for his models at the Greater Britain 
Exhibition, London in 1899. Alder had had a taxidermy and model-making 
business in Queen Street from 1877— the same year that he had first 
offered his services to the museum, only to be told that there was no 
position available. Instead, he had sold 22 mammals to the museum for 
£50. Only three years later Spalding had been appointed to the position of 
taxidermist. Spalding had worked for Ramsay, curator of the Australian 
Museum, who very likely had recommended him to Haswell. Alder, 
naturally, was critical of Spalding's work. On 1 July 1892 the museum 
board noted a — 

letter in the Observer over the signature of one Alder complaining of 
the quality of the taxidermist's work. It was considered a sufficient 
refutation of the charges made that Mr Spalding had been chosen by 

the New South Wales Commission for the Chicago Exhibition and 

that no notice of Alder's letter should be taken. 

On 28 October 1905 the board received a letter from the Department 


of Agriculture suggesting that Aider be employed. 'The trustees were 
opposed to employing him in the museum building, but will give him birds 
to stuff in his own workshop if he quotes satisfactory prices'. Perhaps 
Alder had a friend in the department, for, despite his long standing 
differences with the board, at last he was appointed to the staff of the 
museum at the age of 58. At the time of this appointment the board was 
under pressure. In April 1907 there had been strong press criticism of the 
museum displays and its standards of taxidermy, and then, one week 
before Alder was appointed, the premier had taken over the control of the 
museum and the board was about to be disbanded (see Chapter 14). In 
fact, Alder's appointment was probably that board's last contribution to the 
museum's operation. 

From 1907 to 1910 the museum continued under Wild's directorship, 
now under the watchful eye of Premier W Kidston. Apparently what he 
saw did not please him, because in March 1910 his under secretary, PJ. 
MacDermott, wrote seeking a reference for a Dr R. Hamlyn-Harris, then a 
school teacher in Toowoomba- 16 . He received an entirely favourable 
reference from J.V. McCarthy of the Toowoo?nba Chronicle. No immediate 
appointment was made, however. Kidston, apparently feeling he needed 
some advice first, on 2 June 1910 wrote to the premier of New Soutli Wales 
asking if Robert Etheridge jnr, the curator of the Australian Museum, 
would be available to investigate the Queensland Museum and report to 
him. In his report r ' Etheridge admired some of the material, especially 
some of the fossils and the 'fine MacGregor collection', but was critical of 
the building, the lack of labels, crowding of specimens, inadequate display 
furniture, arrangement of the material, preparation of the specimens, 
registration, storage, the level of staffing and the staff themselves: 

During my investigation I found one officer performing no less than 
eight different classes of work, some professional, some mechanical, 
some pure labour. I venture to say that under circumstances of this 
nature it is impossible for an officer so situated, no matter hmv 
earnest he may be. to carry such multifarious duties to a successful 
conclusion w 

Mack remarks that the report was fair and informative 15 . Indeed, 
Etheridge's descriptions of the collection reflect the remarkable increase 
in its size and confirm that the dimensions of the task had been quite 
beyond the capacity of de Vis, his successor Wild and their pathetically 
small staff. 

Etheridge was not impressed with Wild, nor with Broadbent whom he 
thought to be 'upwards of 77 years of age' — actually he was 73. The other 
attendant, B. Harrison, a cotton spinner by trade, was then 70. The 18 year- 
old H.V. Chambers, clerk/librarian, who had replaced Taylor, was described 
as having only a very elementary knowledge of library work. Etheridge 
thought the 19 year-old Weatherill to be a bright young man. The only other 
person to impress Etheridge was J. Lamb, a painter by trade, who, although 
assistant in the industrial department, had the following duties: 

He prepares and articulates skeletons; prepares collections for 
schools, prints labels, reproduces specimens by casting, curates the 
collections of minerals, rocks and fossils, assists in skinning large 
animals and takes his share of the cleansing duties. He is making a 
special study of Spiders and Frog> ' 

Lamb's office in the basement was the only one that Etheridge found 
reasonably tidy. Despite Etheridge's admiration, Lamb left the museum in 
1910, The taxidermist, 61 year-old Anthony Alder, although on the staff at 
the time is not mentioned in Etheridge's report at all. 


Ronald Hamlyn-Harris. director of the 
museum 1910-1917. 

A Partial Recovery 1911-45 

Ronald Hamlyn-Harris was appointed curator on 1 October 1910. He 
appears to have had the governments support to put Etheridge's 
recommendations in train. However, his salary was not exactly princely. 
Although it was to rise to an equivalent of nearly £500 by 1913, on 
appointment it was £300. His accommodation— in the cottage by the 
railway line —was valued at an extra £50 per annum. There was no longer 
a board of trustees and the director was responsible directly to the 
premier, Hamlyn-Harris visited other Australian museums before he 
began his task of reform in Queensland and Ethendge continued to advise. 
The expansion, begun in 1882 and so sadly interrupted by the depression 
of 1893, now resumed. The new director began to reorganise every aspect 
of the museum's operation. 

Heber A. Longman, a natural historian known to Hamlyn-Harris, 
joined the staff as assistant curator and Henry Hacker was appointed 
entomologist. Later, in 1913, J.D. Ogilby was appointed again, this time a^ 
part-time ichthyologist, and he did some good work. He also inspired the 
new cadet, Tom Marshall, to a life-long interest in ichthyology. Veterinary 
surgeon D.R. Buckley was part-time osteologist for a short time but it was 
not a successful appointment — Hamlyn-Harris opposed his reappointment, 
even as an honorary, believing him to have been using the institution for 

The first full-time stenographer Eileen G, Murphy was also appointed 
in 19 11, as was a librarian, Clarice Sinnamon. Alder was still employed and 
helping him were M. Colclough— replacing Weatherili— and the cadet T.C, 
Marshall. B. Harrison was elevated to chief attendant on £90 per annum* 
Broadbent, who had died m office, was replaced and two additional 
attendants were appointed. One of them, W.E. Greensill, doubled as a 
carpenter— Berry having left. In the general revitalizing that Hamlyn- 
Harris initiated Finney Isles and Co. tendered information on new 
uniforms for the museum's attendants* 11 . 

C.J. Wild, no longer acting director, accepted his old position of 
collector 41 . However, he did not impress Hamlyn-Harris, and on 12 June 

The staff of the museum. 1912. Standing 

Lk> /?: 'Chip-; Greensill, attendant/ 
carpenter; William Baillie, attendant; 
Henry Hacker, entomologist; Eileen 
Murphy, stenographer; Clarice 
Sinnamon. librarian; Anthony Alder, 
taxidermist; Benjamin Harrison, chief 
attendant; E. Varey. attendant. Seated L 
to K: Heber A. Longman, assistant 
scientist; Ronald Hamlyn-Harris, 
director; James Douglas Ogilby, 
ichthyologist. Reclining: Tom Marshall, 




1911, four days after a fire had destroyed his camp, he wrote offering to 
accept a transfer (see Chapter 9). His connection with the museum ended 
on 31 June 1911 42 . Hamlyn-Harris used the position of collector left vacant 
to appoint Douglas Rannie as ethnological collector. Rannie, who later 
became librarian, lived in the caretakers cottage from 1912 after Hamlyn- 
Harris vacated it R.J. Cuthbert Butler, who was librarian from 1915 to 
1917, took over the house from Rannie when he left. 

Thus Hamlyn-Harris had achieved a staff of 15— a new record. He 
also extended the scientific strength of the museum by appointing 
honorary scientists— Professors H.C. Richards and T. Harvey Johnston 
and Dr A.B. Walkom of the University of Queensland, and Dr J. Shirley. 

Many of those appointed by Hamlyn-Harris went on to render long 
service to the museum. They were Eileen Murphy, Tom Marshall, Henry 
Hacker, Heber Longman— who subsequently became director— and the 
attendants J. Baillie and E. Varey. Eileen Murphy was only 20 when she 
was appointed and she was not only the first woman to be appointed to the 
permanent staff but was also the first stenographer. She was to occupy 
that position for 42 years, serving three directors — Hamlyn-Harris, 
Longman and Mack. Her duties were not confined to secretarial ones — 
she registered specimens, wrote labels and compiled catalogues. Her 
distinctive and decorative, though not readily legible, hand is still to be 
found on many museum labels. 

During his tenure Hamlyn-Harris instituted educational programmes, 
revitalised the displays, organised the library and sought ways to redress 
the lack of scientific staff. However, in the end, his efforts to develop the 
museum were defeated by World War I. When he retired in 1917 he had 
lost the position of collector, Alder had died in 1915, Marshall was away 
with the 13th Australian General Hospital Unit and ichthyologist Ogilby, 
although he was continuing to do good work, was getting toward the end of 
his useful days. Staff members who left were never replaced nor had any 
new positions been created. In addition to the director and the assistant 
curator, there were the entomologist Hacker, librarian Cuthbert Butler, 
stenographer Eileen Murphy, preparator Colclough, three attendants and 
the head attendant and doorkeeper, Harrison. Although Harrison was 
'fully capable of the work that was required' — Longman attesting to his 
vitality on the basis of his recent marriage — he was now almost 78 years 
old 43 . 

Eileen Murphy who gave 42 years of 
service to the museum. Above: as a young 
woman; left: after her retirement, with 
T.C. Marshall and M.P. Beirne, head 


Heber Albert Longman, director of the 
museum 1918-45. 

Longman became director in 1918 but he was not replaced as assistant 
curator. Hacker continued as entomologist until 1929 when he was 
seconded to the Department of Agriculture, and worked at the museum 
only one or two days a week 44 . He was succeeded by H.L. Jarvis, seconded 
from the Department of Agriculture for one day a fortnight. From 1918 A. 
Fenwick not only took over from Cuthbert-Butler in the library but also 
moved into the caretakers cottage near the railway line. J. Shirley became 
conchologist for one year in 1920-1 and Ogilby worked on as part-time 
ichthyologist until 1920. The affection generally afforded Ogilby is 
reflected in a letter from Longman to the under secretary, Chief 
Secretary's Office, enclosing a medical certificate, seeking approval to pay 
for medicine and suggesting 'for our veteran ichthyologist Mr J.D. Ogilby 
three weeks holiday at the seaside, without expense, in charge of a 
friend' 45 . There was, for a short time before World War II, the promising 
assistant in ethnology, G. Jackson — who subsequently was killed in action 
in the war. Filmer observed, in 1946, how Longman grieved for him, and 
that signs of Jackson's— 

good work are in evidence all over the court. Any death in a New 
Guinea jungle is a sorrowful thing; his, as Mr Longman says, a real 
tragedy 46 . 

Colclough and Longman did not get on well — and this may have been 
partly political. Mrs Longman was a member of the party in opposition 
while Colclough supported the Labour government. Between October 1917 
and June 1919 Colclough was seconded to the University's zoology 
department to work on ticks. In 1931 Longman, basing his action on the 
need to reduce running costs, abolished his position 47 . Colclough was 
retrenched but subsequently was reinstated in November 1933. Longman 
wrote that although Colclough was given the— 

maximum of consideration his lack of interest in his work, his 

cantankerous attitude generally, and his want of energy prevented 
him from being the useful officer that a taxidermist should be 48 . 


Indeed he was not a useful officer. He had withdrawn to a seat 
between the bird cabinets in the basement. In April 1945, soon after he 
was appointed as an assistant, Ivor Filmer recorded an occasion on which 
Colclough was to make a skin— 

but swore volubly at having to get off his seat between the bird 

cabinets to do it 4 ". 

Colclough was absolutely unrelenting in his attitude — he just would 
not work for Longman. He said 'the only good thing Longman did was that 
he never begat any other Longmans' 46 . In Filmer's understatement 'the 
two were incompatible' tt . 

Despite Colclough, the museum was a happy place in Longman's time. 
He was good to his staff and fostered in them an involvement and loyalty 
to the institution and an interest in natural history. Under Longman's 
direction, Marshall had developed his skills, and the improvement of the 
displays, begun in the days of Hamlyn-Harris, had continued. The museum 
was also a mecca for local and visiting naturalists. Entomologists A.J. 
Turner, H.G, Barnard, E.H. Rainford and G.H.H. Hardy worked there in an 
honorary capacity, as did palaeontologist J.E. Young and conchologist H.W. 
Hermann. In 1942 Marshall was seconded to the Department of Harbours 
and Marine and subsequently became ichthyologist in that department. 
Ivor Filmer replaced him in December 1944. His duties were many — 
Filmer, as a young assistant in the museum at this time, did almost even 
job there was to be done. He cleaned and fumigated display cases and 
spirit tanks, ran messages, arranged displays, labelled specimens, filled up 
jars, made catalogues, registered acquisitions and identified specimens— 
sometimes with Longman's help, but often he had to do it on his own. 
When Longman was away he answered most of the public enquiries. When 
Miss Murphy was away, he was clerk as well. 

One of the attendants in Longman's time was R.V. Smith who. like 
Longman, was a free thinker and a Rationalist, and who was a highly 
respected member of the Brisbane community. Born in Belfast, he was a 

Museum staff, circa 1916. L to R: 
Cuihbt-n Builer. librarian; Heber A. 
rri curator; Eileen 
Murphy, stenographer; James Douglas 
Ogilby, ichthyologist; Henry Hacker, 
entomologist; Tom C. Marshall, assistant 

ariet". William Bailiie. 
attendant; Benjamin Harrison, chief 
attendant; gardeners— Jordan, Archbold 
and SpaJdinjz. 


museum attendant until his death in 1932 at the age of 43. Both Longman 
and Tom Marshall were pall-bearers at his funeral and long obituaries in 
the Brisbane press are glowing in their praise of the man and the work he 
had done tur the Labour party, the State Service Union and the Worker's 
Education Library 49 . 

Michael Beirne, another attendant appointed by Longman had a long 
distinguished record in office in the museum from 1925 to 1959— his 
tenure almost spanning that of two directors, Longman and Mack. Beirne's 
fecit in chasing two youths who had stolen gold nuggets from the display is 
remembered to this day by the attendant staff. It was a long chase, 
through Victoria Park to Leiehhardt Street, where the 'badly winded* 
miscreants were caught 31 '. 

Longman achieved international recognition for his scientific work on 
vertebrate palaeontology. He made another significant contribution to 
science. In these years of economic stringency many Australian scientists 
were parochial and jealous of the competitive advantages available to 
better funded overseas institutions and scientists who came on 
expeditions to Australia, and Visitors' collecting activities often were 
resented (see Chapter 8) However, Longman believed that science was 
international, that overseas naturalists should be encouraged to work in 
Australia, and he provided very real assistance to those who did (see 
Chapters 7, 8). It is a testimony to his objectivity and scientific integrity 
that he continued to do this even after the visit of the 1931 Harvard 
Museum of Comparative Zoology palaeontological expedition. A lesser 
man would certainly have been jealous of the treasures that the American 
were removing. They were treasures representative of a fauna that he was 
investigating and they came from locations that he already had sampled. 
Longman, far from being jealous shared his knowledge with these 
colleagues from abroad and guided them to the fossil sites with his never- 
failing gentle courtesy (see Chapter 7). During his tenure as director, the 
Queensland Museum was a base for the 1923-5 British Museum 
Expedition to tropical Australia as well as the Harvard expedition ( - 
Chapters 13, 7 respectively). Longman also supported Archbold's collecting 
activities on behalf of the American Museum of Natural History and he 
provided facilities and support for Gabriele Neuhauser w T ho in 1837-8 was 
collecting in north Queensland for the Museum fur Naturkunde in Berlin 
(see Chapter 8). 

In the local community Longman established the museum's authority 
in natural science and, largely through his newspaper articles, he did 
much to encourage and foster scientists and naturalists in Queensland and 
to promote an interest in the state's fauna and flora. In fact, during his 
years as director, the museum had better public relations than it has ever 
had before or since — a fact to which the museum's cuttings books attest. 

It is doubtful that all this made up for the inefficiency and even 
neglect in the actual curation of specimens. Filmer records that he was 
cleaning out tanks in the spirit room and — 

made an interesting experiment by filtering our formalin, afi it was 
very cloudy. The residue was a white powder .... (which) turned blue 
litmus red, but this did not seem to prove anything uther than it was 
an acid* 5 . 

Mrs Gnchting— the librarian— and Longman, in a tea-room 
conversation, disagreed about what the white powder could have been. No 
one seems to have been very concerned that the preservative they were 
using was acid— perhaps no one knew how damaging it was. A Public 


Service Commissioner's enquiry in 1929 recommended that a scientist be 
appointed to assist the director when 'the opportunity arose** 1 . It never 
arose — it was the beginning of the 1930s depression, and, in any case, 
Longman himself was not very persuasive (see Appendix 1). For most of 
his tenure he ran the museum with only four attendants, two preparatory 
a librarian, a stenographer and a part-time entomologist. In the late 1930s 
there was a successful education extension programme with funds from a 
Carnegie grant but it did not continue after the two year period of the 
grant (see Chapter 5). Filmer suggests that the fact that there had been no 
funds to improve the museum during Longman's years— 

was not so much a reflection on his (Longman's) own efforts, but 
rather an index of the cultural desert that appears to be 
characteristic of so much of Australia until comparatively r< 

Whatever the reason, it was almost at an end and a new era was about 
to begin, Longman, after 27 years in office, was looking for a successor, 
and, on 14 August 1945, World War II ended. Filmer recorded the receipt 
of that news: 

A unique day in uur history, and in my life. Peace was officially 
announced at 9.30 this morning, and al the museum we received the 
news with joy. The attendants rang the bell, shouting "Hooray!" 
through the galleries, and Mr Longman and I found an old Balinese 
gong which we banged and made a loud ringing noise outside the 
back door, but there was no one there to hear us 46 . 

The Beginning of a new Era 1946-64 

George Mack became director in February 1946. He came to an 
institution that was respected in a few specialised areas of science — in 
vertebrate palaeontology and in some aspects of entomology— and an 
insl itutfon that was regarded, with affection, by the Queensland 
community as an authority m matters of natural history. However, apart 
from the entertainment afforded by its displays, the museum's educational 
role was not generally recognised at all nor was the real significance of its 
collections, which were neglected — many items irretrievably so. During his 
tenure Mack improved storage and care of the collections and promoted 
the educational role of the museum — he instituted school programmes 
and concerned himself with the educational content and quality of the 
displays. Primarily to help him achieve these improvements, he gradually 
increased the staff levels. D.P. Vernon and M.E. McAnna, assisted by K. 
Keith, succeeded Coldough and Marshall in the preparatorial section. 
From 1947 one, and later two artists were appointed, and from about 1955 
there were two assistants in the library instead of one. A photographer 
R.V. Oldham, was also appointed in 1955. Assistants were appointed in 
zoology, entomology, molluscs and ornithology. In 1948 the number of 
attendants was increased from four to six, and in 1960 to eight. Also in 
1948 a clerical assistant for Eileen Murphy, E.J. Bingham, was appointed. 
However, the scientific strength of the institution was barely an 
improvement on what it had been in Longman's time. J.T. Woods was 
appointed as assistant curator in geology in 1948 and much later, in 1963, a 
second professional position was created when E. Dahms became curator 
of entomology Mack also appointed an assistant in anthropology, M. 
Caliey, but it was not a successful appointment and he didn't try again (see 
Chapter 10). 

For the whole of 1946 and most of 1947 there was cleaning, tidying, 
fumigating, shifting, and everyone was involved, even Colclough, who at 


first seems to have cooperated better with Mack than he had with 
Longman 46 . In the end, there was disagreement about the arrangement of 
cases in the galleries and Colclough left just before Vernon arrived on 20 
September 1946. Two weeks later he was back, helping with the clean up 
as an honorary worker 46 . However, the next March he fell out with Mack 
and Vernon about the mounting of birds in the new displays and he 
appears to have left for ever. Meanwhile, the tidying up went on.Mack and 
Vernon came into the museum firmly determined to clean it up— and 
indeed they did. For those staff members who had continued through from 
Longman's days the new team from Melbourne at first were not 
appreciated. They were always moving things. When Filmer asked Mr 
Beirne what he thought of all the removing of exhibits that was going on, 
Beirne replied 'all changes aren't improvements'; and — 

George Mack, director of the museum 
1946-64, with Bob Dyer, Australian radio 
personality and amateur sports 


Mr Beirne said thai Mr Mack was excited about what he saw in 
Adelaide (where he had attended the 1946 meeting of ANZAAS)— so 
much activity, even the attendants £oing round with paintbrushes. 
Mr Beirne did not think that was such a good idea 4 *'. 

Nevertheless, Beirne and the other attendants were all part of the 
team who helped with the reorganisation of the museum at this time. 
Conservative about the changes at first, they eventually got used to the 
new regime; and for some there were definite improvements— Filmer 
particularly enjoyed the field trips; 

10 March 1947: it was a feeling of great pleasure to be off on a 

■ trip iti official time — 

25 July L947: these outings for perches are a real I 

Many times over the next year Filmer with Vernon or McAnna made 
expeditions usually to collect perches for bird displays. They would catch 
the train from Brunswick Street to Mitchelton and then walk to Samford 
Road or to Ferny Grove, sawing off the logs they needed and carrying 
them back to the station in sacks. Increasingly Filmer found himself 
helping Vernon and McAnna with taxidermy: 

24 March 1947: an important day in my career— tackled my first 

skin 4 '. 

George Mack was an exacting task master, He inspired loyalty in 
those who stayed long enough to understand him — but many did not stay 
that long. Miss Murphy was reduced to tears on more than one occasion 
and Betty Baird, the librarian, left the museum in May 1947 — only six- 
months after she had started — because of Mack 1 "'. His irascibility often 
made him a difficult man to deal with and may explain some of the 
departmental neglect that the museum experienced at his time. A 
characteristic incident occurred when he was conducting a breeding 
experiment with a colony of marsupial rats, Dasyuroides byrnei. Rhodes, 
the zoology assistant at the time — whose job it was to care for the rats — 
had left, and Mack ordered the attendants to see to them. Len Taylor 
volunteered to do the job, but Mack insisted that he had issued an order 
and had not asked for a volunteer, and promptly served them all with 
dismissal notices. What really had been troubling Mack was that he 
needed a roster that would ensure the colony was cared for over the 
weekend, However tempers had become frayed before that could be 
explained and the situation was resolved only after the Union was called 
in. A roster was organised, the rats were fed, Mack said nothing more 
about it and no one actually left the service of the museum. 

Filmer suggests that 'in his "high noon" of reorganisation denigration 
and re-furbishing Mack was misunderstood by many people'*. Indeed he 
was— although most people thought he was merely pig-headed and 
irascible, he was trying to stop the decay that 50 years of neglect had 
brought about. Nevertheless it was not only unfortunate that 'good 
relations with Longman could not be entertained', but also that his 

relations with so many people were affected because 'bluntly he was not 

mature enough lo assuage his forthright personality and bad temper' 4 *. 

In May 1956, Mack wrote to the Director-General of Education, asking 
permission to apply for a Carnegie travel grant. He wanted to visit 
America and Europe— 

1 to observe and study display, educational and other museum 


Museum staff 1965: Eileen Murphy (1), 
S. Gunn (2), J.T. Woods (3), C. Bowman 
(4), M.P. Beirne(5), J. Thomson (6), D.P. 
Vernon (7), E.C. Dahms (8), DA Wilson 
(9), M. Stegeman (10), T. Tebble (11), L. 
Haren (12), D.D. Chorley (13), B.M. 
Campbell (14), C. Corrie (15), P. Wipple 
(16), A. Easton (17), A. Bartholomai (18), 
E. Crosby (19), L. Elder (20), Mary 
McKenzie (21). 

2 to prepare a suitable plan for a possible new Queensland Museum 
building based on my own experience and on observations and 
discussions abroad. 

3 to learn at first hand the uses made of radio and especially of 
television by museums in the field of education 52 . 

Cabinet was 'in no way unsympathetic to the request but 'considered 
that, in view of retrenchments at the present time, it would be advisable to 
defer the matter'. He never asked again. He died in office in October 1963 
at the age of 64. It was just three months after he had written to the Public 
Service Board indicating that 'he would appreciate an extension of his 
term of office' after reaching the age of 65 53 . 

Mack presided over a staff increase from 9 or 10 to 26. However, the 
increase was due largely to the appointment of assistants and support 
staff. It is clear from correspondence that he tried very hard to persuade 
he government that he needed professional and technical staff, but he did 
not succeed in this. 

One of the most astute things that Mack did, was to bring Vernon with 
him from the National Museum of Victoria. Don Vernon was to stay on the 
staff of the Queensland Museum for 36 years to become the second 
longest serving member— Eileen Murphy served longer, retiring after 42 
years service. He was to be involved in the design and production of most 
of the displays developed between 1945 and 1970 and many of those 
developed in the 1970s and he brought modern techniques of sculpture 
taxidermy to Queensland. However, he was also an assiduous worker in 
the field. In the course of his tenure he was to undertake a diversity of 
projects for the museum including the production of the popular Birds of 
Brisbane in the Queensland Museum Booklet series, the initiation and 
organisation of a small museums seminar in 1978 (see Chapter 14) and he 
consistently promoted the role of museums and a respect for their 
collections. In his retirement he continues his assocation with the 


A New Deal 1964-86 

Jack Woods, succeeding George Mack in 1963, was the first 
Australian-born and educated director of the museum. This was probably 
an indication of the political and economic maturity of Australia, whose 
institutions, from the end of World War II, were increasingly staffed by 
graduates from its own universities rather than from those of Great 
Britain. Up to this time doctoral degrees were not awarded in Australian 
universities and it had been customary for Australian graduates to go 
overseas for their professional training. Some returned, but mainly it was 
overseas graduates who had staffed Australia's maturing institutions. 
However, Woods rejected an opportunity to go to the University of 
California in 1953. Subsequently, as director, he was the first member of 
the museum staff to be sent overseas by the government to visit the 
museums of Europe and North America. Study tours and overseas study 
have long been a privilege of university staff members and the experience 
is generally regarded as an important factor in overcoming the isolation 
that is often experienced in Australia. The benefit had not previously been 
available to museum staff. The occasion signalled the public support and 
government recognition that at last were being afforded to the museum. 

Woods appointment marked the beginning of the modern period in 
the museums development. He was responsible for the appointment of 
curators of anthropology, zoology, ichthyology and reptiles, bringing the 
number of curators to five; and he appointed H.A. Sweetser to the history 
and technology section (see Chapter 11). 

When Bartholomai became director in 1969 he inherited the strong 
infrastructure that Mack and Woods had put in place and proceeded to 
build on it. Perhaps he was fortunate that he came into office while the 
general affluence and expansion of the 1960s was still occurring— he 
certainly took advantage of it. All the Australian museums were expanding 
at this time 13 , as were universities, and not only were graduates available 
to fill positions but also positions were being created in the museums. In 
Queensland, community support through the activities of the Hall of 
Science, Industry and Health Development Committee resulted in the 
enactment of the Queensland Museum legislation and the setting up of the 
board of trustees (see Chapters 11, 14). Thus Bartholomai had a lot of 
support for the expansion that he engineered. New curatorships were 
created in arachnology, molluscs, history and technology, higher 
invertebrates, lower invertebrates and subsequently in industrial 
archaeology, maritime archaeology, and lower entomology as well as a 
scientist in charge of materials conservation. Meanwhile, as assistants who 
had initially been appointed as cadets qualified for promotion, new 
curatorships were created in Australian ethnography, crustaceans, and 
amphibians and ornithology. These new positions, together with more 
assistants and very much enlarged prepartorial, art, education and 
administration sections comprised a staff of 101— the strength of the 
museum at the close of 1985. 

Now, in 1986, not only is the staff about six times its size when Woods 
took over in 1964, but also it is highly qualified and experienced. Travel, to 
visit and consult with colleagues is a normal event, not only for directors, 
but also for others on the staff. Now the museum is able to keep pace with 
changing philosophies and advances in science and technology, and it 
takes its place amongst museums the world over. 

There are also members of the community who are contributing to 
the museum's operation. They are donors, volunteer workers and field 

. s 

Jack Tunstall Woods, director of the 
museum 1964-68. 

Alan Bartholomai, director of the 
museum from 1969. 


assistants, and consultants. The Hall of Science Industry and Health 
Development Committee, having initiated the museum's metamorphosis, 
sought a continuing role. It became the Museum Society of Queensland in 
1971, and from 1985, with an increasing emphasis on its association with 
the Queensland Museum, it changed to the Queensland Museum 
Association Incorporated. F. Stanley Colliver, honorary museum associate 
and donor, is the association's foundation chairman. He heads a group of 
its members who volunteer their services to the museum on a regular 
weekly basis to help wherever there is a backlog of work to be addressed. 
It is one of the ways in which the public can interact with the staff in its 
care of the collections that, in fact, belong to every member of the 

Museum staff 1984. 


Museum staff, 1970. L to R: J. Utz. A. 
Bartholomai, H. King, B. Campbell, S. 
Hoarc. R. Whitbv, J. Covaccvich, R. 
Monroe, P. Jell, ). Hodge, E.G. Dahms. J. 
Wilson, A. Sweetser, W. Balaam, M. 
McAnna. Mary McKenzie, E. Gehrmann, 
J. Wertz, T. Miller. M. QuinneU, R. 
Hardley, E.P. Wixted. D.P. Vernon, A. 
Easton (cartoon by S. Hiley— seated). 





Previous page: A school class examines a 
display of jellyfish (by courtesy the 
Courier Mail). 

People visit museums to see objects— some familiar, others that 
few will have seen before. In some museums nowadays it is also 
possible to touch some of these objects. Always the experience 
is direct and personal. People love to see fur and fabric, wood 
and stone, gems and steel. Good museum displays are to be 
enjoyed; and they are a short-cut to knowledge — gained through the 
discovery of the significance of objects. 

During the 19th and early 20th centuries, museums everywhere 
displayed row upon row of specimens— possibly to advertise the size of 
the collection. Certainly, this style of display showed diversity, but it 
showed little else. However, museums have since had to compete with 
other entertainments to keep their audiences and gradually, around the 
world, the style of museum displays has changed. Fortunately, their 
educational role now recognised, museums are better funded than once 
they were. Thus, they are able to take advantage of new approaches to 
design, and new materials and technologies to improve the quality of their 

There is no doubt that for much of its history the Queensland 
Museum's displays were cramped, staff and expertise were lacking, and 
there were critical shortages of funds. However, from 1910 when Hamlyn- 
Harris became director, the institution has been served by a succession of 
able taxidermists and preparators whose standards have been high and 
who steadily improved the quality of the displays throughout the galleries. 

A Collection of Objects 

There is no information surviving today on the displays in the old 
Windmill on Wickham Terrace. It was a collection and assemblage area 
that was organised by Charles Coxen, with the assistance of other 
members of the Queensland Philosophical Society, and possibly his wife, 
Elizabeth. Probably at that early stage everything in the collection was 
displayed. We know that there were shells and birds that Coxen, 
ornithologist H.C. Rawnsley and taxidermist and collector E. Waller had 
contributed; and there was a microscope donated by C. Tiffin 1 . In 1863 two 
cabinets of insects were purchased that were supplemented with some 
from Silvester Diggles (see Chapter 9). A case of fossils had been donated 
by J.K. Wilson— that same Wilson whose paper on the geology of western 
Queensland had been communicated to a meeting of the society by Coxen 
(see Chapter 7). In 1868 the collections were moved down to Queen 
Street— to the Parliamentary building. In its annual report for 1899 the 
museum board of trustees was to comment that there were mainly 'crabs 
and other marine invertebrates' 2 that were transferred from the Windmill 
to the Parliamentary building but there is no other evidence that this was 
so. After the move a collection of about 70 birds from Cape York was 
purchased from Messrs Cockerell and Thorpe, and Coxen was to mount 
them. Another collection of 122 birds was given by Cockerell in 1870 and 
the society spent £10 on glass doors for the ornithological shelves. Richard 
Daintree, government geologist for north Queensland, gave four sets of 
stereoscopic photographs of the Gilbert River 1 . 

There were also the government's mineralogical collections that 
Daintree had entrusted to the society until a government museum was 
founded. However, these mineralogical collections 'being in boxes and not 

set out on open shelves cannot be said to be really open to the public' 3 . 

More space was made available in the Parliamentary building in 1871 and 
C. D'Oyly H. Aplin, the former government geologist for south 
Queensland, arranged and catalogued Daintree's specimens with his own 


collection for the geological museum that the government was setting up :u . 
On 24 June 1871 the secretary for Public Works inserted a notice in the 
Government Gazette: 

The Government having arranged for the exhibition of Mineral 
Specimens etc. etc., contributions from persons interested in the 
formation of the Museum proposed to be initiated will be thankfully 
received by this Department. Cost of transit of specimens by steamer 
will be paid 5 . 

However, the government's geological museum lasted barely two 
months. Aplin finished arranging the minerals in the first week of 
September 3 ; and soon after, the government at last assumed responsibility 
for the Philosophical Society's collections as well as its own mineral 
specimens by appointing Coxen the honorary curator of a public museum ' 
(see Chapter 3). From the notice that appears in the Government Gazette on 
7 October 1871, signed by Coxen as acting curator, it is clear that he was 
the honorary curator of a comprehensive museum and not one confined to 
mineralogy 5 . 

In the notice in the Government Gazette in 1873, announcing Karl 
Staiger's appointment as government analyst and museum custodian, the 
government solicited — 

contributions of animals, birds, minerals, shells etc. to enlarge the 

present collection at the temporary museum (and) when 

forwarded from distant places cost of transit will be defrayed by 

the government 6 . 

There could not have been much room in the two small rooms in the 
Parliamentary building. Staiger reported that one room contained the 
minerals that D'Oyly Aplin had arranged and the zoology collection was in 
the other. Most of the Philosophical Society's collection must have been 
packed up— pending the availability of a new building— because Staiger 
describes the zoological collection as comprising: 

a skull of a dugong, an imperfect skeleton of a black whale, some 
snakes, fishes, an octopus and a small collection of insects and shells, 
none of which I found named 7 

He set up a display of minerals to satisfy enquiries in the new 
accommodation he had obtained in the Post Office building. Meanwhile 
Daintree had been writing long letters from London— where he was now 
Queensland's agent general— advising Staiger how to set up a display of 
soils from different parts of Queensland: 

as I take a never ceasing personal interest in this matter I will 

take the opportunity of sketching the outline of a mode of 

arrangement of the Museum Divide your building into sections, 

each section to represent a geological epoch 8 . 

Staiger believed he could do what Daintree suggested if he had the 
long room in the Post Office building for mineralogical display, leaving the 
two rooms in the Parliamentary bulding for the zoology 9 . However, by 9 
May 1874, when The Queenslander published a glowing account of the 
displays, they were all in a large, 'nicely painted' room in the Post Office 
well lighted, and (with) show cases arranged down the centre and 
along the aisles. In the cases are classified specimens of tin, copper, 

iron, gold, coal, marble as obtained in the colony and in many 

cases from other countries— an admirable arrangement when 

comparison is the object a visitor has in view. Other cases contain 
insects; there are bottles with fishes.....; reptiles and other things 
much more agreeable in the preserved than in the living state 

Anthony Alder, taxidermist at the 
museum from 1907 to 1915, with his wife. 


h - d 

4 *te C^l£>SKs^' -v^ 

A tradition of taxidermy came to the ntw **Bfc*y56 J*>\L^^-* ^ 

Queensland, from Great Britain. *j ( / ' '' 

Airier had trained in his uncle's firm in 

The walls are decorated with views of colonial life and animals that 
were, by repute, extinct before Australia was discovered. Mr Staiger, 
who is arranging the collection, is afraid, and with good reason, that 
the. space at his disposal will be occupied before the novelties and 
valuables sent in have all got a place. 

The trustees acquired more space in the Post Office building in 1876 
and 1877, but it was still very crowded, and the standard of display could 
not have been high. Nevertheless, Staiger entered displays on behalf of the 
museum in the Agricultural Society of New South Wales show of 1877 and 
was awarded bronze medals for Queensland photographs (Daintree's) and 
for Queensland minerals 1 ". In the same year taxidermist Anthony Alder 
offered his services to collect and mount zoological specimens. Although 
they purchased material from him occasionally, the trustees were not able 
to engage him at that stage 11 . 

By this time the museum holdings included 'Curios, Machinery, 
Weapons and Furniture' 1 ''— it was a museum of general sciences and 
history as well as anthropology, mineralogy and natural history. Live 
specimens were also on display. A series of articles in the Courier in 1926 
elicited reminiscences of the museum in Queen Street from readers ' ■' 
Miss Pauline Seal recalled childrens' hour, 4.00 to 5.00 pm daily, when Mr 
Dignan ted mice to his carpet snakes. The museum was obviously 
interested in attracting children, and it created a lasting impression on 
them, though possibly not the one intended. Apparently the trustees also 
assumed some responsibility for the living lungfish, probably in the 
Botanical Gardens. In the board minutes of 20 August 1876 their concern 

that 'the ducks in the pond (were) damaging to the propagation of the 

CeraUxlus and studying its habits' is recorded. 

The displays in the new building in William Street were described in 
an article in the Queenslander published on 13 March 1880 just two days 
before it opened to the public: 

the collections which so crowded the old building in Queen-street 
are as yet very insufficient to the aim of their present habitation. 
There are a few new additions to the collections, one the most 
noticeable of which is the skeleton of a python, beautifully articulated 
and coiled in spiral curves, the length of the reptile being about IS ft. 
The upper floor has been devoted to birds, butterflies, shells, and 
reptiles, and there are two cases containing beautiful specimens of 

coral The cases of lepidoptera have been supplemented with 

valuable additions from Singapore, some of the moths and butterflies 


being most gorgeous. On this Ooor a case of echinoderms are chiefly 
new. On the ground floor are the mammals, minerals, ethnological 
and technological specimen:;, and the walls are hung round wit I 
Daintree colored photographs. The collection of mammals is at 
present very insignificant, though there are a goodly numbei of skins 

awaiting the labors of the taxidermist Mr Haswell believe-, in what 

we might term the pictorial Style Clf arranging zoological specimens, 
which is certainly more attractive to the ordinary visitor than 
endless rows of catalogued birds and beasts, A large case is to be 
devoted to climbing marsupials, in which rock and tree will allow 
these creatures to be shown in life-like attitudes, while from the still 
pool in the corner the platypus steals up to sun himself on (he rocky 
margin. We saw one of the platypi pinned out in the shape in which it 
is intended he shall bask in the future, and another coiled up asleep. 
The same pictorial design will also be carried out with a large 
number of the birds that are yet unmounted. The cases brought by 
Mr Bernays from New Zealand have been opened, and amongst 
other things contained various bones of the gigantic extinct birds of 
that country. It is intended that the gallery above the upper floor 
shall contain a botanical collection of which Mr Bailey is at pre 
engaged in making the commencement. The cases at present set out 
contain a collection of fungi and of fruits. The walls are to be hung 
with illustrations of various vegetable diseases. To those who visit a 
museum more for instruction than amusement the minerals will 
probably be the chief object of interest. These have been carefully 
arranged, and are a Very valuable collection. The fishes, which were 
a very attractive feature in the old exhibition, have at present to 
remain stored away in obscurity, as the vessels in which they were 
displayed are of a faulty construction and will not hold ihe glycerine 
without leaking.-.. The hammer-headed shark purchased some time 
ago, and which, though a splendid specimen, appeared to have been 
irretrievably ruined by weeks of exposure to sun and rain in the 
exhibition grounds at Bowen Park, has been most skilfully restored 
by the museum taxidermist, and will now be a most striking object 
The largest specimen of this creature possessed by the British 
Museum is less than 5 ft in length, whereas this one is about VJ, tt 
Edward Spalding, the museums first staff taxidermist, was appointed 
in 1880 14 . He was to stay at the Queensland Museum for 13 years. The 
museum board's report of 1885 records that in that year alone he mounted 
44 mammals, 81 birds, 9 reptiles and 11 fish as well as preparing skins and 
skeletons. In 1886 and 1887 he mounted many specimens of marsupials 
that had been collected by Kendall Broadbent — the museum's zoology 
collector. These included specimens collected at Cape York, Herbert River, 
Card well and Rockhampton (see Chapter 3). 

As well as material collected by the staff, there were purchases, 
exchanges and public contributions and. in 1884, only four years after the 
museum had moved to its new building Sir A.H. Palmer, chairman of the 
board, wrote: 

Indeed the evils of overcrowding which last year were in a 

measure prospective are now being realized to the defeat of Lhe 
prime object of the institution as an educational agent— the 
conveyance Of instruction by means of objects systematically 

displayed On the same floor between the fossils and minerals and 

therefore quite out of accord with its surroundings is the 
anthropological collection- This fine series of objects from Australia. 
New Guinea, the South Sea Islands and New Zealand obviously 
suffers for want of room for proper display. The minerals have for 
the present scope enough but it is at the expense of public 

convenience. The cases occupied by them are too closely arranged 

to allow free circulation of visitors in holiday throngs 15 . 


The floor above was the zoology gallery but it was also short of space. 
Palmer says of it: 

.....To economise room a double line of tall cases has been of 
necessity placed in the middle of the flour with the unavoidable 
result of depriving observers of a favourable light for examining a 
part of their contents — the Australian Birds 15 . 

The upper me2zanine gallery exhibited molluscs, anatomical 
specimens and botany: 

One end of this gallery being filled by the Herbarium, the cases in 
which utilitarian botany tan find place are but few in number and it 
is much to be regretted that the department of instruction is thereby 
seriously retarded 13 . 

Problems abounded but, as Staiger had done, the museum displayed 
exhibits at interstate and international exhibitions. The trustees of the 
Queensland Museum were awarded a gold medal at the Melbourne 
Centennial International Exhibition in 1888"'. 

The museum moved to the National Association building in Gregory 
Terrace in 1900. It opened to the public on 1 January 1901— Federation 
Day. Displays apparently left a good deal to be desired. In a report of 26 
January 1901, A- Norton, chairman of the board, wrote that — 

failure of the contractor for new cases to finish his work in time 

compelled me to have numerous cases fastened down with wire in 
default of locks...- On the ground floor are shown Queensland 
products exclusively, the galleries are devoted to illustrations of 
various branches of science and skill. The reservation of a distinct 
portion of the building for the display of home produce should in my 
judgement be made a Special feature in even' provincial museum 
and 1 am glad to find that it seems to have met with approval 
here.,. Our fish fauna especially demands vastly more Lhan can be 
afforded to it as yet and our industrial materials are not represented 
as such in any way — . With regard to the gallery I regret to find my 
apprehension of its insufficiency more than justified. Though most of 
its cases have been crowded with exhibits to a degree which 
precludes anything like proper arrangement and descriptive labelling 
there remains a large surplusage of material which cannot be 
utilized. In fact our ethnological collections alone would, if exhibited 
as they should be, fill the entire gallery and considering our 
geographical and other relations with New Guinea and the 
neighbouring oceanic islands we ought not merely to have but to 
exhibit a far richer series of objects of interest from these sources 
than most other museums. 

Norton went on to say that the display of samples of food and 
adulterations had excited interest and that the natural history' exhibit 
which featured foreign animals was only partly displayed 'and was cooped 
up in a few cases in the gallery' 17 . The advisability of opening the displays 
to the public in the evenings was considered but because of the need for 
'the installation of electric light' the trustees decided not to ask the 
Government to incur this expense. 

There is no doubt that the Gregory Terrace building gave space for 
expansion of the exhibits. But Director de Vis and his small staff clearly 
had neither time nor resources to improve the displays which were still at 
a comparatively low level in 1910 when Robert Etheridge of the Australian 
Museum reported that 'the Queensland Museum leaves on my mind a 
feeling of gloom, absence of taste and disjointed elements'. He also said 
that 'the present (display) cases are cumbersome and out of date' and that 
there was a need for 'a more modern form of natural decoration in some of 


the mammal and bird groups' because 'much of this is incorrect and not up 
to present day taxidermal science' w . 

Great progress was made with the exhibition of specimens and 
objects following the appointment of Hamlyn-Harris to the directorship in 
1910. Alder had finally become taxidermist in 1907. In 1912 Thomas C. 
Marshall began as cadet and in 1913 Michael J. Colclough was appointed as 
assistant taxidermist. Alder was a considerable asset to Hamlyn-Harris as 
he had trained in England and was an expert in wax and plaster casting as 
well as taxidermy and painting. He had supplied museums in England and 
on the Continent with specimens, had exhibited at international 
exhibitions and had won two gold medals for his casting work 19 . 

The Aboriginal Camp-Site diorama, 
Opened in January 1914, it was on 
display until the museum closed to the 
public in November 1985. The display 
Was created by Anthony Alder under 
Hamlyn-Harris" direction. 

The Investigator Tree, incised during the 
beaching of Matthew Flinders' ship. 
Later, Beagle 1841 was added to the 
inscription. The log came to the museum 
in 1889 from the Port Office. 


Dioramas created by Marshall in the 
1920s. Below, the Limestone i -' ■ ■ 
constructed in 1925 under Longman's 
direction; below right: 'Hie Coral Pool, 
constructed in 1928. and dismantled in 
1955 to make way tor another display. 

Dioramas for Queensland 

During the next few years Hamlyn-Harris organised several 
important displays including the Australian Aboriginal Life diorama. This 
display— to visitors from 1913 to 1985. At the time of its opening The 
except for d few months in 1955 when it was hidden by a temporary 
display— to visitors from 1914 to 1985. At the time of its opening The 
Queenslander enthusiastically reported it to be — 

The largest and in many respects the most interesting of the new- 
displays a comprehensive illustration of a typical aboriginal scene. 

Three adult figures and a picanniny are shown. A man is squatting in 
front of a gunyah, husking and preparing Mitchell grass for the 
milling stone, which may be seen close by. A Dingo is sniffing at a 
dead wallaby, which has been deposited near the st< 

Another report at that time stated of this display: 

The whole is crowned by a talented scenic background of native flora 
and natural bush features, generally from the brush of Mr A Alder, 
taxidermist. Both the idea and the execution merit unstinted 
recognition. Prominent in the exhibit is to be seen the Investigator 
Tree, round which massive logs cling so much of the history 
and romance of Australian exploration 21 . 

The Investigator Tree, donated by the Port Office in 1889, is, in fact, 
only one log — the 3 metre long portion of the trunk from Sweer's Island, 
Gulf of Carpentaria. It was incised during the beaching of Captain 
Matthew Flinders' ship, the Investigator, in 1802; and a later incision, 
Beagle 1841, was added by one of the members of Charles Darwin's historic 
and scientifically important zoological and botanical expedition. As well as 
those inscriptions there are Chinese characters and other indistinct 
engravings. This diorama had its name changed to The Aboriginal Camp 
Site when it was refurbished in the mid 1960s. The dingo and pups were 
replaced with newly-mounted specimens and the Investigator Tree, 
removed to became a key exhibit in an historical display entitled 
Discovering the Way, was replaced with a similar-sized burnt log. 

Hamlyn-Harris and his staff produced several room-sized group 
displays of Australian and particularly Queensland mammals and birds. 
Adjoining each other on the side of the main hall opposite the Aboriginal 
diorama there were four semi-diorama animal groups that had large 
painted backgrounds and side panels made of canvas stretched to wooden 


frames. Alder, assisted by Colclough, painted the scenic panels with oil 
colours thinly applied. These groups featured, separately, kangaroos and 
wallabies, possums, wombats and carnivorous marsupials including a 
Tasmanian tiger, and a group of emus with chicks. Irish peat, imported in 
blocks about the size of bricks, was used in all these early dioramas in the 
construction of rock and ground forms. The earth surrounds consisted of 
peat fragments, and peat dust was always a problem as the dust lodged on 
the painted Aboriginal casts and on the specimens and accessories. 

At this time Henry Hacker, the capable entomologist appointed in 
1911, began to make an excellent series of insect life-histories. His insect 
displays included beautiful photomicrographs carefully arranged in table 


■ jjpjfc 


,;*%*# ■*; & 

It was the developing talent of Thomas C. Marshall, who had trained 
with Alder and Colclough and later studied art under the gifted artist, 
potter and woodcarver L.J. Harvey at the Central Technology College, that 
paved the way for the advances in the displays between 1920 and 1940 — 
during H.A. Longman's tenure as director. Although Marshall was 
associated with Alder for only a few years he certainly was greatly 
influenced by him. In 1925, under Longman's direction, Marshall created 
the Limestone Cave diorama based on the Chillagoe Caves in north 
Queensland. Described by The Queenslander at that time as a 'Geological 
Fairyland', it was built in the top of a disused staircase. Some actual 
stalactites and stalagmites were used but most were created by modelling 
them in plaster, cement, expanded metal and powdered glass. Part of the 
success of this exhibit, has been the result of the element of mystery that 
its creator achieved. It was an open display and often, when the attendant's 
back was turned, children entered to discover its secrets. In consequence, 
the cave became run-down and was closed about 1950. In 1965, 
refurbished, with two false vampire bats mounted and set-up on the 
'limestone walls', concealed fluorescent lighting installed, and glazed with 

Possums and tree-climbing marsupials- 
one of a group of dioramas prepared by 
Alder under Hamlyn-Harris' direction 
(photograph from the Queenslander 31 
January 1914). 


The ground floor display gallery in the 
Exhibition building in the 1930s. 

sloping glass to avoid reflections it was, again, a success. Recently, two 
small boys stood in front of the display and one, bending over and peering 
in, called to the other 'Betcha don't know where this cave ends?'. 'I do- 
comes out at Jenolan Caves at Sydney' was the reply. 

The Coral Pool diorama, created in 1928, was Marshall's next success. 
It was built at the western end of the main hall and featured ridges of 24 
species of coral, a giant clam with the shell valves open showing the purple 
body and colourful painted casts of fish, sea-fans, starfish, sea-urchins and 
other marine forms. Sadly, it was dismantled in 1955 to make space for 
another display. Marshall made models of whales, casts of fossil bones and 
a very fine series of fish casts which he painted himself. Longman, with 
Marshall's assistance, was the first to exhibit some of the fossil bones of 
the Durham Downs dinosaur Rhoetosaurus brownei, together with a plaster 
cast skull of the great carnivorous dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex and an oil 
painting by Douglas Dundas which illustrated the huge extinct reptiles in 
their environment. Jack Woods, when geologist under Director Mack, 
reconstructed and improved the display in the 1950s and later the dinosaur 
footprint from the ceiling of the Rhondda Colliery at Dinmore was added 
by Bartholomai. 

In the late 1930s Marshall made two of the earlier films featuring the 
marine animals of the Great Barrier Reef, and he was one of the official 
photographers during the visit to Queensland in 1954 by Queen Elizabeth 
and the Duke of Edinburgh. There is no question that he was the key man 
in the better displays of the Longman period. In 1939 he was awarded a 
Carnegie scholarship to study abroad but was unable to take it up because 
of the outbreak of World War II 22 . He was transferred to the Department of 
Harbours and Marine in 1942 and in 1943 became ichthyologist in that 
department 23 . He maintained his contact with the museum and was a 
regular visitor. 

Ivor Filmer assisted in the maintenance of displays from 1944 to 1952. 
His keen interest in natural history persisted after he left the museum and 
he continued to send in road-killed and storm-washed specimens. While in 
charge of the Australian Inland Mission Hospital at Birdsville during the 
period 1957-1959 he collected more than 200 vertebrates, including rare 
and valuable mammal and bird specimens, some of which were mounted 
for display. He usually air-freighted the specimens from Birdsville to 


Brisbane and on one occasion he sent a live python, with two rats in the 
container to serve as food. However, when museum staff opened the box 
they found that instead of the python having eaten the rats, the latter had 
nibbled the python. 

Meanwhile, other important items that added to the diversity of the 
displays and attracted a new audience to the museum had been acquired. 
In the morning of 22 August 1919 Mephisto —today the last surviving 
World War I German Tank A7V Kampfwagen— was hauled into the 
museum grounds by two Brisbane City Council steamrollers. It had been 
recovered, disabled, in France by the largely Queensland 26th Batallion 
AIF with the assistance of the members of a British tank corps, who towecl 
it out of no-mans-land and protected it from subsequent, largely 
Australian, souvenir hunters y . The 30 ton tank, consigned to the 
Australian War Memorial, was diverted to Brisbane as a resuJt of the 
representations of Queenslanders and state officials, including the 
governor, whose aide-de-camp was, at the time, Lt. CoL JA Robinson, 

T.C. Marshall modelling the Pygmy 
Sperm Whale thai came ashore at 
Sandgate in 1933. Marshall is working in 
the basement area of the museum that 
later became the staff tea room. 

commanding officer of the 26th Batallion at the time of its recovery. About 
1950 Mephisto was cleaned and coated with boiled linseed oil to preserve 
it. In 1971 it was repainted by contract painters Smalley Games) Industrial 
Coatings and the history and technology section of the museum added 
further details in 1974. 

Another large technological exhibit was put on permanent display in 
1929— the AVRO Avian Cirrus, aircraft G-EBOV, flown solo from England 
to Australia by Squadron Leader H.J.L. (Bert) Hinkler (see Chapter 11). 
This single-engined aircraft, that made pioneering aeronautical history, 
has been a magnet for visitors, drawing people from far and wide. 

Longman organised the purchase of several large mammals from the 
London firm of Rowland Ward. The first, a magnificent female gorilla, 
arrived in 1927, and others followed— tiger, orang-utang, jaguar, cheetah 
and a male lion. The Queensland public were thus able to see mammals 
that could not be seen locally, as there was no zoological garden in 
Brisbane, and the purchase added a new dimension to the mammal 
displays. These excellent specimens were also examples of first class 
taxidermy— the first in the museum to have been prepared by the 


Donald P. Vernon, in 1946 soon after he 
came from the National Museum of 
Victoria. He remained on the staff of the 
Queensland Museum until his 
retirement, as ornithologist, in 1981. 

manikin method or sculpture-taxidermy. In this process the hollow 
artificial bodies were made of plaster reinforced with strips of hessian 
immersed in liquid plaster. The skin was then attached to the hollow cast. 
This was a tremendous improvement over the old 'stuffing' method that 
had been practised in museums for a very long time and which involved 
filling the sewn-up skin with one of the various plant fibres such as straw, 
hay or sawdust for bodies, and strips of reed or cane for legs. Much of this 
material was inserted by 'stuffing irons'— lengths of steel rod flattened 
and bent on one end and with a handle on the other. Several of these, of 
various lengths up to one metre, used to hang on the wall of the workshop. 
They were not used after 1946, for museum preparators soon were making 
excellent manikins under the tutorship of Donald P. Vernon, who had 
come from the National Museum of Victoria soon after Longman retired. 

Displays for Education 

Towards the end of 1945 George Mack, formerly ornithologist at the 
National Museum of Victoria, Melbourne, was appointed scientific 
assistant to Longman and succeeded him as director early the following 
year. Vernon, experienced in sculpture-taxidermy, casting and diorama 
construction was appointed as preparator in 1946. Like Marshall he had 
formal training in art and also in sculpture at the Melbourne Technical 
College under George Allen. In 1947 Malcolm E. McAnna was also 
appointed a preparator. He had been on the staff of the South Australian 
Museum, Adelaide, for many years and was an expert technician. The 
standard of displays that this team inherited varied from the excellent 
work of Marshall to many poorly displayed and out-of-date exhibits. Apart 
from the special attractions — Hinkler's aeroplane, the World War I tank 
Mephisto, the Australian Aboriginal Life diorama, there were also the 
Torres Strait mummies and the monstrosities case which always excited 
comment. The latter attracted viewers because of the bizzare mounted 
head and neck of a two-headed calf, a boar's skull with an overgrown tusk 
which circled back and pierced its skull, other aberrant skulls, hairballs 
from ungulates, a pair of scissors embedded in a tree trunk and other 
miscellaneous objects. Mack said The Museum is not a curiosity shop* and 
they were quickly removed, as were the many odd signs at the front 
entrance to the museum, one of which read 'Eating Peanuts Not Allowed*. 
The large eel on display required a new label to replace one that read 
*World Record Eel'— Mack was 'against sensational labelling' 25 . He was 
keen on educating students in science especially zoology and geology and 
at that stage very few secondary schools taught those subjects. He did not 
like dioramas and habitat groups, referring to them as 'just peep shows', 
and he wanted to present accurate, scientific information in a formal way. 

At that time the bird section had a very dated Edwardian appearance 
with hundreds of rather poorly mounted specimens set on artificial trees. 
Many, such as the ducks and geese, were badly faded and had to be 
destroyed. Similarly faded, and in very poor condition were the mounted 
monotremes and marsupials, which had suffered serious insect damage. It 
was really only the layer of thick dust on their pelts that kept the 
specimens' fur intact. In consequence, most of these were destroyed and 
their entry in the register is all that remains. Sadly, until Mack initiated it, 
mounted specimens on exhibition were not provided with identification 
tags tied to the specimens. However even had they been labelled it would 
have been impossible to rescue the specimens that were lost at this time. 

Nor were conditions in the galleries themselves ideal. In the year of 


Longman's retirement there was excitement and consternation, when at 
short notice, on 11 June 1945, the Duke of Gloucester decided to visit the 
museum, and on that very day the director was away sick. The duke 
arrived, dressed in military uniform with the duchess by his side. They 
were accompanied by the governor of Queensland, Sir Leslie Wilson, and 
his aide. The welcoming party, comprising J. Edgar Young, an honorary, 
Head Attendant Michael P. Beinie, and Ivor G. Filmer the young assistant 
on the scientific side, guided the royal couple and the governor around the 
galleries. The duke then signed an historic bible, donated by j- Wilkinson, 
the first member for Moreton in the federal parliament, It was the same 
bible signed by his father King George V when, as Duke of York, he 
opened the first federal parliament in 190 L According to Filmer, it was a 
dull overcast day and matches had to be lit occasionally to show the duke a 
specimen or to light up a label. Looking back one wonders just what the 
duke thought about a state museum where matches had to be used for 
illumination of specimens and labelling. The museum galleries were lit 
with electricity for the first time in their history only in August 1948. after 
George Mack became director-'. 

A worse problem was the rain water in the gallery during summer 
storms. It came through the roof, from perforations in the mortar and from 
around the windows and of course it ran down the interior walls. It was 
quite a common sight at such times to see distraught attendants heaving 
tarpaulins over table cases and placing buckets here and there To catch 
water from the main ieaks or spurts. During one storm in L947 water 
pQUted down the walls, behind the Ellis Rowan watercolour paintings of 
Australian wildftowers. This fine series on Australian Qora. that had been 
purchased by the Queensland government in 1912, was moved quteklj £d 
safe storage. Since that time some of the paintings have been displayed 
several times but only for short periods. Mack, with the cooperation of the 
Department of Public Works made a determined effort to make the 
building as weatherproof as possible and in due course the external 
mortar was repointed. He was adamant though, that the museum needed a 
new 'home' and he said so on every possible occasion. His idea was to 
'keep the old ship afloat' until a new museum could be built. 

Then there were the wooden floors throughout the exhibition 
galleries. The cleaning of the floors was a ritual that was religiously 
carried out every Monday morning and it was nor without a touch of 
humour. It was usual then to see a row of at least four women, down on 
their hands and knees and elbow to elbow, scrubbing away in a kind of 
leisured unison. There they were— heads down, bottoms up with their 
dresses tucked into the legs of their bloomers and woe betide any 
assistant who walked on their wet floor or who was audacious enough to 
want to open a table case. Of course, the galleries were closed every 
Monday for cleaning However, visitors could still gain access by signing 
the visitors book in the office. This was not something that Mack could 
change, and it was not until 1970 that the floors and stairways were sanded 
and Door tiles laid. 

From 1948 Jack T. Woods, who had been appointed as a scientific 
assistant and later geologist, began the improvement of the displays in the 
eastern end of the gallery. Under Mack's direction he organised new wall 
cases on The Pleistocene Period and introducing Earth History. Woods 
continued with the redevelopment of the Durham Downs dinosaur dispU;. 
first exhibited by Longman. Also under glass in a new case was the cast of 
the skeleton of the giant fossil marsupial. The extraordinary fossil skull 

Malcolm McAnna. preparator 194' 


Tlie museum's dinosaur display in the 
1960s. Longman's original exhibit had 
been progressively improved by Mack, 
W(K)ds and Bartholomai. A model of the 
gianl carnivorous Tymnnosaunts rex is to 
the left of a display of (he bones of 
Queensland's Rhoctosaurus bmwnci and 
l he footprints from the ceiling of the 
Rhondda Colliery, 

McAnna tfeft) and Vernon, colleagues 
from 1947. 

Cecily Sandercock, first artist in the 
museum, reconstructs a diprotodon from 
the cast of the fossil. 

the cheek-pouched marsupial Euryzygoma, which Longman had described, 
was the main exhibit in another new case. 

Vernon and McAnna mounted mammals and birds and cast many 
reptiles and amphibians. At first they also refurbished the old display 
cases and then, gradually, year by year, new cases were made by the 
Department of Public Works at the Ipswich Road workshops. In the next 
few years, several new or remodelled wall and island cases were 
prepared— two showing Aboriginal boomerangs and shields, three on the 
Great Barrier Reef, two on monotremes and marsupials and one each on 
human evolution and human physiology. Invertebrates of certain species 
were displayed in preservative fluid inside smart perspex containers that 
were made in the museum workshop. The art work in the early 1950s was 
executed by Cecily Sandercock who made a solid contribution to the 
displays. She was the first artist appointed to the staff. 

Mack wrote of these displays in the international journal Museum: 
The purpose was to produce an attractive, tasteful and dignified display, 
one that would catch the eye and hold the attention of the visitor'"*. He 
had a text book attitude to display content and was hard to convince on the 
use of colour and imaginative design, but he certainly was keen to aid 
students of all ages. In the same article he wrote '... visitors remark upon 
what they learn from the bright, well lit, methodically arranged exhibits. 
Classes of school children and other well organised public bodies can 
readily follow talks given in front of these cases'. For several years Mack 
and Shirley B. Gunn lectured in the front section of the main hall where 
the Great Barrier Reef cases, lit with fluorescent lighting, were arranged 
in an arc, 

A valuable contribution to displays in the museum was made by 
McAnna, especially between 1950 and 1970. He was skilled at moulding 
and casting, and introduced the use of latex for moulds and casts of 
reptiles, fish and other animals. When very fine detail was required on 
small soft bodied specimens, such as frogs and toads, he used a flexible 
agar mould to ensure sharp and fine details in the cast. He experimented 
with the use of polyester resins strengthened by fibre glass and with this 
method he achieved first class results with his casts of sharks, rays and 
fish. The three metre high Sunfish that he cast in 1970 was his last.His 


untimely death the next year, while rescuing his three nieces from the 
surf at Noosa, was a sad loss to the museum. 

In an effort to obtain vertebrate specimens both for the study 
collection and for display, Mack organised field work that was undertaken 
by several of the staff following a period of inactivity due to decline in staff 
during World War II. The museum obtained its first vehicle in about 
1950 — a 14 h.p. Commer truck. It was used for the collection of specimens. 
The taxidermy at that stage was done by Vernon and Kent Keith, and in 
1960 Terence P. Tebble replaced the latter. An extensive series of reptile 
casts made by McAnna was painted in oil-colours by several staff artists - 
especially Valerie Smeed from 1950 to 1956 and Rhyl Jones from 1958 to 
1962. They later became well known artists as Valerie Waring, a 
watercolourist and Rhyl Hinwood, a sculptor celebrated for her grotesque 
heads in Helidon sandstone in the Great Court of the University of 

Although he was seven years too early, Mack organised a special 
exhibition on the Centenary of the Queensland Museum in 1955 27 . Two 



1 1 

m A 

f | j 


Temporary wildflower display, mid- 
1960s. Above: the display set up at the 
end of the ground floor gallery; below : 
visitors examine the exhibits. 


Reptile models were made by McAnna 
(above) and painted by museum artists, 
including Lynette Evans (below) in the 

wall cases traced the history of the institution with photographs of 
directors, curators and collectors, art work and specimens — including 
anthropological objects from the MacGregor collection and birds collected 
by Broadbent. One section was used to show the extent of the museum's 
activities at that time - collecting, mounting, casting, photography and 
some aspects of the education programme. This exhibition was followed, in 
1959, by a much larger display on the Centenary of Queensland 1859-1959 
that consisted of 23 pastel coloured wall panels, two wall cases and other 
table cases which exhibited historical items and objects, many of which 
were loaned by the Royal Historical Society of Queensland from their 
Newstead House collection. The panels featured Queensland Explorers, 
First Settlement 1820, Permanent Settlement 1840, Queensland a Colony 1859, 
Early Housing, and Transport and Mining. There was also a panel of large 
framed historical photographs taken by Richard Daintree in the 1860s and 
coloured in London. The wall cases exhibited historical treasures such as 
explorer A.C. Gregory's compass; explorer Edmund Kennedy's sextant; 
the sundial from the homestead of Queensland's first permanent settler, 


Patrick Leslie; a box attributed to explorer Ludwig Leichhardt; the model 
of the Pile Light and many other relics. Mack wrote a well illustrated 
booklet entitled Centenary of Queensland Historical Exhibition which was 
popular with school children 28 . One of the central exhibits of the display 
was the large oil painting of Brisbane by Joseph A. Clarke which was 
painted in 1880 from the high bank of the Brisbane River at Bowen Park, 
New Farm. The painting was deposited in the museum by the Queensland 
government in 1882. It had probably been prominent on the wall of the 
William Street building and in 1946 it hung on the wall beneath the stained 
glass window on the western end of the main hall. Later, in 1968, it was 
displayed in the gallery. Unfortunately, this historically important painting 
had been prodded by visitors' umbrellas — no doubt while pointing to some 
familiar feature — and in addition there was some paint flaking. In quite 
recent times it was restored, a new frame made in the museum workshop, 
and it now hangs in the cabinet room of the Executive Building in George 
Street, Brisbane. It cannot be regarded as a masterpiece but it is a fine 
painting of Brisbane as it was 20 years before the turn of the century. 
Clarke was a resident of Brisbane in the 1870s and from 1881 he was the 
first teacher of freehand drawing at the old Brisbane School of the Arts 29 . 

Daintree's coloured photographs have also been displayed on many 
occasions. In 1877 they were loaned to the Sydney exhibition, along with 
some mineral specimens (see Chapter 14) and they were proudly 
displayed by the museum in its William Street building as well as in the 
Gregory Terrace building early in the 20th century. They were the subject 
of a special temporary display in 1977 and have been published by the 
museum as a record of the early pioneers of Queensland 30 . Daintree had 
arranged for the over-painting of these photographs— many taken by 
himself and some later ones of the Gympie and Darling Downs areas by 
Heinrich Muller— to be done in London when he was agent-general for 
Queensland. It is not known how many sets there were but there appear to 
have been at least three and probably more. There was one in the agent- 
general's office and another, from the 1871 Colonial Exhibition in London, 
remained in South Kensington for a while. The museum appears to have 
had one set early in the 1870s. There was a set shown in successive 
exhibitions in Paris, Vienna and Philadelphia. Apart from their historical 
value as pictorial records of Queensland in the 1860s the over-painted 


-• * 


(■' TO*-' 

Don Vernon preparing a specimen of an 
Australian Bustard Enpodotis australis at 
his camp near Springsure, September 


Stanley Breeden, museum photographer 

Daintree photographs are an interesting and curious example of a 
technique that flourished briefly at a time when photography was seen as a 
mere adjunct to painting. They were often embellished with details that 
were not in the original photograph— for instance an Aborigine or a 
kangaroo is sometimes added. Indeed, because of the coloured and 
obviously painted surface of the photographs they were long believed to be 

Many of the enlargements of other photographs exhibited in Mack's 
Centenary of Queensland exhibition were prepared by Stanley Breeden. He 
was appointed in 1957, succeeding R.V. Oldham. He developed expertise in 
natural history, cine and still photography and he took part in field trips 
photographing wild fauna and collecting specimens. Over a period of eight 
years he built up the photographic section and this became invaluable both 
in research and for display in the museum. Breeden's later photographic 
work achieved an international reputation. 

Influences from Abroad 

Following Mack's death in 1963 rapid progress was made by Jack T. 
Woods. Possibly as a result of an overseas study tour of museums soon 
after his appointment he brought a deal of enthusiasm to his job as 
director that infected the whole staff. He favoured development of 
historical and technological displays as well as the geological displays that 
to some extent had been neglected under Mack. Further, he permitted a 
certain flair in design and a better use of colour and arrangement than had 
hitherto been approved; and he sought displays that combined the 
information and educational emphasis that Mack favoured with the visual 
impact that could be achieved with modern design, materials and lighting. 
From 1966, with the appointment of artificer W.J. Balaam, display furniture 
was made in the museum, its design now part of that of the overall display. 
It certainly was an improvement on the standard cabinets which, up to that 
time had been supplied by the Department of Works from the Ipswich 
Road workshops. 

By this time there were additions to the staff and the new appointees 
became involved with the display design, usually under Wood's direction. 


To a greater extent than was evident previously these new displays 
reflected the new trend to use objects to communicate information on 
whole subjects rather than information on the object per se. John C. Hodge, 
the first education officer on the staff produced a display on the evolution 
of man. Bruce M. Campbell, newly appointed curator of zoology, planned 
the 14 metre long Sharks and Rays open display, with a new mollusc 
display built into the back of it, and an innovative skeleton gallery, that 
included two fine models by Tebble — one a human knee joint which the 
viewer could operate. Bartholomai, now curator of geology, organised Oil 
and Gas in Queensland, reorganised the minerals in a series of table and 
upright cases of new design, and used mineral and gemstone samples to 
demonstrate igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Woods, with 
Vernon's assistance, also organised displays on a wide range of subjects— 
Discovering the Way, Myths and Customs of Torres Strait, From Flame to 
Fluorescent and Focus on Progress. 

H.A. Sweetser, who had been appointed to the technology section of 
the museum in 1966, began collecting and restoring machines, wagons and 
a variety of technological items. Some old exhibits such as the model of an 
early stockyard, a draw-card with children over the years, was refurbished 


Innovative new displays were a feature of 
the mid-1960s. A Hammer-head shark, 
cast by McAnna— one of the early 
fibreglass models. 

and returned to the main hall. One of the large technological exhibits he 
restored was the beam engine from Lars Anderson's Sawmill at Esk that 
had been built in England in 1866, and from 1973 it was displayed in the 
museum gardens. 

Another historic aircraft was acquired that complemented the AVRO 
Avian Cirrus that had come to the museum in 1929. It was the AVRO Baby, 
flown by Bert Hinkler in 1920- 192 1 31 . As well as this tiny aeroplane, many 
Hinkler photographs and documents of great value — a dashboard clock, a 
pair of fur-lined gloves and other memorabilia— have been acquired and 
displayed through the determined efforts of E. Wixted, the museum's 
librarian and aviation historian (see Chapter 11). In a visitor survey carried 
out in 1977 by the museum it was found that Hinkler and his aircraft were 
among the most memorable of the museum displays 32 . 

Incorporated in the developing historical section of the gallery was 
Mary Beatrice Watson's water tank— a half-tank used for boiling down the 
beche-de-mer that her husband fished. It was in this tank that she, a 
Chinese servant and her infant son, threatened by Aborigines, fled their 
stone cottage on Lizard Island north-east of Cooktown in 1881, only to die 
of thirst on one of the Howick group of islands 33 . The display with her 


The restoration team led by Jack Kunze 
(standing on (ruck tray) deliver Bert 
Hinkler's AVRO Baby to the museum in 
1972. Restoration was funded by the 
Royal Queensland Aero Club. 

The Samford Bora Ground, a miniature 
diorama of the mid-1960s, the figures 
about 14cm high, designed by Eleanor 
Crosby and modelled and painted by 
volunteer artist Iris Nunley. 

Immortalising Queensland's fauna. 
Margaret Oakden recording colours 
while David Joffe {left) assists Tebble in 
the preparation of the mould. 

'if ^fmtfi 

II J 4 


portrait and other exhibits told the graphic story of her last heroic days. 

Another successful display of this period was The Samford Bora 
Ground based on an Aboriginal ceremonial area close to Brisbane. Both 
the background and the miniature Aboriginal figures 14 centimetres high 
were executed by volunteer artist Iris Nunley. 

When Woods visited London in 1965 he agreed to have prepared a 
large mounted Red Kangaroo for display at Queensland House in the 
Strand. Shortly after, a giant old man kangaroo of this species was donated 
by the Lone Pine Sanctuary, Brisbane, and gave the museum preparators 
an opportunity to demonstrate their skills. During the 1950s and 1960s it 
was not possible in Brisbane to have local tanners tan skins to museum 
standards — especially difficult were the important parts such as the 
eyelids, nostrils, ears and lips. Instead, the skin was chrome-tanned, as 
were other large mammal specimens at that time, in a special 44 gallon 
(200 1) tanning drum. It was electrically driven and rotated slowly to keep 
the skins rolling, thus shortening the tanning process. This procedure was 
followed by the addition of sulphonated neatsfoot oil to the solution to 
soften the skins which were then dried, sandpapered, softened again with 
oil, and the hairside cleaned and blown dry. The resultant skins were 
strong and elastic, had perfect facial parts and digits and were suitable for 
attachment to the manikin or artificial body. The specimen was mounted 
by the manikin method of sculpture-taxidermy. 

Present day large mammal mounting is sculpture-taxidermy. The 
cleaned skull, limb bones and pelvis are arranged on a steel armature and 
an exact clay or plasticene model is prepared with the musculature correct 
as it would have been in life. As the modelling progresses the skin is tried 
on and adjustments are made until life-like lines and the pose desired are 
obtained — a job requiring artistic ability. Plaster moulds are then made 
and casts of polyester resin reinforced with fibre-glass cloth are produced 
from the moulds. The casts are strong and durable yet thin and light. They 
are a considerable improvement over the earlier plaster manikins although 
they are hard to pin to, and pinning around the eyes and lips is essential in 
order to achieve good detail. To prevent drumming across concave areas, 
such as between muscles, pinning must be done when the skin is still 
moist 34 . 

From before the days of the Egyptian pharoahs, when taxidermy was 
a funerary art, plaster, clay and wax were the most commonly used 
materials for making moulds and casts. After World War II museum 
preparators were quick to take advantage of the new synthetic materials 
that were becoming available. In very recent years Senior Preparator 
Tebble and others of the preparatorial staff have been making moulds of 
the larger animals in polyester resin strengthened with fibre glass. These 
moulds are carefully prepared and the inside is treated with a release 
agent. A steel armature is set inside the mould, the mould halves bolted 
tightly together, and a two-pot mixture of polyurethane is mixed and 
poured into the mould. The foam expands to fill the mould, turning into a 
porous but fairly hard manikin that can be cut and worked on, but one that 
is also light and will take pins readily. Previously, both large and small 
bird bodies were modelled to the correct shape on a wire armature using 
sisal binding which was then covered with a layer of liquid celluloid, but 
now larger birds are also modelled in polyurethane. Many of the smaller 
birds as well as invertebrates are now freeze-dried without any other 
operation being done other than setting their positions. 

Flexible moulding materials such as resins, silicones, latex rubber and 

Vernon prepares a model of a Red 
Kangaroo, using techniques of sculpture 
taxidermy. The specimen was prepared 
for display at Queensland House, 
London, top: the mannikin; below: fitting 
the skin. 


The whale wall, set up in 1965. 

alginates are also being used. Being flexible, piece-moulding is largely 
eliminated and intricate shapes can be reproduced in microscopic detail. 
The moulds are typically thin, light and robust — many can be rolled up— 
and they are easily transported. In Australia, Tebble was the first museum 
preparator to use latex reinforced with cotton stockingette to mould large 
objects— the Winton dinosaur trackways, the Texas caves, termite mounds 
and the rockface of columnar basalt at Merrivale in south-east 

In 1964 a plaster model of a pigmy sperm whale that Marshall had 
made some 30 years before was being recast in fibreglass for conservation. 
As the original model was broken up for disposal a piece of plywood fell 
out with a message, in Marshall's writing, carefully written on it. Marshall, 
now an old man, visited the museum for the annual Christmas party and 
was told that a message of his had been found. He immediately knew 
where it had been found and recited the message — 'Longman is a B...\ 
Exasperated because of Longman's refusal to purchase 200 square feet of 
plywood for a case, he had placed the message in the time capsule. Some 
days later, he related, he was given the quick nod to purchase the same 
amount of material by simply and cunningly requesting a mere six sheets. 

A Modern Museum 

The progress that was achieved under Woods continued with renewed 
vigour as his successor, Bartholomai, stimulated by an overseas study tour 
of museums in 1974 — some five years after he had taken office — saw the 
need to improve the design section. From this time there were many new 
appointments to the staff in all sections of the museum. Between 1969 and 
1980 new displays were developed at an unprecedented rate, old displays 
were restored and modernized and there were temporary displays on a 
wide range of subjects— some being developed in the museum and some 
arriving as travelling exhibitions. 

In 1965 a 13 metre long skeleton of a sei whale, washed up by the high 
tide at Tin Can Bay, had been collected and prepared for exhibition in the 
Marine Mammals exhibit. Organised by Campbell, it was completed in 
1970, and featured the skeleton mounted against the silhouette of its body 
shape. Associated with it were various harpoons and other items of the old 
whaling industry. The four metre long lower mandible of a sperm whale 
that had been exhibited on the verandah for decades was cleaned and 
included in the arrangement. This was a 'touch' exhibit and wherever 
people could reach, the skeleton positively shone from the stroking of 


hundreds of hands. The public welcomed this and the exhibit seems to 
have suffered little effect from years of handling on open display. 

The Bird Hall was redeveloped over several years in the early 1970s 
by Vernon, who by now had become ornithologist. A large panel was 
devoted to Flightless Birds with cast portions of New Zealand moa and the 
cast of the huge egg oiAepyornis maximus from Madagascar. In close 
proximity were Australia's two large flightless birds, the emu and the 
cassowary. Several dioramas were constructed which featured the Golden, 
Satin and Tooth-billed Bower birds and the amazing diversity of bower 
construction. Backgrounds were painted by Susan Hiley, Mary McKenzie 
and Eloise Gehrmann respectively. A diorama featuring the male and 
female Superb Lyrebird and its repertoire of calls was also a part of this 
redesigned section of the museum. The background was painted by 
volunteer artist Mavis Vernon, wife of D.P. Vernon, who previously had 
painted the background of the Hairy-nosed Wombat diorama. The 
foreground rocks, vegetation, the lyre-bird mound, nest and egg were 

One of a series of small habitat dioramas, 
the Golden Bower Bird, developed in 

The Hairy-nosed Wombat, a display 
created in 1970 by Vernon, the 
background painted by his wife. Mavis 


The Durham Downs dinosaur, 
Rhoetosaurus brownei, spray painted on 
the wall of the gallery by staff artist, 
Peter Berryman, 1975. 

installed by Anthony Hiller of the preparation staff. The taped calls of the 
male bird were activated by a remote control switch which operated when 
the viewer stood in front of the diorama on two large black foot-prints that 
had been painted on the floor. On one occasion a confused man with shoes 
and socks in hand was noticed standing bare-footed on the foot-prints. He 
looked up rather sheepishly, and enquired 'Do I really have to take these 
off to make the birds call?'. Other dioramas featured the Noisy Pitta, the 
Crimson Chat and the Black Noddy with background paintings by 
Margaret McKenzie. In the finch display an innovation was the inclusion 
in the main label of a quotation from a poem by Thomas W. Shapcott 35 : 

A tiny spill of bird things in a swirl 

and crest and tide that splashed the garden's edge, 

a chatterful of finches filled the hedge 

and came upon us with a rush and curl 

and scattering of wings 

In 1976 Ingram and Campbell with Vernon had completed the 
innovative bird audiovisual display which featured several song birds 
including the Bell Miner, Pied Butcher bird, Whipbird and Kookaburra. 
The sequence was activated by a simple mechanical switch under the floor 
in front of the first wall case. As each bird species lit up, the appropriate 
calls were heard. Another section of this unit allowed the visitor to project 
any one of a series of 80 colour slides of birds. Nearby, the language of 
birds— in this instance the Noisy Miner— was interpreted in two wall 
cases showing how birds call and how they convey information to other 
birds of the same species by their body postures. Dr D.D. Dow of the 
University of Queensland, who had studied the extensive vocabulary of the 
Noisy Miner, gave invaluable assistance. From this time bird 'touch' 
specimens were also put on open display— such as a Barn Owl and certain 
specially prepared birds' eggs. Birds and the bird audiovisual displays 
were regarded as 'the best', the 'most liked' and the 'displays in which 
visitors spent most time' according to the visitor survey of 1977 32 . Perhaps 
people liked the audio-visual aspects of the display or perhaps they just 
liked the birds. 

Also in 1974, the curator of entomology, Edward C. Dahms introduced 


a touch of humour into Henry Hacker's old insect displays by redesigning 
them with coloured cartoon characters to communicate the story line * 

During the years 1970-1974 Michael Quinnell, curator of 
anthropology, organised 20 display units featuring various aspect- at 
Melanesian anthropology. Some magnificent specimens, many from the 
MacGregor collection, were selected for this gallery exhibition. Specially 
featured was a portion of the gable end of a Sepik mens' cult house. It is a 
striking design, with symbolic heads painted with earth pigments on palm 
sheaths joined together. Other items, such as the large wooden food bowl 
with fretwork handles from the Admiralty Islands, and the carved figures, 
some inlaid with shells, show beautiful craftsmanship. 

In 1975 Mary Wade, curator of geology, organised a complete 
modernisation of the dinosaur gallery including the Durham Downs 
dinosaur Rhoetosaunts brownei, that had originally been displayed by 
Longman and successively reorganised and added to by Woods and 
Bartholomai. A life-size mural painting of Rhoetosaurus was spray-painted 

on the wall by Peter Berryman, fossil bones collected at Taloona Station in 
1924 were displayed in the foreground, and a cast of the Lark Quarry 
dinosaur trackways was set up (see Chapter 7). The brick-red colour- 
impregnated polyester cast of the dinosaur trackways was first moulded in 
latex from the mudstone surface in the field by Tebble and assistants. 
Associated with the dinosaur exhibit, Wade organised a display on the 
Cretaceous Mamie Reptiles— a plesiosaur, a pliosaur, an ichthyosaur and 
some fossil bones of each from western Queensland, which, one hundred 
million years ago, when Australia was connected to Antarctica, had been 
covered by the sea. 

There was a new and spectacular development in the display of 
dinosaurs when, in 1976, with funds earned through a consultancy 37 , a life- 
sized fibre-glass model of Tricemtops was purchased from Jonas Bros . 
New York, for about $15,000. In 1978 a second model, of the carnivorous 
TyrannosQurus rex, was purchased for a similar sum with a grant from the 
Utah Foundation. Both models, exhibited in a prey-predator confrontation 
as may have occurred in the late Cretaceous Period, were set up in the 
museum grounds adjacent to the main entrance and near the tank 
Mephisto and the beam engine. 

Muriels Iruin Jonas Brus. New Wh, 
assembled in the museum grounds Left: 
utops, purchased in 1976 \L to R: I. 
Tebble, A. LWJhulurnui, R Campbell, M. 

I i. lb; abort': TyrOKnosaUTHS rex, 
purchased in 1978 with funds granted by 
the Utah Foundation. 


The last new display to be mounted in the museum's Gregory Terrace 
building was of Kingsford Smith's biplane AVRO Avian VH UQG — 
Southern Cross Minor— in which he had attempted his 1931 Australia- 
England flight. Wixted, whose efforts resulted in its acquisition for the 
museum, says of the aircraft 'that it is the sentinel to Lancaster's final 
heroic days and a symbol of the successes and failures of the pioneering of 
aviation' 3 ". 

William Newton Lancaster had acquired the plane for his attempt on 
the England-Capetown record. He left on 11 April 1933, but two days 
later he disappeared over the Sahara desert. In February 1962 his body, 
half buried in the sand beneath the wing of his crashed plane, was found 
by a motorised patrol of the French Foreign Legion. 

Wixted, already with the two historic Hinkler aircraft in the museum's 
collection, obtained information on the wrecked aircraft through the 
French Embassy in Canberra and in 1972 he involved Australian crews in 
the UDT World Cup Motor Rally, which was crossing the Sahara. In 
November 1975 a 14-member volunteer expedition— organised by Wylton 
Dickson, Australian organiser of the UDT Rally — set out from London. 
The expedition, in its two four-wheel drive vehicles located and recovered 
the wreck. Three years after— released at last by Algerian customs 
authorities— the remains of the aircraft reached London and were 
displayed there, at Australia House, in May- June 1979. QANTAS flew the 
crated remains to Australia. On 11 February 1980, the anniversary of its 
discovery in the desert, a display featuring the Southern Cross Minor as it 
was found by the French patrol 18 years before, opened in the museum. 

In the Exhibition building, continuing a tradition begun in the 
museum when it was in the old Post Office building in the 19th century, 
live animals have been displayed from time to time. There were live 
pythons and, from 1926, Queensland Iungfish, Neoceratodus, exhibited on 
the verandah of the exhibition hall. In 1946 freshwater tortoises were also 
displayed. One of the large aquaria used for displaying these specimens — 
the one for the Iungfish— was donated by the Bancroft family, the 
descendants of the museum board member of 1876-94. In a corner of the 
lower gallery, just inside the building— 

Errol Beutel (assistant, history and 
technology) and Robert Wood (attendant) 
contemplate part of the remains of 
Kingsford Smith's Southern Cross 
Minor- the AVRO Avian VHUQG, in 
which Lancaster lost his life in the 
Sahara desert in 1933. The 'as found' 
display of the crash site was opened on 
11 February 1980, 18 years after it was 
chanced upon by a patrol of the French 
Foreign Legion. 


Welcome Swallows (Hirundo neoxena) have nested every year for the 
last 15 years. They don't stay here all year, but leave during May and 
return in August to use a small mud nest in a corner of the lower 
gallery. The swallows are very noisy when they first return at the 
end of winter. For a few days they chirp and sing volubly, mostly 
from perches close to the nest. Then they become relatively quiet as 
the female begins to repair and refurbish the nest. She gathers 
feathers and grass, which she stores on a nearby cupboard. Mud, 
collected from outside, is mixed with the grass and feathers to make 
a paste with which to repair the nest. Soft downy plants and feathers 
are used for nest lining 39 . 



Latex mould of the Winton dinosaur 
trackways laid out in the museum 
grounds prior to casting in glass fibre 

The Future 

From 1978 the museum, now armed with the experience that many of 
its staff had acquired through visits to many institutions in Europe and the 
American continent, turned its attention with increasing focus and tempo, 
to the preparation of new displays to open in the new building in the 
Queensland Cultural Centre. Campbell assumed responsibility for the 

The planning of displays for the new building started before the 
building itself was defined. It was difficult to imagine what the displays 
should be like. The absolute freedom to select from many philosophies and 
approaches made decisions difficult. Most museum staff agreed that 
displays should be attractive and informative, should educate through 
entertainment, should proceed from the known to the unknown, should, if 
possible, be of interest to specialist and uninformed audiences alike, 
should appeal to young and old, should be integrated with academic 
curricula but not confined to them, should be for the benefit of 
Queenslanders and interstate and overseas tourists, should project the 
museum's image into the twenty-first century, and must be based on the 
objects in the collections — interpreting and placing them in a context that 
would lead the viewer to a greater understanding of his environment— 
both natural and man-made. A tall order, indeed. 

To plan and build displays, in the shapeless voids of a yet-to-be 
designed building, building blocks were needed. What, was asked, are the 


Preparation of cast of a meat ants' nest. 
Below right: washing out the latex cast; 
below: the cast prepared for display. 

units of a display— the units of visual excitement and information? 
Clearly, the object itself is the basis of the display— it has been collected 
and preserved as the irrefutable evidence of truth. However, to present 
this truth and to show otherwise unseen aspects of the object — its usage 
and significance — interpretative information is needed in words or texts, 
graphics or illustrations or by association of groups of objects to suggest 
relationships of form, function or design. Definition of the unit of display is 
also limited by the viewer's experience and subjective perception. From 
these considerations the unit can be defined as an Immediately Perceivable 
and Obviously Cohesive Assemblage of Material items — an IPOCAM. A 
catalogue of such natural assemblages of articles held in the collections 
was compiled. The only limitation was the size of the collections— and the 
lists kept growing. 

The IPOCAMS gradually fell into natural sequences— they could be 
laid end to end and tell the whole story of change— the earth and the 
geological history of Queensland with its fossil evidence of past life, the 
present animal life of Queensland and how its diversity has been achieved 
and maintained by a variety of solutions to the problems of being alive, the 
people of Queensland before and after European settlement and how they 
used the land and technology to improve their standards and way of life. 

It was now toward the end of 1978, the building plans had progressed 
to the stage where approximate floor areas were known and planning to 
lay out the 'grand story of the meaning of everything' began. There were 
three display floors. Working in sequence from the beginning, essential 
geology and palaeontology IPOCAMS could be fitted into the first two 
floors leaving the third floor for half of the animals. Starting from the 
other end and working backwards, post-European settlement and 
technology took up the top floor, pre-European peoples barely fitted the 
middle floor and again there could be only half of the animals on the first 
floor. Cutting the story back to fit the physical space left so many holes 
that the 'grand story' became incoherent. Some drastic rethinking was 
needed — it was now well into 1979. 





Visitor behaviour was surveyed and it was found that the average 
visitor spends less than two hours at the museum, at intervals greater 
than four years apart — hardly long enough to absorb the 'grand story' in 
its entirety. Few visitors came with specific expectations, and their pattern 
of movement from display to display was usually unrelated to any 
continuous theme — indeed they may not even have perceived the themes. 

Spectacular, magnificent, splendid displays in museums all around the 
world survive fifty years and more. If the major items and memorable 
displays have such a long life expectancy it is not surprising that the 
impression of museums is that they never change; and that having been 
taken to a museum as a child there is no need to revisit it until one's own 
children are old enough to be taken— as witness the experience of 
generations of visitors to the Queensland Museum who first had seen the 
Aboriginal Campsite as children. Had the galleries been large enough to 
show sufficient items from the collections to illustrate 'the grand story of 
life and everything' the new museum would be complete. There would be 
no need to change anything— and a museum that doesn't change is not 
worth a revisit. 

So, in order to remove any temptation to attempt the grand theme in 
the display design, the three display floors in the new building were 
chopped into fifteen rooms of varying sizes from 250 to 400 square metres 
and were called 'pods'. Each pod was assigned a theme on a completely 
random, arbitrary basis— on the lower gallery there would be 
photography, fishing and transport; on the middle gallery, engines, giant 
termite mounds, rat plagues and rainforest Aborigines; and on the upper 
gallery, Mesozoic fossils, minerals, birds and Melanesian anthropology. 

Because there is no logical sequence or association of themes, one 
pod can be replaced with minimal disruption— and looking to the future 
the commitment is to do this every few years. Regular visitors will then 
find two or three new pods every year and the number of regular visitors 
may increase; and, as they become absorbed in the contents of the small, 
self-contained pods with their simple, obvious themes perhaps the average 
visitor will spend more time at the museum than once he would have. 

The advantage of having a few well developed display themes is offset 
by the disadvantage of having to exclude many otherwise interesting 
themes for which there could be strong public demand. Many favourites 
from the old museum building, as well as new favourites not included in 
other themes, have been kept in one large pod. Another pod contains 
reference material — specimens, books, photographs, leaflets— on all the 
topics covered by the museum's collections that might be of interest. Here 
the public can learn to identify their own specimens by comparing them 
with the collections and can also consult museum staff. 

At the beginning of the new display programme it was realised that to 
create 5,000 square metres of display in four years was going to take more 
staff than the number involved in maintaining the 2,000 square metres in 
the old building. With some augmentation the strong preparation section 
under Tebble handled display construction and installation, but the small, 
capable art section had no experience of designing major displays. 
Architect R. Belcher was appointed to design building and display 
furniture and in 1979 the art/design section was increased from four to 
ten, with D. Bligh as senior artist and R.A. Coleman as designer. Coleman 
subsequently took over the newly formed maritime archaeology section 
and was replaced as designer by D.L. Gilbert. The south wing of the old 
building, formerly the home of the Queensland Art Gallery, was converted 

Preparing a cast of a termite mound 
Above: applying latex; Mow: removing 
the fibreglass jacket 


Mounting the cast of the Queensland 
dinosaur, Muttaburrasaurus for the new 
galleries in South Brisbane— a 'man at 
work' display in 1985, before the 
museum closed to the public. 

Paul Stumkat, cadet preparator, working 
on the cast of an Amberjack for the 
displays in South Brisbane. 


into an art studio and set-up area, with darkrooms and photographic 
studio— although the metal halogen lights installed in the six metre high 
ceiling, to dispel the gloom of the old building, cast multiple shadows on 
the drawing boards and were disastrous for accurate colour photography. 

As displays went into production M.J. Schofield, in the technology 
section's metal workshop, fabricated some of the components, as did the 
artificers, P. Quinn and D. Adsett. Although the old carpenters shed was 
cramped, all the woodwork components were prefabricated units, small 
enough to transported to the new building. Finally, in 1982, WA Brooker 
was appointed to the new position of electronics technician to develop 
microprocessor controlled modules for lighting, audio, video and 

In the early stages — between 1980 and 1982 — there were many false 
Starts. Displays were planned and shelved, planning processes were tried 
and rejected, but eventually effective procedures evolved. Concepts were 
proposed by curators arid later approved by a display committee, and each 
concept was developed, designed and transformed into a display by a 
working group consisting of a curator to provide information, select 
specimens and ensure accuracy; -i design artist; a communication expert 
from the education section; a preparator; and a co-ordinator to schedule- 
progress and report back to the display committee. A working manual was 
produced before each pod was constructed, and full working drawings of 
all components were prepared so that the architects of the new building 
could be kept informed of the requirements for room and case sizes. 

As each component of each pod Was produced it was inspected, 
approved, and stored in a warehouse at West End, To protect this huge 
investment in time, money, effort and skill, regular inspections of the 
stored displays were made to ensure that insect pests, fungus, and rats 
had not been active. 

Complete installation manuals were compiled for each pod. These 
included detailed drawings for assembly; estimates of time and the 
number of people needed for installation; lists of all materials— paints and 
tools— required; and they recorded the location of all items— constructed 
components, finished art- work, and those in collection storage or on 
display in the old building. Installation of the pods in the new building was 
co-ordinated with the fitout of the galleries by the Department of Works 
and each took eight weeks to install. 

Most of the displays being created for the new building were based on 
items already in the collection, but many of these were in existing 
displays. Efforts were made to leave the old displays intact for as long as 
possible, but by 1985 there were a lot of gaps. As compensation for the 
public and visitors, the big skeleton of Queensland's most complete 
dinosaur— Miittaburrasaimis — was assembled in the display gallery as a 
'men at work' exhibit. This preview of one of the spectacular items being 
prepared for the foyer of the new building, helped keep the galleries alive 
for a while. In the end, Bert Hinkler's AVRO Avian had to be restored and 
cleaned ready to be hung in the new building— which meant dismantling 
the wall holding the whale skeleton. Inevitably, and reluctantly, the display 
galleries m the old museum building had to close to the public and on 3 
November 1985, after nearly 85 years of continuous service, this occurred. 

The philosophy, content, production and installation of displays in the 
new museum galleries were thus resolved, The approach is innovative. 
For, although some aspects of it have been developed in other parts of the 
world, there does not appear to be another museum that has combined 


changing, semi-permanent displays of selected, non-related themes with a 
publicly accessible reference collection to provide continuity of coverage in 
all fields of interest. It will be an exciting time for the museum when it 
opens its new displays; and it is an exciting future that is planned to keep 
the people of Queensland entertained and informed. 


Views of the display galleries, 
Queensland Museum 1984. 




Previous page: George Mad: v. 
ot" teachers examining mammals 
tphotugraph (rum the Centner Mail 
18 April 19653, 

From the lime it was founded the members of the Philosophical 
Society met regularly to discuss the scientific papers one or 
another of their number presented, and today, to us, the titles 
ot these papers do not sound so very different from those in a 
modern scientific journal. The subjects demonstrate the 
interests that were the stimulus for the foundation of the society — the 
fauna and flora, the geology, exploration, the Aboriginal people, 
technology— in fact they were the subjects that still endure as the primary 
responsibilities of a state museum in Australia; Charles Coxen spoke 'On 
the Marsupialia'. 'Habits of the Regent Bower Bird', The Geology of 
Western Queensland', and the 'Komillaroy Tribe'; Silvester Diggles 
delivered papers 'On the Use of Insects to Man', 'Thoughts suggested by 
t he Theory of Mr Darwin', and 'A Trip to Cape Sidmouth and back' \ These 
papers were published in the Guardian so that the whole community had 
;s to the information that was being collected by the members of the 
society. As well as being able to visit its museum to view displays the 
community derived this additional benefit from its existence — it was a 
A expert information. 
As the museum developed, and its staff and skills grew, it replaced 
the Philosophical Society and continued to serve the community in these 
two ways: by displaying objects and labelled specimens that its visitors 
could study and enjoy; and by providing information, not only in response 
to questions put to it but also through newspaper articles, educational 
programmes and material rhat supplemented the school system, and 
through teacher training and adult education. 

The Visitors 

There is no record of public use of the museum while it was in the 
Windmill. However, in 1871 after the collections had been moved into 
Queen Street, in the centre of the town, and Charles Coxen had officially 
been appointed the honorary curator, lie inserted the following notice in 
the Government Gazette; 

Rooms in the parliamentary building set apart for purposes oJ a 
museum will be open to visitors from 10 am to 3 pm on Mondays, 
Wednesdays and Saturdays. Admission can be obtained by 
application at the Legislative Assembly Messenger's Room. 

Contributions of Geological and natural History specimens and also 
anything else of possible interest mil be thankfully acknowledged by 
the undersigned who will be happy to afford any information as to 
the scope and object of the Institution 1 ' 

The displays expanded— some into the Post Office building a little 
further up Queen Street, others remaining in the Parliamentary building 
for a short time until more space became available in the Post Office 
building. The newly appointed custodian was also government analyst and 
he spent a lot of time doing mineral assays. However, he must have 
devoted time to the operation of the museum, for regard and affection for 
it in its new Post Office site was developing and its role in the community 
was becoming established. On 28 June 1878 the trustees approved the By- 
Laws and Rules of the Board of Trustees oftfw Queensland Museum. Rule 12, 
under the heading 'Opening of the museum to the Public' stated that the 
museum should be open for at least 'five days in each week and for not 
less than eight hours in each day', It is probable that from the time it 
moved to the Post Office building the museum was open for six days a 
week, until on 19 April 1880 the trustees were of the opinion that the 
galleries needed to be closed occasionally 'for cleaning and rearranging 


specimens'. It was suggested that two half days a month would be 
sufficient. Curator Haswell— who always looked to Sydney for 
inspiration — said that 'the Sydney museum was closed every Monday 
during the whole day'. Apparently a compromise was reached and the 
museum was closed every first and second Monday until 5 September 
1884 when the trustees decided to close it every Monday. 

In 1881 there was a debate in parliament regarding a request from the 
museum to open on Sunday afternoons. Petitions opposing this proposal 
were submitted by church groups. In spite of the opposition the museum 
did open on Sundays and attendances contined to increase. The 
Queensland Post Office Directory for 1883-84 carried an advertisement for 
the museum, stating that it was open to the public on weekdays— 
including Saturdays— from 10.00 am to 5.00 pm and on Sundays from 2.00 
pm to 5.00 pm. These opening times remained until only a few years ago 
when Len Taylor, senior attendant since 1964, led his colleagues in 
successful negotiations to establish a special state industrial award for 
museum attendants. This made provision for weekend work in line with 
that enjoyed by art gallery attendants and made it possible for the 
museum to be open for 7 hours on each of the seven days of the week in 
the years leading up to 3 November 1985. 

Since 1881 the galleries of the museum have been closed to visitors on 
Good Friday, Christmas Day and recently Anzac Day too. Between 1884 
and 1970 the galleries were closed every Monday — except when Monday 
was a public holiday — for cleaning. However, access was still possible by 
signing the visitors' book in the office. The museum was closed from 7 
January to 15 March 1880 for the move to William Street; from 2 
November 1899 to 1 January 1901 when it moved to Gregory Terrace; and 
from 3 November 1985 to 2 October 1986 for the move to South Brisbane. 
The only other extended period when it was closed to the public was from 
20 May to 15 July 1919 during the disastrous Spanish influenza epidemic 
when the Isolation Hospital in the Exhibition grounds had been extended 
to the Wool Annex in close proximity to the museum's garden 3 . The 
museum closed on 17 January 1911, the day of its noted collector Kendall 

Ronald Ham lyn- Harris (standing left) 
with a class of deaf, dumb and blind 
children on the verandah of the museum 
(photograph from the Brisbane Courier 13 
March 1915). 


Broadbent's funeral. There also were day or half-day closures when the 
speaker of the Legislative Assembly died (11 March 1911); for the state 
funerals of W. Hamilton (30 July 1920), Sir Samuel Griffith (11 August 
1920), J. Page (11 June 1921), T.J. Ryan (4 August 1921), and Premier E.M. 
Hanlon (16 January 1952); and it closed on 22 January 1936 when King 
George V died. At the end of World War I it closed at noon on 12 
November 1918 and all day on 29 November 1918 for an Armistice 
Celebration. Again, at the end of World War II the museum had special 
holidays on V-E day (9 May 1945) and on 13 August 1945 with the news of 
the offer of the Japanese to surrender. When the Japanese did surrender 
(15 August 1945) the galleries were closed from the time of the 
announcement and for the public holiday the following day 4 . 

The museum has also been closed from time to time because of the 
age of the building and concerns for the safety of staff and public. It was 
closed for alterations to the ground floor for the first fortnight of June 19 1L 
After the Queensland Art Gallery had expressed doubts about the 
soundness of the building, before it moved out in 1974, the museum 
became cautious about the safety of its own display galleries. When the 
floor of the upper gallery seemed to be squeaking more than usual the 
galleries were closed until engineers confirmed that the floor was not 
moving. The galleries were also closed for fumigation of some display 
cases infested with the West Indian dry-wood termite introduced to 
Brisbane during World War II; and when a highly venomous rough-scaled 
snake escaped from its cage in the basement room of the curator of 
reptiles. Storm water flooding the galleries has occasionally been the cause 
of their closure— when the downpipes were blocked by a pigeon's nest; 
during the first Saturday of the January 1974 floods; and in 1985 when, just 
before 5 pm on a Friday afternoon, a sudden violent hailstorm broke 360 
windows in the building and the museum remained closed the next day 
while staff mopped up and stuck plastic sheeting over the broken windows 
to prevent further rain entering the building. 

From the time of the appointment of the first board of trustees in 
February 1876 some reliable indications of public acceptance of the 
museum are available. August that year was the most popular month with 
3714 visitors, probably reflecting the arrival of country visitors for 
Brisbane's first Agricultural and Industrial Exhibition. This August influx 
of country visitors is still a major feature of the museum's attendance 110 
years later. A display by the museum was also a feature at the National 
Association's Exhibition that year, pioneering a method of reaching a wider 
audience that is continued today. On the busiest day of the year in 1876 
there were 539 visitors to the museum. The total number of visitors for 
1876 was 28,202 — 16% of the population of Queensland at that time 5 . The 
museum was clearly enjoying considerable public regard and interest. It 
was attracting visitors, entertaining them, and perhaps even educating 
them. Certainly it was gaining support — but, of course, in those times 
there was little by way of regular free entertainment, consequently the 
museum, in a remote and raw colony starved for information and cultural 
activity, had virtually no competition. 

Prior to the construction of its own building in 1878-79 there was an 
active debate, through the correspondence section of the Brisbane Courier, 
about whether the proposed site in William Street, within a quick walk of 
the main business centre, or a site in the Botanical Gardens, where people 
with leisure time went, would best serve the museum and its public 6 . The 
shift of the collections to the new, very visible museum building in William 


Street led to a predictable leap in attendance. In 1881-82, the first year 
with full figures for the new building the number of visitors was 46,759. 

The highest annual attendance of the century was recorded in L386 
when there were 106,907 visitors. It was disappointing then, after 30 
years of growth in activities and in public support, that the financial 
depression and the devastating Brisbane floods in 1893 resulted in a 
decline in attendance to 53,342; and, with the staff reduced to three, there- 
was little that could be done to arrest the downturn 7 . There was a brief 
recovery in numbers when the museum opened in the Gregory Terrace 
building on New Year's day 1901— Federation Day. Getting ready for the 
opening, visitors' comforts were considered— the board instructed the 
director to write to the Works Department 'to provide refreshment rooms 
and women's closets'*. He was also authorised to obtain some benches [or 
the convenience of visitors. 

On 26 January 1901 Director de Vis, reported on the opening: 

Owing to favourable weather, numerous holidays and the novelty of 
the attraction the attendance of visitors has exceed(ed) expectation. 
8188 have been registered and it is hard to say bow many have 
escaped registration. No means of preventing access to the museum 
through the bush-house and corridor exist though the Works 
Di paxtaienl long ago received a memorandum from the Agricultural 
Department respecting the erection of a fence which would have had 
the desired effect. In the same memorandum the Works Department 

had brought under its notice the want of a Refreshment Room 

visitors are complaining greatly that they cannot get refreshments. 

On Sundays the attendance has been so large that it has been found 
necessary to employ a third attendant to perambulate the rooms and 
keep any unruly element in check 

In the Annual Report for 1902 the board reported that work day 
visitors were fewer than when the museum was in the city —'more than 
half of the visitors now being registered on Sundays'. However, one of the 
problems with the new accommodation was — 

the want of means of obtaining refreshment even the slightest, has 
been repeatedly urged upon our notice, and it has been more than 
once represented by us to the departments responsible for the 
neglect. We only regret that we had no power of DUrown to provide 
women and children with the means of so much as quenching their 

On 30 August 1902 the board decided that the incoming tenant of the 
cottage'— the carpenter J. Berry and, no doubt, Mrs Berry— would be 
allowed to serve refreshments 'there being no prospect of a refreshment 
room being provided*. There is no record of what was served nor for how 
long this continued. 

However, apparently the displays did not manage to hold the public's 
attention for it was not until 1915, after Hamlyn-Harris had revitalized the 
museum and had produced new displays, that the annual attendance went 
up again— to 75,031 visitors, notwithstanding the effects of World War I. 
Throughout the next few years there was little change in public 
attendance. In 1917 the figures were 70,154 y , Through the early 1920s the 
museum continued to gain popular support. By 1925 annual attendance 
had arisen to 106,024 almost back to the record level of 1886 — but it was 
now drawing on a much larger and more mobile population. That level of 
support has not wavered and in 1985, by 3 November when the doors 
closed to the public and the museum prepared for its move to South 


Brisbane, there had been some 250,000 visitors of all ages who had come 
for entertainment or for educational classes. 

The attendants are the staff members that most members of the 
public see when they visit the museum and they are therefore the people 
who are primarly responsible for public relations in the galleries. They 
have been and continue to be, for millions of visitors, the museum's hosts 
and unobtrusive keepers of orders — for they administer the museum By- 

Down through the years most visitors have come to the museum to be 
entertained and to learn. Just a few, apparently, did not come for that 
reason. On 2 October 1883 Director de Vis reported, to the board of 
trustees, the first case of dishonesty on the part of visitors — 

the bronze medal commemorating the opening of Epping Forest by 
Her Majesty and presented by the City of London has been stolen 
from the case in which it was exhibited. 

It was stolen just one month after it had been received. On 6 April 
1899 it was reported to the board that a man in possession of curios from 
one of the cases was arrested in the galleries but was subsequently 
discharged on a point of law. Most other thefts have happened after the 
public galleries were closed— the result of illegal entry. Gold specimens 
were taken in December 1888 and were never recovered. Favourite 
subjects for burglars have been the weapons collections— Japanese swords 
were taken and were not recovered. However the museum was more 
fortunate when an assortment of firearms carefully selected from the 
collection storage by a discerning burglar were discovered in an auction 
sale in Sydney. The museum had circulated its precise registration data on 
the missing items to hobby weapons collectors, one of whom identified 
them in the sale, called the Sydney CIB, and in due course they were 
restored to the museum. 

In the board minutes for 1 February 1895 it was reported that the 
museum was frequented by prostitutes for improper purposes. The 
trustees decided that persons suspected of so being should not be refused 
admission or expelled unless they were guilty of offensive conduct in the 
building. After the museum moved to the Exhibition building the board, in 
its annual report for 1902, observed that — 

By our removal from the centre to an outskirt of the city the 

Museum has become less accessible to street idlers and others, 

who made use of it as a convenience. 

A Source of Information 

In September 1871 Aplin entered into correspondence, through the 
pages of the Brisbane Courier, concerning reports on possible methods of 
formation of gold nuggets, over the address of the museum 10 . This subject, 
fascinating to the public then, as now, may mark the beginning of the 
history of the museum as a source of expert information in its areas of 
authority. At about the same time, perhaps impressed by this evidence of 
the services a museum could provide, a supporter, writing to the Courier 
under the name 'Cosmos' put forward a series of arguments for a proper 
building for the museum and for professional staffing 11 . In 1873, Staiger s 
first report as custodian indicated how much his services as an analytical 
chemist were in demand, assaying mineral specimens for prospectors who 
were actively searching Queensland for profitable mineral fields 12 . 

Back in 1881 the museum's library was advertised as being available 
to students. This service appears to have arisen because of the lack of a 



.'■■■ Bt*Kl fj«w -i vivid ttnjvtftioU f*f the tfwi nmrwjiiaU "''••'' J*"*" rvmumi 
unraNhci at Iiirfirt«,i- t ifaitinf; UtMrfcft and Ufrntifiwl t>) JUr. Wcftffr -' f>('8» WH 

public reference library, so the museum was meeting a wide lange of 
public needs and quite clearly was doing so capably. 

When de Vis became direptffl in 8582, the board of trustees Indicated 
in its annual report that the museum was helping schools of arts by 
undertaking for them the preparation and naming, for exhibition, of their 
collections of geological, mineralogical and zoological material. While it is 
not clear how many of the schools of arts throughout Queensland sought 
the museum's help in this it seems to have been the first attempt by the 
museum to spread its expertise and knowledge outside Brisbane. By 1888 
state schools were being supplied with collections of common minerals. In 
1889 a collection of 1000 mineral specimens from mines in Queensland 
were prepared for display at Dunedin in New Zealand but, for some 
reason, the collection was never sent. 

dc Vis, who was an active research worker, maintained contact far his 
hrsl i in office with his professional colleagues m other museums 

hi-m th< b ■■■ "■■"■■ tht .!■■■: m 1 1 has 
■ .Liti.ri informal it*n1 
the community Tt\ irtooni i pi ■■ i 
i..!,-, f bad ?pme conceptual difficult^ 

ling tbe vert< bttfl 1 1 ma "' iUc 
Darling Btntiu (cartoon fron I i ■ 

- Jul) 1020) 

A I) IM55. 

l^uecnshind Museum, 


tB°& en 'Park. [Brisbane. 315. 




SESSION 1915. 

"A Museum is a Consultative Library 
uf abject), uhere people can set for 
themselves the things of ulhich they have 
read in books," — T. H. Huxlcu, 

All Interested Cordially Invited. 

Admission Free. 

by correspondence. In 1891, the first number of the Annals of the 
Queensland Museum was published. This was the museum's first effort to 
bring its serious work to a wide international readership. The Annals 
continued to No. 10 published in 1911 when, early in R. Hamlyn- Harris' 
term, its title was changed to the Memoirs of the Queensland Museum with 
the 1912 issue. It continues today as the museum's scientific journal and in 
it appear the articles that record the work of its staff and of others working 
on its collections. The journal is exchanged for other scholarly publications 
from about 400 museums, universities and scientific institutions around 
the world. 

de Vis also pursued a very active public relations programme, 
corresponding with many persons and soliciting specimens and support for 
the museum. He made lengthy reports to the board at each of its monthly 
meetings and the proceedings at these meetings, together with his reports, 
were regularly published in the Brisbane Courier. It was a means by which 
the community became aware of the activities and expertise in the 
museum and it undoubtedly resulted in donations of material that 
expanded the collections. 

When Hamlyn-Harris became director in 1910 he embarked on a 
similar public relations programme as one of his measures to revitalize the 
museum. He corresponded with the general public and with professional 
colleagues throughout the world. He appealed in The Queenslander for 
public support for increasing the museum's collections and soon had 
interested people actively collecting a range of natural history material in 
various parts of the state, including Toowoomba, Woodford, Townsville and 
Maryborough 13 . In an effort to further improve the collections he issued 
appeals for suitable specimens by circular letter to members of local 
communities, and through provincial newspapers. Members of the public 
responded well and their letters — such as that from the manager of Prince 
Alfred Mine, Sunnymouth, subsequent to an article in the Chillagoe 
Standard, with information on an unusual lizard 14 — can be found in the 
correspondence files. Hamlyn-Harris also appealed for Aboriginal artefacts 
in a circular letter to the police inspectors in all police districts (see 
Chapter 10). 

In 1912 Hamlyn-Harris started a series of public lectures on natural 
history. These were advertised through the Field Naturalists' Club, the 
University of Queensland, schools and the newspapers. They were held 
once a month, at first in the afternoons but from 1915 at 8.00 pm on a 
Friday. They appear to have been well attended, for the museum was 
allowed to use the concert hall — still leased to Brisbane City Council — 
and other 'engagements of the hall (were) made to accord' with the 
museum's lecture programme 15 . Various museum staff and guest lecturers 
presented topics, illustrated with specimens, lantern slides and moving 
films, covering biology, geology and anthropology. Heber Longman was 
promoted to deputy director in 1912 and those he lectured to included the 
Toowoomba Scientific and Literary Club, and Kindergarten Teachers' 
College students. 

Until 1911 there were no organised school excursions to the museum 
but teachers from the East Brisbane State School, Kangaroo Point Girls 
School, and Leichhardt Street State School arranged visits. Then, in 1912, 
with agreement of the Department of Public Instruction, Hamlyn-Harris 
offered a programme of talks for organised school visits. For some schools 
the cost of travel prevented attendance but at least 13 schools, among 
which were Ipswich North Girls School, Leichhardt Street Boys School 


and Bowen Bridge Road School, indicated that they would be able to 
attend. In 1918 the lectures to school visitors attracted 26 classes from 18 
schools. Longman also gave a series of lectures at night to scouting groups, 
and extramural lectures were given to interested groups. For example, 
Henry Tryon, formerly assistant curator under de Vis and now 
entomologist with the Department of Agriculture, spoke to students from 
the Teachers' Training College on 'Food of our useful Birds'. 

Hamlyn-Harris' other innovation in this period of development of the 
museum's services were classes for handicapped members of the 
community. He himself helped when parties of deaf children visited the 
museum. It was a pattern that was to be repeated by George Mack in 1950 
with weekly classes for blind children and ex-servicemen. 

HA Longman was the first director to contribute a weekly natural 
history column to the Brisbane Courier. It began in 1918 and was a popular 
feature— and there are museum staff members today who had their 
inspiration to became naturalists from this column. Much later the 
distinguished naturalist David Fleay, an honorary associate of the 
museum, continued these nature notes. Tom Marshall also had a weekly 
fishing column in the Telegraph. Radio and television also became media 
through which information could be communicated to the community. 
Museum staff, between the late 1930s and 1950s, gave monthly talks on 
radio and in more recent times they have been regular guest performers 
on television especially in children's programmes. 

Apart from its scientific journal the museum's more popular 
publishing programme had a false start when, on 26 January 1901, Director 
de Vis tried unsuccessfully to persuade the board that, since his own time 



SESSION /y/5. 

The following LECTURES, illustrated 6y specimens, diagrams. 8tc, Will be 
?/ifen in the Exhibition Hall (next to the Qyeensland Museum! as follows 

Friday Afttmoon, at 3'30 p.m., APRIL 30th— 

" Native L'/e in the New Hebrides, " 

tft DOUGLAS rt/f/V.VH 

Fndpy Earning, at 8 p.m., AUGUST 27th 

Customs of I'ariou* Races " 

f'urt I Family Life. 

, tltuttraled u-llti l.iinttm Virm, ) 

Friday Afternoon, at 330 p.m , MAY 26th 

" Some Remarlfiblt Queensland Fhhc- 

Mt H A LQ ..: i 

\SpecimtHt Jcmuml'vttJ by Mr, J DougLn ' '■ '' 

Friday Earning, at 8 p.m.. JUNE 25lh- 

" iHitds and Hornet!:. 

fllluitrat'd With LilMtrn View.) 

P i tfitRLtY 


Frtdv f Event*-, at K p.m., SEPTEMBER 24th- 

"Customs o/ I'ariout Race; 

art II - 'Sochi Life, 

lltuilMltd UHttl Lmntrrn Tit-m., 1 


Fnduy Evening, at 8 p. 

OCTOBER 29th- 

" The Great Barrier Reef." 

i illutttaled uilh Lantet < I t M.J 

M» F. BACE. Af 5c. 

Friday Earning, at 8 p.m-. JULY 30th— 

Kjfc L'/e m the Sea." 

(Wuitntttd With L.mlcrn l-'tewi.) 


Friday Evening, at 8 /..m.. SOVEMBER 26th 

"Extinct Animuh." 

(tUuihttUd wttf\ Lantern MWw J 


The 1915 programme of a popular series 
of lectures that Hamlyn-Harris gave 
each year from 1912 to 1916. They were 
held in the concert hall of the Exhibition 


was best spent writing descriptive labels to 'improve the utility of the 
displays', it should employ some 'literary man' to write a guide to the 
museum. Much later, in 1939, a Miss H. Nowland was appointed for three 
months to write a handbook but this does not seem to have got far. With 
the exception of George Mack's booklet on the Centenary of Queensland 
and a small handbook on the Great Barrier Reef ib , publishing of handbooks 
began in the museum only after 1970 when the series Queensland Museum 
Booklets began. The series now includes works on a diversity of subjects, 
such as The Middle Kingdom: Pre-revolutionaty China, Eucatypts of the 
Brisbane, The Mud Crab and Queensland in the 1860s: The Photography of 
Richard Daintree. 

However, despite the organised programmes of talks, publications, 
newspaper articles and television and radio appearances, the most 
appreciated service performed by the museum may be the information 
that it gives in response to specific questions put to it. The earliest records 
of this activity are available for 1876*when the first board of trustees began 
keeping letter files. These reveal that even at that stage the public was 
referring to the museum a wide range of natural history inquiries, 
particularly regarding identification of specimens. 

This has continued to the present day— every week the museum 
responds to hundreds of letters, telephone calls and visitors requesting 
information. The queries come from members of the public and from 
institutions, including universities and government departments such as 
Customs and Excise, Primary Industries and National Parks and Wildlife 
Service. Possibly the greatest range of inquiries come to the history and 
technology section. In natural history snakes and spiders are most often 
the subject of inquiries but, as well, information on birds, molluscs, fish, 
jellyfish, mammals, other reptiles, insects, crustaceans and fossils is 
sought. For some of the questions most frequently asked free leaflets 
provide the essential information. As an extension of this service, museum 
experts provide information and specimen identifications, especially of 
snakes and spiders, for the Poisons Information Centre at the Royal 
Brisbane Hospital, other hospitals, medical practioners and ambulance 
officers throughout the state and at all hours. Valerie Davies curator of 
arachnology from 1972, and Jeanette Covacevich, curator of reptiles from 


1966 contributed chapters to the standard handbook on Queensland toxic 

organisms 17 . 

An Education Extension Service 

Apart from Hamlyn-Harris' efforts to develop museum programmes 
for visiting schools there was not any formal extension service from the 
museum, although it would have been welcomed by the Education 
Department, until January 1938. Then an opportunity to develop extension 
programmes occurred when the museum received a Carnegie Trust grant 
of £1000 for a two-year programme: 

to visit the Primary Schools of the metropolitan area for the purpose 
of developing the educational services of the Museum, of arousing in 
the children a desire for more information about the world around 
them, and of placing before pupils and the public generally the 
merits of the Museum and the advantages which would accrue from 
a close study of the exhibits housed therein w . 

W.F. Bevington conducted a museum 
extension programme funded by the 
Carnegie Trust. Opposite page; Bevington 
with a class of children from the East 
Brisbane State School; this page: an 
enthusiastic response from the class 
(photographs from the Brisbane Telegraph 
10 February 1938). 

The terms of reference were soon expanded beyond state primary 
schools to secondary and private schools. 

W.F. Bevington and A.G, Davies were appointed liaison officers to 
conduct the programme. Bevington had retired from the position of 
district inspector of schools the previous year at the age of 65. Presumably 
Davies did participate in the programme — however his contribution 
appears to have been eclipsed by Bevington's. The Telegraph reported on 1 
July 1939 that Bevington had lectured to more than 100,000 students 
during 1938 and referred to him as 'Brisbane Museum's Father Christmas'. 
As well as visiting the schools, Bevington devoted Fridays to working with 
groups which visited the museum. As a follow-up, these children were 
often required to give short lectures and write essays on subjects studied 
during their visits. Bevington also promoted the Queensland Nature 
Lovers' League which operated clubs in many schools to encourage 
children to care for animals and protect native flora. W.F. Bevington issued 
many hundreds of membership certificates for the League. 

It is clear that Longman cooperated with the programme— he wrote 
in 1939; 


I shall be very pleased to welcome a party i>f your boys (Young 
Australia League) at the Queensland Museum on the Sunday of 

Exhibition week at 3 p.m , as on several previous occasions We 

hope to be able to welcome the party of girls also, on Saturday, 
August 12 and perhaps Mr Bevington will be available on that 
occasion u . 

As well as his direct contacts with the children Bevington advised 
teachers on the teaching of natural history and the preparation and use of 
charts and specimens. In his annual report for 1939 he mentioned the 
possibility of establishing a teachers' museum and assembling a teaching 


The wide choice (of species) proVftS rather bewildering to the 

average teacher Could he but have a collection arranged by 

scientific men he would have much more confidence and then be 

likely to make a success of this branch of his work 

It is not clear when Bevington finished at the museum. The last 
record of any activity was on 21 June 1940 and he had certainly left by 
March 194 P. He died, aged 72, in Brisbane in January 1944 after a brief 
illness. The education programme he had developed did not continue until 
nearly 30 years later when a permanent education officer was appointed to 
the museum staff and a teacher, seconded from the Education 
Department, carried museum programmes into the state primary schools 
in country areas. 

Some school programmes continued in the museum, however. George 
Mack, who became director in 1945, instituted a series of lectures during 
the 1950s that were given in front of certain displays for visiting schools. 
The enthusiastic public response to these talks led to the development of 
questionnaires for children to answer in the display galleries. Showcases 
were numbered to link them to specific questions. After 30 minutes a bell 
was rung and children brought their questionnaires to the foyer for 
checking by assistants such as Shirley Gunn and Shirley Billing (nee 
Deller). However, by far the most important of his innovations were the 
holiday programmes. In the school holidays of January 1952 three weeks of 
talks, films and question time were first presented by Mack to over 3000 
adults and children. 

One idea of Bevington 's that was not so long in being put into practice 
was that of having collections for schools arranged by museum scientific 
staff. The museum had always lent material— duplicate or non-type 
material — to institutions, exhibitions and individuals for teaching or other 
educational purposes. However, in 1948 a formal loan scheme for schools 
began when two collections of named natural history specimens were 
assembled for classroom use; at first for student-teachers, but later for 
classroom use by teachers. In the early 1950s the Department of Public 
Works (at Ipswich) manufactured a number of wooden boxes for loan-kits. 
By 1965 there were almost 1000 requests for loan kits and the scheme 
continues to this day. 

Another programme to help teachers was developed during the 1950s 
when week-long refresher courses in natural history were presented to 
groups of up to 30 teachers. The government provided free rail passes to 
encourage teachers throughout the state to attend. 

An Education Section 

John C. Hodge was the first museum education officer. He was 
appointed in 1967 and was the only education officer for five years until 
F.D. Dale joined him in 1972. Before Hodge left in 1975, to become lecturer 


^ -..u 


George Mack with children (photograph 
by courtesy the Brisbane Telegraph). 

Shirley Gunn demonstrating a specimen 
of Cnironex fleckeri — the lethal Box 
Jellyfish (photograph from the Courier 
Mail 21 December 1954). 

Sir Henry Abel Smith (second from left). 
governor of Queensland, was keenly 
interested in birds, and organised this 
field trip to Girraween National Park in 
1965. With him (L to R) are William 
Goebel naturalist, local property owner, 
and friend and donor to the museum; 
ornithologist Hugh Innes; and Don 
Vernon. In the rock cleft is the nest of 
the Superb Lyre Bird (photograph by 
courtesy the Courier Mail). 


John Hodge, museum education officer, 
with a school class in the early 1970s. 

A touch specimen— the Barn Owl, Tyto 

in museum studies at Sydney University, he had established the education 
section and had developed a comprehensive programme of activities based 
on the museum's expertise in the areas of its responsibilities, and backed 
up by its collections of objects. 

When first appointed Hodge saw the education section as functioning 
not only to assist visiting groups and lend specimens to schools, but also 

advice and assistance on identification, preparation, preservation and 
display of biological materials for school museums. We are also 
concerned with evaluating current popular literature and biological 
supplies 22 . 

He was contemplating the further development of Bevington's ideas 
for the production of loan kits consisting of: 

a box which will contain specimens, black and white pictures, film 
loops, Kodachromes, work sheets and tape recordings would appear 
to be ideal. For example we could do one on the Barrier Reef, or 
Rocky Shore Animals or Aboriginal Culture etc. etc. 22 . 

In 1971 Hodge received a Churchill Fellowship for travel overseas to 
study museum education. He visited a large number— 73 in all— of 
museums, both large and small, in Canada, the USA, Great Britain and 
Europe during the period 14 May to 21 October 197L In his report he 
recommended, among other things, that short in-service courses for 
teachers— which had been regularly offered in the 1950s under Director 
Mack — be re-introduced; that teacher trainees be instructed in the use of 
museum resources and services; that the museum support research into 
education by its staff; that a comprehensive school loan service be 
developed; and that a sales outlet be established in the museum. Only the 
last recommendation was put into practice soon after and the museum 
now retails publications that have been assessed by its curatorial staff. 

The loan materials at the time Hodge made his report consisted of 
mounted animal specimens in boxes. Supporting literature or other 
material was not provided. Schools could borrow two of the thirty kits for 
one week. The museum paid the freight to the school and the school was 
expected to pay the return freight. Because funds were not forthcoming to 
expand the scheme to any great extent Hodge did not advertise the loan 
kits. Eventually, in 1984 long after Hodge had left, two technicians were 
appointed under the Commonwealth Employment Programme to develop 
and produce new kits. 

However, Hodge did promote the school programmes that were 
conducted at the museum. Actually, the scarcity of good natural history 
films for public programmes had prompted staff as early as 1953 to begin 
making their own, and an effort was made then to film every live specimen 
brought to the museum. Hodge developed this idea further and 
audiovisuals on a range of subjects were produced to form the basis of the 
school programmes. 

From February 1973 it was his policy to offer set programmes each 
term 23 . In 1973 eight were being offered to visiting schools and a ninth, 
Australian Transport, was being prepared. Programmes offered in 1974 
included Human Ecology, which provided a choice of two activities 
following the audiovisual — either a board game played by four teams of 
students, simulating man's various impacts on his environment, or a mock 
court trial concerned with sandmining at Cooloola. 

In June 1974 Hodge obtained, from the Department of Education, a 
colour video recorder and monitor for in-service training programmes and 


for educational purposes associated with school and teacher trainee visits. 
He also used these for new audiovisual programmes: Pioneer Life and the 
Coral Reef Ecosystem. The latter used four slide projectors and a 16 mm 
movie sequence, and was supported by a display of a variety of reef 
animals. The Pioneer Life programme featured a short drama written by a 
producer of ABC schools broadcasts, Jill Morris, which the children acted 
after seeing a 20 minute audio-visual about early white settlement in 
Australia. In 1975 three more audiovisual programmes were made, 
forming the basis of structured presentations to school groups visiting the 
museum. The topics were What's at the Museum? —a brief general 
introduction to the function and history of the museum, designed for 
grades 3 to 7; The Aborigines: An Appreciation of the Difference — on the 
culture of Australian Aborigines and their relations with more recent 
immigrants, for grades 6 to 10; and Australian Animals — a survey of 
Australia's fauna for grades 3 to 6. The first programme was screened to 
the public during the August school vacation of 1975, before being used for 
school visits. These presentations lasted about one hour and included a 
'touch' display of museum specimens and artefacts, and were followed by 
the students completing worksheets. In 1976 production was underway on 
a programme about the collection and interpretation of fossils. This 
featured the work of Michael Archer, then curator of mammals, studying 
fossil remains of the carnivorous marsupial, Thylacoleo, found near Alice 

It has always been the policy of education staff to emphasise the use 
of the public displays by students who visit the museum: The primary 
interest of any museum is its displays. Our educational activities revolve 
around the displays, and no group leaves without seeing some of them' 24 . 
Education officer Dale stated then that special classes or worksheets could 
be arranged for groups such as handicapped children and tertiary 
students 24 , but the limited staff and facilities often made it difficult to meet 
such special requirements. 

Children examine the fossil skeleton of a 
diprotodon, 1975. 




it* 1 *. 

jp- n 



A school class pays a visit to the 

The education extension service brings 
the museum to schools as far away as 
western Queensland. Here children help 
education extension officer Peter Webber 
repack the museum van after a visit to 
their school. 

Holiday programmes, recalling those first introduced by Mack in the 
1960s, were also presented. The first of a new style was offered in January 
1972. It was restricted to 12 year old children, who were invited to spend 
five mornings studying the history of paper manufacture and paper's uses 
including microscopic examination and specialist demonstrations. Children 
learnt to make paper by hand and visited the Australian Paper Mills works 
at Petrie. A holiday programme about fossils and dinosaurs was run in 
January 1977. As part of the week-long activities children constructed a 
cardboard dinosaur nearly 3 metres long. During the next few years 
holiday programmes offered the same activity each day for a week so that 
more children could take part. Topics included making aboriginal-style 
wood and shell implements, kite making, fence painting, gum-bichromate 
printing, and painting and drawing from gallery exhibits. Film programmes 
and story telling also attracted large audiences though the present 
education staff have tended to avoid activities, such as film screenings, 
that, unless closely related to museum displays, can more appropriately be 
presented by other institutions. 

Although many schools in the metropolitan area were using loan kits 
and bringing their classes to the museum those further afield could not. 
Therefore, in 1978, the director had discussions with the Education 
Department — of which the museum was then a part — about the 
reintroduction of an extension service. It was agreed that the department 
would provide staff to operate such a service, taking the museum — 
specimens, audio- visual programmes and activities— to country schools, 
chiefly those in southeast Queensland which could not visit the museum 
because of the transport costs and time. The museum provided the vehicle 
and all the teaching materials. The first extension education officer, 
Douglas J. Pauli, appointed in September 1978, had wide experience in 
innovation within the department as a science advisory teacher. In his 
three year term he devised a range of programmes similar to those offered 
at the museum itself but specially adapted to suit students in the 
classroom. Pauli completed his term at the end of 1980 and was succeeded 
by Greg Storey who, after a two-year term, was replaced by Peter Webber. 
Apart from its primary role— that is the use of museum resources to 
supplement school programmes— the extension service has promoted the 
museum in country areas by providing displays at country shows and 
provincial shopping centres, and frequently attracting the attention of the 
local media. The man from the museum' has become a recognised 
celebrity again, harking back to the days of Bevington. 

The teaching of Aboriginal culture in schools and the contribution 
museums can make to this has been a particular interest for Roger 
Hardley in the Australian ethnography section. To this end he forged links 
with those colleges of advanced education which train teachers, and he 
worked in close co-operation with the museum's education section, 
particularly with the extension education service. 

Turning its attention to older students, the museum participated in 
the work experience programmes that were introduced into some 
Brisbane high schools in the mid 1970s. Since 1978 the museum has 
provided opportunities for senior high school students to spend one or two 
weeks working in various sections as museum assistants. Because of its 
diversity of activities the museum could offer an extensive choice of work- 
experience in scientific, educational, art, preparation and clerical sections. 
In some instances these students have made useful contributions to the 
museum's operations, and many have subsequently returned as volunteers 


School holiday dinosaur project, 1982. 
Rhonda Scoullar, education officer (on 

Items purchased with funds from the 
Utah Foundation are featured at an open 
day in 1981. With the pennyfarthing 
bicycle is D.J. Robinson, curator of 
history and technology. 


during their vacations. Several members of staff were introduced to 
museum work initially through the work-experience programme. 

Now, in 1986, the new facilities at South Brisbane will make it 
possible for the education section to further expand its activities and offer 
programmes that supplement those in the schools and provide teachers 
and students alike with a range of stimulating material. 

Museum publications on sale at its 
bookshop in 1984. 

Margaret Oakden, staff artist 1972-80 
who prepared the series of mammal 
prints marketed by the museum from 


Entrance Foyer-Bookshop, Queensland 
Museum 1984. 



Previous page: The main street of Gympie 
mining town, 1868. 

The Reverend George Wight, in an address to the Queensland 
Philosophical Society on 18 May 1867, suggested that 'the 
appointment of a practical geologist* would be 'the best, the 
cheapest, and speediest means of guiding and aiding the 
development of the vast natural resources of Queensland' \ 
During the decade up to 1867 there had been gold finds in 
Queensland, drawing new settlers to the colony, increasing its 
populations and bringing dreams of wealth. Then, in September 
1867, alluvial gold was found at Cape River and the rich find at 
Gympie came soon afterwards. 

On 9 January 1869 the Legislative Assembly debated, and carried, the 
following resolutions: 

1 That the speedy development of the mineral wealth of the colony 
is a matter of the greatest importance and ought to engage the 
serious attention of the government. 

2 That, in the opinion of this House it would be wise to engage 
qualified persons who shall devote their services to the above 

3 That an address be transmitted to the Administration of the 
Government praying that His Excellency will be pleased to cause 
the necessary steps to be taken to carry out these steps 2 . 

So, in 1868 the Queensland government responded to Wight's 
suggestion and appointed two government geologists, Richard Daintree for 
northern Queensland and Christopher D'Oyly Hale Aplin for southern 
Queensland. The appointments were seen officially, and no doubt 
unofficially too, as being practical in nature— the geologists being expected 
to find workable mineral deposits that would boost state development and 
finances, rather than to investigate the regional geology of Queensland. 
This view of the practical and economic use of mineralogy would continue 
to dominate the development of the Queensland Museum's collections. 

The appointees to the government positions were both experienced 
geologists, Daintree had left the Victorian Geological Survey in 1864 to 
pursue mining and pastoral activities in northern Queensland. Aplin had 
originally emigrated to Australia in 1842 but had returned to England and 
studied geology there. In 1852 he had come back to Australia and with his 
brother had gone to the Victorian goldfields. In 1856 he joined the Victorian 
Geological Survey until he came to Queensland. He was then 49 \ 

The work that Daintree and Aplin did was essentially preliminary but 
the government was disappointed that there were no immediate and 
dramatic results and the survey was terminated at the end of 1869 2 . Aplin 
moved to Maryborough and bought a sugar plantation. Daintree continued 
his field-work until, in 1871, he went to London to arrange Queensland's 
contribution to the London Exhibition in that year and while there became 
the Queensland agent-general 3 . 

Minerals for Miners 

In the debate in the Legislative Assembly on 17 June 1869 that followed 
the termination of the geological surveys, the proposition was put that — 

it is desirable to establish, in Brisbane, a museum and 

laboratory for the purposes of collecting and exhibiting and 

analysing, when required, all minerals, forwarded to the institution 2 . 

The purpose of the museum would be to— 

incubate a love for information upon the subject of our own 

resources, and interest the people in these subjects, which were 

of the greatest advantage to the colony 2 . 


The speaker— the member for Maryborough, W.H. Walsh, who 
became secretary for Public Works in 1872-3— drew attention to the 
benefits that New Zealand had derived from its Colonial Museum. 
Members enthusiastically supported the museum proposal and D'Oyly 
Aplin's name was mentioned in connection with it. It was not until 1870 
that £100 was set aside to establish the museum. In the same session there 
was a resolution to spend £1000 on 'Specimens of Gold and Auriferous 
Quartz from the Queensland Gold Fields to be sent to the Exhibition in 
London' 4 — no doubt to advertise the colony. 

On 1 June 1871 D'Oyly Aplin, having heard of the vote of £100 to set 
up the mineralogical museum, wrote to the minister of Public Works 
offering to undertake the work and his offer was accepted. He completed 
the job by 6 September 1871 but had spent most of the £100 on materials 5 . 
On requesting payment for his work, he was instructed to hand the 
collections to Charles Coxen, the honorary curator of the museum (see 
Chapters 3, 4). Aplin was never paid 2 . Although he later received a 
government appointment, as police magistrate in charge of the settlement 
at Somerset near Cape York, it was not until September 1874 \ 

At the beginning of 1873 K.T. Staiger was appointed as custodian of 
the museum and government analytical chemist, a combination of duties 
that may have given rise to the view that the museum 'emanated noxious 
gases' 6 . Certainly the combination reflected the practical situation seen as 
existing between mineral collections, the economic value of minerals and 
assistance to prospectors for much of Staiger's chemical work was mineral 
assaying. He took over the two small rooms in the old Parliamentary 
building in which the museum was then housed, but soon obtained the use 
of rooms in the nearby old Post Office building 7 . A mineral display was 
set up in one and Staiger used the other room for his assay work. Richard 
Daintree, then agent general for Queensland in London, corresponded 
with Staiger concerning the presentation of the mineral collection, 
recommending the arrangement of specimens and photographs previously 
used by him in various international exhibitions, and stressing the 
practical economic significance of the displays 8 . To do as Daintree 
suggested Staiger needed yet more space, but when he got it it rapidly 
filled with general museum collections and Daintree 's plans for geological 
displays of Queensland were never realised. 

Minerals for a Museum 

The mineral collections under Staiger's care were not very large and 
attempts were made to increase them by donation, by exchange and by 
purchase. In May 1878 the collections consisted only of 300 specimens, of 
which 150 represented material apparently obtained through exchange 
with the Italian government. The Italian collection was claimed by 
Nehemiah Bartley who was a wealthy land-owner— his property included 
what is now known as Bartley 's Hill, a suburban look-out on the outskirts 
of Brisbane. Bartley had set up a private mineralogical collection which he 
had tried to sell to the government in 1874 9 . He had had some 
correspondence with the museum board regarding sales of specimens — 
which the board had thought were donations. The board had returned the 
specimens immediately 10 . Apparently Bartley assumed that this collection 
from the Italian government was in exchange for specimens he had sent. 
After considerable discussion, settlement was reached by allowing him to 
take 50 specimens 11 . Even though the museum collection of minerals was 
so small the board, on 7 March 1876, agreed to send mineral specimens to 
Oakey Primary school 

Richard Daintree, government geologist 
for north Queensland 1868-71 


With the move to the William Street building there was more space 
and a better presentation of the minerals and rocks was possible. They 
were displayed on the ground floor of the building and were classified by 
chemical composition, locality and economic use. However, the collections 

Still very small. Accordingly, a more active policy of increasing the 
mineral collections by exchange with organisations and individuals was 
instituted in 1880 by the curator. W.A. Haswell. This was not altogether 
satisfactory, and a geological collector, Alex Macpherson, was appointed in 
1881. However, Kendall Broadbent, a zoological collector of outstanding 
merit was available fat appointment and in May 1883 the new curator, de 
Vis, created a vacancy for Broadbent by malting Macpherson an attendant 
(see Chapter 3). In November 1883 de Vis observed to the board that the 
mineral collections were being neglected. An approach was made to the 
Mines Department requesting gold wardens and other officers to be 
instructed to forward mineral specimens, particularly of ore minerals, to 
the museum— but there was not a marked response 12 . Then, there having 
been a fire in the Australian Museum, the trustees, on 3 December 1882, 
offered duplicates from the Queensland Museum to help *the parent 

lj in recuperation of its loss". The offer was accepted. 

Larly in 1884 a direct method of adding to the mineral collections was 
instituted by again appointing a geological collector— H.F. Wallmann. His 
detailed list of dul ies included geological mapping as well as collecting 11 
Wallmann collected minerals, rocks and fossils in the Sandgale. Stanthorpe 
and Gympie areas and began a geological investigation of The Gympie 
Goldfield. However, the board commented on his travelling expenses and 
expressed dissatisfaction with the paucity of results. Wallmann resigned 
early in 1885 w . He did not part on good terms with the board. There was a 
b tophet D'Oyiy Aplin. government difference regarding maps and reports that the board at first insisted were 

ist for south Queensland !86«-6y. museum property 11 "'. However, this problem appears to have been resolved 

and the papers were returned to Wallman. He appears to have maintained 
a regard for the museum for he continued to donate specimens. Not so 
the trustees, who would not even consider reappointing him on the two 
occasions he applied, and also refused to lend him specimens. 

During 1885 the museum was represented on. and was involved with 
assistance to. the Commission in Queensland of the Colonial and Indian 
Exhibition, to be held in London in 1S86. /VW. Clarke, later to be the 
government mineralogical lecturer, was appointed by the Commission to 
Colled Queensland specimens, for, as Clarke pointed out in his preface to 
the mineralogical catalogue for the exhibition 'the colony has as yet no 
mineralogical department or collection to draw on for display on these 
occasions', This was both a reflection on the museum's collections and of 
board policy to allow only duplicate specimens out of the museum 1 *'. Some 
1400 specimens, all with a strong economic bias, were collected for display 
at the exhibition. 

Early in 1886 steps were taken to fill the vacant position of museum 
geological collector and E.B. Lindon, an associate of The Royal School of 
Mines, London, was appointed in May. Unfortunately, adequate provision 
was not made in the estimates for a travelling allowance and Lindon was 
largely restricted Co office work and maintenance of collections. Perhaps 
fortunately, de Vis had made provision for the purchase of a polarising 
microscope Lindon made only one trip— to Glenlyon to examine the caves 
and reported that frequent flooding had prevented deposition of fossil 
material ,7 . Lindon's main contribution in the short time he was at the 
museum was the preparation of a catalogue of Queensland minerals and 


localities, He resigned in the middle of 1887 and was shortly after replaced 
as geological collector by Henry Hurst who had earlier offered to perform. 
on trial without salary, the duties of clerk and librarian :H Hurst began 
collecting, largely fossils, on the Darling Downs. During 1888 he was 
involved with the preparation of mineral specimens (or the Queensland 
Court at the Centennial Exhibition in Melbourne and he travelled there 
to arrange the display 19 . Afterwards a considerable part of the material 
donated for this exhibition came to the museum. 

The records of museum board meetings during 1888 suggest that 
views of the practical use of mineral collections were still predominant 
The educational use of the collections was recognized in the supply of 
material for teaching purposes tu a number of schools'. The need for a 
laboratory for analysis Of specimens and practical assistance was again 
noted. At the end of 1888 must of the gold specimens were stolen from the 
museum's mineralogical displays- 1 and the loss was never overcome. The 
curator's report to the February 1889 board meeting assigns a higher than 
usual priority to the mineral collections. Due to lack of space, or the return 
of the specimens from the Centennial Exhibition in Melbourne, de Vis 
proposed removal of most of the contents of the zoological cases on the 
ground floor to make way for minerals-. 

In the 1890s drought, depressed economic conditions and industrial 
troubles had an influence on the museum and its staff and all its activities 
were reduced, 1891 was a particularly bad year— silverfish were defacing 
the labels in the mineral cases and Hurst, the collector, was dismissed at 
the end of the year. He never had inspired the board's confidence, 
although de Vis usually appears to have supported him. In the end he 
'abandoned his position', disappeared from Brisbane 'and was dismissed' 1 ", 

In April 1892 Hurst was replaced by H.G. Stokes with the title of 
mineralogica! assistant. Stokes had been donating and exchanging 
specimens with the museum over several years. A condition of his 
employment w r as that he should perform assays of mineral specimens 
required by the Mines Department and apparatus and chemicals were 
to be obtained 31 . At last a chemical laboratory had been re-established. 
Stokes' work was largely in the office, testing and reporting on 
prospectors' samples. lie was also involved with a number of exchanges 
with overseas organizations. However, in June 1893, with the reduction of 
the staff to three and the office boy, he was retrenched-'. 

Even under these conditions, there was still some activity with 
the mineral collections. Collections were prepared for exhibitions and 
specimens were received by purchase, exchange and donation. As a 
continuation of its educational service, a mineral collection was provided 
for the South Brisbane School of Arts in 1894 w . while in 1897 the museum 
loaned mineral specimens to the government geologist for display at 
Queensland's International Exhibition 1 ' 7 . Perhaps the brightest point in this 
difficult decade w T as the move in 1899 to the Exhibition building. At the 
time there was a proposal that the Geological Survey of Queensland 
should occupy the same building. However, each organisation felt that 
there was insufficient space even for its own need, and the proposal was 
not taken any further'* 1 

A Museum Mineral Collection 

Early in 1900, with the installation of the museum in the Exhibition 
building under way, J A Smith was employed to prepare the mineral 
exhibits. He is described as mineralogist and later as assistant in the 
industrial department. He resigned from August 1902, and was followed 




by J. Lamb — originally appointed as 'packer' for the move to the new 
location — who was a painter by trade 29,30 . Discussions were held with 
B. Dunstan, acting government geologist, about the possible transfer of 
Geological Survey collections to the museum but no arrangements were 
made at the time 31 . The Geological Survey collection was to come to the 
museum in 1979. 

With the appointment of R. Hamlyn-Harris as director in 19 IX there 
seems to have been more activity as far as the mineralogical collections 
were concerned. A new mineral register was begun and older material 
recatalogued. Hamlyn-Harris actively sought geological material from 
mines departments in other states. The museum supplied duplicate 
geological specimens to the University of Queensland then being set up 32 . 

After this there seems to have followed a long period when the 
mineral collection was more or less neglected. Staff from the geology 
department of the University of Queensland, particularly H.C. Richards, 
had an association with the museum in an honorary capacity 33 . In 1949 
J.T. Woods was appointed to the newly established position of curator of 
geology. This position naturally involved responsibility for the 
mineral collections, although he, and following appointees to 
this position, have been primarily palaeontologists. Woods 
was followed by A. Bartholomai (1959), P. Jell (1969), 
and M. Wade (1971). In 1975 responsibility for the 

collections was transferred to the newly appointed 
I curator of industrial technology — I.G. Sanker— 
on the premise that minerals are obtained 
from mining activities and so are 
products of industrial technology. 



Over the last 30 years the size of the registered collections has 
increased from 1800 in 1948 to approximately 14,000 in 1986. This has 
come about by the transfer of some 4000 specimens from the Geological 
Survey collections, by field collecting, by donations and purchases and by 
cataloguing of previously unregistered material. The federal government's 
Taxation Incentives for the Arts Scheme, instituted in 1978 to encourage 
donations to museums and similar institutions, resulted in the donation to 
the museum of extensive and valuable opal collections as well as mineral 

The museum's mineralogy collection is reasonably substantial in size 
and contains specimens of good quality and historical significance — 
collected by prominent geologists or from long abandoned mines. At this 
stage it is not an altogether comprehensive collection. It reflects the fact 
that it has never had the sustained attention of an appropriately qualified 
curator— a staff mineralogist— whose studies could identify the gaps in 
the collection and who could make it a complete archive of the mineralogy 
of the state. Although, in the early days, there was indeed great interest, it 
was a practical rather than scientific interest and many important minerals 
were not collected. Since then there have been attempts to increase 
holdings and to have technically qualified staff appointed and this did 
happen on several occasions. However, there were reasons — usually 
economic— why they never stayed long, and over most of its history the 
mineralogy collection has been treated passively— cared for, but seldom 
systematically developed and never the subject of scientific investigation. 
Thus, while some research on the collections has been carried out by 
outside research workers, there has not been a qualified and interested 
mineralogist on the museum staff and no research is being done within 
the museum. 

y* *.*-% ■* 

A photograph, possibly of his colleague 
explorer William Harm— taken by 
Richard Daintree at the Clarke River, 
northern Queensland. 





* ■ 

•>7L1,- ^V 


, ' f * 

^ ^2 








The young Patrick Leslie, one of the first 
setJ l^rs qo the Darling Downs. 

Ptwivus page: Fossil fish Pachyrhimius 
ffWatkonensis from the- Cretaceous 
AJhian. Boree Park Station near 
Richmond. The type is in the museum. 

A number of the early settlers who moved into the Darling 
Downs in 1841 were interested in their natural surroundings. 
Unlike many of the later immigrants they did not see the land 
merely as the source of affluence. Life could not have been 
easy, nevertheless they found the time to collect and to 
consider and discuss the significance of the specimens they found. 
Amongst the things that excited these settlers were giant marsupial bones. 
which the Aboriginal people knew to be those of the Gyedarra that had 
grazed around the water holes in the days of their forefathers. These 
bones were soon recognised as the remains of long extinct diprotodons. 
They are a link between the scientific culture of the newcomers and the 
folklore of the Aboriginal inhabitants of the land 1-3 . 

From 1859, with the founding of the Queensland Philosophical 
Society, we can glimpse through the pages of its Transactions, the group of 
naturalists that had gathered together in these early, formative years of 
the state. We can see the signs that the society was active and successful 
and that, from the earliest days, there were men and women to foster the 
science of geology, especially palaeontology'. Later, the search for 
minerals stimulated the government to an interest in geology and more 
fossils were found by professional geologists. However, mainly it was the 
collections made by the early settlers between 1840 and 1900 that engaged 
the attention of a succession of curators for whom the study of vertebrate 
palaeontology became a life-work, and that eventually made the Queenland 
Museum the home of vertebrate palaeontology in the state. 

The Philosophical Society 

Charles Coxen, an outstanding man in the early history of the state 
and a key figure in the founding of the Philosophical Society and the 
museum, was one of those early settlers \ Relatives of his, Patrick Leslie 
and his brothers, first settled the Darling Downs in 1840 and Coxen 
followed them from New South Wales soon after" 7 . He and his wife. 
Elizabeth (Fanny), were among the 15 or so settlers who discovered 
unusual bones on their properties. Frederick Isaac at Kings Creek, George 
King of Clifton, and R, Turner and Henry Hughes, were doing the same 
thing on their new properties 7 . In 1842 colonial surveyor-general Sir 
Thomas Mitchell and C. Nicholson reported the first fossils to come out of 
Queensland 1 - 8 . Others, including the few official surveyors and professional 
naturalists, such as Ludwig Leichhardt, the Reverend William Branwhite 
Clarke, Samuel Stutchbury, and Dr George Bennett all made their way 
through the Darling Downs in the 1840s and 1850s acquiring fossil 
marsupial bones and other geological specimens enroute *-*. Most of the 
bones and other fossils found in this early period were sent either to 
Sydney to the budding Australian Museum, or to London to Richard 
Owen, the doyen of British Victorian palaeontology. Many, however, must 
have been kept at home, proudly dispiayed.k or given to visitors. Some 
were undoubtedly given to the Philosophical Society — especially after it 
had founded its museum. In its first report in 1862 to society appealed to 
colonists far specimens and acknowledged the receipt of fossils from J.K. 
Wilson of Fitzroy Downs te . 

The Mineral Boom 

From the early trips of Commander Logan of the Moreton Bay Penal 
Colony, coal seams and fossiliferous limestone had turned up at Ipswich, 
and interest in the geology of the area had been aroused. By 1856 J.S, 
Wilson, geologist with the Northern Australian Expedition, had presented 


a note on the geology of Brisbane to the Geological Society of London ". 
Quite a few ol the members of the Philosophical Society, including 
Gregory and Tiffin, had given papers on geology. Coxen, though not a 
geologist, presented a paper for J.K. Wilson On the Geology of Western 
Queensland. They all recognised the need for professional geologists to 
survey the wealth of their colony and to investigate the content and age of 
thfi rocks as potential sources of minerals. In 1859 the newly appointed 
Queensland government employed its first surveyor-general, A.C 
Gregory 12 . He, joined later by an assistant George Phillips, began the 
arduous task of understanding the geological structure of the state. 
Expeditions were moving north all through the next decade, bringing 
back rocks and fossils. 

On 18 May 1867 the Reverend George Wight delivered an influential 
address to the Philosophical Society which was reprinted in the 
Queensland Daily Guardian™. He called attention to the pressing need for 
the appointment of a full-time government geologist; such a person was 
needed 'to guide ;ind aid the development of the vast resources of 
Queensland' by 'the best, cheapest, and speediest means' Richard 
Daintree, who had visited Queensland during his leave from the Victorian 
Geological Survey in 1863, was appointed to the position of government 
geologist for north Queensland in 1868 w . Daintree was one of the first 
geologists to make regular use of photography during field work— one of 
the many images he has left us is that of the giant fossil marsupial bones 
at Maryvale. In 1869 he sent specimens and photographs, via Minister for 
Works C.S. Mein, to the Philosophical Society museum. Attempts were 
also made by society members to influence government to carry out 
extensive fossil collecting surveys but to no avail - 

By the mid-1860s a veritable mineral boom was on in Queensland 
which led to the need for both a better understanding of the geology and a 
general increase in geological education. The staff of the Geological Survey 
w 7 as increased to two in late 1868 when Christopher D'Oyly Hale Apltn 
became government geologist for south Queensland. His field notebooks of 
1869-1870 are housed in the museum. A pencilled note for January 1870 
tells us that he placed his collections 'in the hall of the Philosophical 
Society in trust for the National Museum collection whenever such a 
museum is established'— the Queensland Museum is often referred to as 
the 'National Museum in its early annual reports 18 . Woods used the 
Thylacoleo specimens collected by Aplm in his review of this genus 1 L ". 
D'Oyly Aplin collected around the Downs and in the Stanthorpe region 
and his new assistant, T.R. Hacket, collected around Gympie. 

At the end of 1869 there was opposition to the use and costs of the 
geological survey, and Aplin's job as government geologist for south 
Queensland came to an abrupt end the following year. Howevei, I he 
Queensland government had finally decided to establish a mineralogical 
museum in the Parliamentary building, and in 1871 he was given the task 
of making a first catalogue of and arranging the minerals and fossils 
belonging to the government, which included his own and his assistant's 
collections (see Chapters 2, 3. 4). He completed the job in September 1871 
but failed even to get adequate remuneration for his amnion of the 
collection. He finally retreated to north Queensland, and to relative 
obscurity as a police magistrate Lq . Daintree also left his post as 
government geological surveyor for north Queensland in 1871 to become 
Commissioner for Queensland mineral exhibits in London, going on to 
become the colony's agent general there. 

Sir Thomas Mitchell, colonial survwor- 
general. who rtportisrt tl 
ml of Queensland. 

£xp|i*r»"T Un.lwig Leichhardl, who 

1 1 41' v ted fossils on the Darling Down's in 

IMA while preparing for his expeditions. 


Sheep on the Darling Downs— an early 
drawing (photographic copy from the 
museum's negative files). 

Bartholomai examining the banks of 
King's Creek near Clifton Station on the 
Darling Downs in 1962. Here, in the early 
1840s, George King was finding fossil 
bones of diprotodons. 

The Early Museum Collections 

Coxen, the first official curator of the Queensland Museum collections 
from October 1871, had little palaeontological expertise available to him in 
Brisbane, and sent specimens away to obtain information. Daintree's 
material went to London in 1873 as did some from the early explorers 
such as William Hann. Gerard Krefft at the Australian Museum was asked 
for help with identifications, as was the Reverend W.B. Clarke. Fossil 
plants were sent to Baron von Mueller in Melbourne. The oldest 
acquisition book for geology dates back to 1876 with a miscellaneous 
register back to 1873; in these and subsequent volumes there are listed 
specimens that were part of the 'old' collection in the Post Office building 
to which it had been moved from the Parliamentary building. 

Nineteenth century donations of geological material, excluding 
minerals, include quite a representative collection of British material 
demonstrating that some colonists maintained an interest in 'home' and 
that collecting was not a new activity for them 2 ^ 1 . Amongst the oldest 
recognizable donations in the collection today 22 are two collected in 1872 
by an expedition led by William Hann— one of the many expeditions 
during the two decades from 1860 that set out for the north 23 . Hann was 
accompanied by the geologist Norman Taylor. When prospecting up the 
Walsh River they found ichthyosaur remains in sedimentary rocks which 
they compared with the Cretaceous deposits of the Flinders: 





itfy-rir"- : " 





A more interesting spot for a scientific man can scarcely be 
conceived; here he is surrounded by the objects of his interest, they 
are under his feet like pebbles on the seashore, they are hanging 
over his head ready to crush him if not careful, he cannot move 
without seeing them around him on all sides; they were of all sizes, 
and numbers of them beautifully perfect; what, and how many to 
save was the puzzle, each new find exceeded the last one in beauty, 
until all the beautiful ones were sufficient to load a dray, could we 
have saved them, and, as I had not even one packhorse to carry 
these and the rock specimens, I was put to my wits end how many to 
transport. However, Mr Taylor and myself collected the best of the 
various species, which we were content to secure and carry along 
with us 245 . 

Jack records that a few were carried on 'and the remainder buried 
beneath the ashes of the camp fire' 23 . The specimens donated to the 
museum were 'two or three bones of the vertebrae of a large animal which 
were attached to each other by limestone' 2A ~ 5 and a fossil turtle 26 . This 
material represents the starting point for another of the strengths of the 
museum geology collection — Queensland Cretaceous fossils. 

Following Coxen's death in 1876, Karl Staiger, the government 
analytical chemist, who had been appointed custodian in 1873, was in sole 
charge of collections. Records of new geological material are few in his 
time but one illustrates the opening up of Queensland and its early 
mineral boom— a Mr G. Smith of Copperfield, an early boom town, wrote 
to Staiger from the central highlands sending fossil bones from his 
property, Granville. These were bones of the fossil marsupial 

The flow of specimens from the Darling Downs settlers also slowed. 
One of Owen's collectors, George Frederick Bennett— son of Dr George 
Bennett 27 — came to live in Toowoomba, presumably to be nearer the 
Darling Downs where his chief love, the fossil bones, were located. He 
gave a talk about Rambles on the Downs to the Philosophical Society in 
1875 and later donated a collection to the society museum 28 . He bemoaned 
the lack of interest and knowledge in the current landowners compared 
with the early days, saying they often mistook fossil bones for those of 
horse or oxen. 

Some new material from southern Queensland came to the museum 
from A.C. Gregory 29 who, in 1875, quit the post of surveyor-general and 
became geological surveyor for south Queensland under the Department 
of Works. From the museum's point of view it was no doubt useful to have 
Gregory appointed as one of the foundation trustees of the new museum 
in 1876. However, after his retirement in 1879 the posts of geological 
surveyor for the north and south of the state were abolished and united in 
the Geological Survey of Queensland in 1880 under the control of Robert 
Logan Jack who had been Daintree's successor in the north 30 . Jack initiated 
a collection within the Geological Survey itself and then less material came 
to the museum from this source. 

In 1877 work began on a new museum building in William Street. The 
first full-time curator, young William Haswell from Edinburgh, appointed 
in 1880, was a zoologist. Although he tried hard there is no sign of a 
sustained attempt to acquire fossil donations. They seem to have arrived 
rather haphazardly, donated by those who found them on their properties, 
or on their travels. One specimen that came in during Haswell's time was 
a bone of Dinornis, the giant flightless bird of the Pleistocene of Australia, 
donated by James Daniells of Headington Hall, Pilton in 1880. Alex 
Macpherson, later to be employed as a collector, also began donating 


William Harm, accompanied by geologist 
Norman Taylor, led an expedition to 
northern Queensland. They found 
ichthyosaur remains in sedimentary 
rocks along the Walsh River. 

Robert Logan Jack set up the Queensland 
Geological Survey in 1880. 


specimens in 1880. Other transactions at this time show that perhaps 
Haswell did not fully appreciate the significance of the old collection, for, 
in June 1880, 44 fossil marsupial bones from the Darling Downs were 
shipped to the Canterbury Museum as part of an exchange deal. 

Haswell resigned in late 1880 because of poor treatment and low pay. 
In January 1882. after a sporadic influx of applications for the post, Charles 
Walter de Vis was appointed curator at < lie age of 53; he was put on six 
months probation and an annual salary of £400. He remained in office until 
he was 75 and during his tenure he built up the reputation of the museum 
as a centre for vertebrate palaeontology 

de Vis' Era 

After a short time in Brisbane verting acquainted with his new 
collections de Vis began to get interested in fossil bones. This resulted 
primarily from the preponderance of collections of vertebrate material 
already accumulated from sources on the Darling Downs. In 1884 he 
separated off the fossil and mineral collections from the other collections 
and by 1885 could write— after another successful field season by his 
collector, Kendall Broad bent —that 'the number and variety of fossil bones 
gathered in the lasi two years has necessitated a thorough examination of 
the whole collection* 3J . So, despite little formal training, without access to 
reference material and with next to no library, he began to unravel the 
myriad bones before him. de Vis went on to work on upper Cainozoic 
marsupials, birds, turtles, lizards, crocodiles, lungfish, and Cretaceous fish 
and reptiles. 

One of his manuscript books remains which shows his lists of new 
names for fossil marsupials. It illustrates the quandaries he encountered 
and the temptations that existed to give every fossil a different name, He 
resisted those temptations, and most of the manuscript names that he did 
use have stood the test of time and very few have been submerged in 
synonymy. He often had large samples— a desideratum for good 
taxonomy— and he clearly understood the nature of intraspecific 
variation— his judgements have usually turned out to be correct 
He became a respected worker in his day and his opinions on fossil 
vertebrates, especially birds, were sought. He seems to have been an 
evolutionary biologist and this is illustrated by his inference in a paper on 
Darling Downs turtles that 'the chelonian division of the fauna accords 
with the others in declaring that since its remains were buried a total 
change has swept over the vertebrate life of Australia' '- — he found no 
fossil forms coeval with existing species. He also does not seem to have 
taken kindly a dedication to him in a book by a local teacher of geology, 
who undoubtedly had some dated ideas *, for in the museum's copy of the 
book de Vis has written to deny all association with its preparation. 

Of course, much of his time was taken up with running the museum 
virtually single-handed with little positive support from outside. He did 
much to foster acquisition and exchange of geological material — in 1882 he 
wrote numerous letters to initiate deals with museums and universities, 
both within Australia and overseas, and with the Queensland Schools of 
Arts— at Bundaberg, Maryborough, Cooktown, Charters Towers, 
Ravenswood, Gayndah, Mount Perry, Rockhampton, and Batesford Free 
Library and Museum. Several of these efforts paid off, and one collection 
of note which came by exchange from the University of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne is a representative collection of Carboniferous Coal Measure 
vertebrate material collected by Thomas Atthey 

For the scientific community of Queensland. 1883 was a high point 


with the Royal Society replacing the old Philosophical Society. This year 
also saw a high 10% of all donations to the museum coming to the 
geological section. The donors, many of whom recognised the significance 
of their finds, included residents of Brisbane of varying backgrounds and 
nationalities, amongst them some of the earliest free settlers in the 
Brisbane region including David C. McConnel from Manchester-" and a 
member of the Petrie family. Many of the donors were squatter-politicians 
such as Thomas Mcllwraith, Albert Norton, W.H. Corfield and Edward 
Palmer, some of whom roamed far in their early days as stockmen, or 
during election times 34 . Station owners, such as Ernest Henry of 
Hughenden, and their managers, land commissioners, surveyors, 
engineers of railways and roads, well- and bore-sinkers, and general 
travellers— usually professional civil or hydraulic engineers such as J.E. 
Falconer, R.E. Graham and Patrick Doyle — all collected material. There 
were also a few rare men and women who were actually out and about 
collecting fossils and rocks for their own sake, such as Gregory himself, 
and John Simmonds. stonemason, who specialised in fossil plants :a and 
was a staunch member of the Royal Society from its inception L \ The Ogg 
family continued to send material to the museum from the time that the 
Reverend Ogg took up land on North Pine River and found fossil plants. 
Later his relative E.J. Ogg moved north to Rockhampton from where he 
sent a steady trickle of specimens including some interesting 
Carboniferous blastoids (relatives of sea urchins and sea lilies) that were 
not to be described until the 1960s 36 . A. Williams and his son John found 
lungfish and turtle remains while sinking wells at Eight Mile Plains in 

de Vis found time to write many papers on fossil material and also 
instituted the Annals of the Queensland Museum in an attempt to overcome 
problems of publication 37 . Indigenous journals were rare throughout 
Australia in the 19th century and much local reporting of scientific 
meetings and new discoveries, including descriptions of new taxa, were 
given in local newspapers, de Vis, who had a journalistic background, 
resorted to this on several occasions using both the Brisbane Courier and 
the Queenslander. Later workers have sometimes complained of the 
extraordinary medium chosen for scientific announcement^. Now, with 

Jack Woods with a skull of Eury zygoma, 
the Giant Cheek-pouched marsupial 
(photograph from the Brisbane Telegraph 
•I November 1954). 


Fossil jaw bones of Macropus titan 
collected by Broadbent from Gowrie, 
southeast Queensland. 

the Royal Society Proceedings (which followed on from the Philosophical 
Society Transactions) and the museum's Annals, joined briefly in the early 
1890s by the short-lived Natural History Society Transactions, publication of 
scientific work was not such a problem. 

Robert Etheridge jnr, a palaeontologist from the British Museum, 
worked on many of the specimens with colleagues in Britain but also 
with Robert Jack of the Queensland Geological Survey 38 . Etheridge 
subsequently became director of the Australian Museum 27 and on several 
occasions acted as honorary palaeontologist to the Queensland Museum. 
He left a legacy of important described fossils, many acquired during de 
Vis' time as director. From the museum collection, a Carboniferous 
palaeoniscoid (ray-finned) fish and 'sharks' of the same age 38 were the 
oldest vertebrates recorded from the state until almost a century later. 
Some were found in the new rail cutting at Bogantungun by a Mr Sexton 
of the telegraph station in 1883. A shark tooth from the Rockhampton 
district, Deltodus australis, had been collected by de Vis himself. 
Etheridge, with Woodward, also described Cretaceous fish and reptiles 
from the western districts of the state 39 , and Plio-Pleistocene vertebrates 
including fossil teeth of the Queensland lungfish from the Darling Downs 
and elsewhere 38 . 

In the field de Vis was ably served by a few good collectors. Alex 
Macpherson had been appointed in 1881 as geological collector. In March 
1882 a man who certainly was one of the most able of collectors of his time 
was appointed. This remarkable man, Kendall Broadbent of Yorkshire, was 
appointed on a temporary basis only for nine months. He stayed on and 
began a series of field seasons liaising with settlers and collecting fossil 
vertebrates on the Darling Downs. On one trip he 'bagged' over 100 bones 
including new diprotodontids and nothotheres— according to de Vis— and 
a giant extinct bird Dinornis queenslandicus which was prepared by a Mr 
Daniells of Pilton 31 . Broadbent s reports to de Vis give an insight into the 
problems of field collection in Queensland around the turn of the century. 
Apart from the vagaries of weather and its effect on transport and the 
problems with Aborigines, the collectors suffered from the habitual lack 
of money and were continually having to prise resources from the 
bureaucrats several hundreds of miles away in Brisbane in order to 
continue. The last geological collector employed by the museum was 
Henry Gilbert Stokes, geologist and a prominent member of the Natural 
History Society of Queensland. He took up the post of collector for a short 
time in 1892. In 1893 money for paid collectors as such ran out and even 
field work was often out of the question in the economic depression that 
led on to the Great Shearers' Strike. The two collectors on the staff at that 
time were brought back to the museum to act as attendants. To make up 
the loss, de Vis had to rely on purchases, exchanges and donations. He 
fostered a group of men to collect for him from whom he would 
occasionally purchase specimens outright. Most of these people 
were collecting fossil bones on the Darling 
Downs. They included Henry 


Hurst— who had been a collector on the staff before his dismissal in 1891 
Richard Frost and C. Herman Hartmann. de Vis also kept sending out 
requests for donations and exchanges to all major institutions in the world, 
and, nearer to home, made acquaintance with as many people as possible. 
He contributed regularly to the few statewide societies including the Royal 
Society of Queensland and the Australian Association for the 
Advancement of Science. The museum archives show that he maintained 
regular correspondence with several interested landowners. One such was 
Frederick L. Berney, of Sylvania station near Hughenden, who for a 
decade or more in the late 19th and early 20th century donated numerous 
specimens to the museum, including several important vertebrate and 
plant fossils 40 . 

Donations in the first decade of the 20th century still included 
material from well sinkings. The Hon. J.T. Bell sent fossil kangaroo, 
diprotodontid, the giant emu Dromaeius and giant lizard Megalania 
remains from Warra in 1909. de Vis wrote: This well-section illustrates 
the (disturbed?) character of the bone deposits on the Downs, the bones 
show by their different colors and different original matrices that they 
have been swept together from previous burying grounds' 41 ; Mr Gore of 
Yandilla — 'one of the few who are alive to the interest felt by many 
besides themselves in the fossils of the Darling Downs— while engaged 
in watching the progress of workmen employed in sinking a well* came 
across bones of an extinct bird which de Vis went on to name PalaeoltsUs 
gorei m . Another interesting donor of this time is Charles Campbell, railway 
works surveyor, who over the period 1891-1911 was regularly writing and 
sending fossils to de Vis. These included diprotodontid bones and Silurian 
fossils found as he worked the new sections of railway. His letters 
invariably show a picture letterhead from the town where he was billeted. 
Antarctic rocks from the summit of Mt Erebus reached the museum in 
1909, forwarded by Professor T.W. Edgeworth David on behalf of Sir 
Ernest Shackleton. 

de Vis retired from office in 1905 but stayed on, by public petition, as 
scientific advisor to his successors. He continued to deal with geological 
matters, including his research, during CJ. Wild's period as acting director 
and during the first years of Hamlyn-Harris' tenure as director. He died 
quietly in 1915, age 86 and was hailed as a 'pioneer' 37 . 


Ubert Longman a* Hamlet. 
Longman's lectures, and articles on the 

evolution of raar wot* given ■ 

i iciice in the press, it was a l-upuUr 

subject ai this lime and Longman mode .1 

Epcual studv oi il (uirtuon h'uiii iht- 

ub< 1936). 

The Longman Era 

In 1911 Director llamlyn-ilarns had the foresight to appoint, as 
scientific assistant, a man with no professional museum or biological 
training as such, but who was a keen and able amateur naturalist 4 -'. Heber 
Albert Longman, before he entered the museum (as assistant curator), had 
specialised in insects and had made an important plant collection. 
However, with no formal training in geology or anatomy, he set to and 
became one of the most important practising vertebrate palaeontologists 
in Australia tor the several decades that followed. Longman elevated the 
Utation of Australian research on vertebrate fossils to the world arena. 
He became director of the museum in 1917 determined to continue his 
enthusiastic work on fossil bones— usually by working through his annual 
three weeks leave and on Christmas Day**, 

Longman's first palaeontological paper was on a fossil fish, Portheus 
australis, two specimens of which had been donated around 1912 by S. 
Dunn of Hughenden in resp< series of letters sent out by Hamlyn- 

Harris a . Tims began the museum's active research on Cretaceous fishes 
which is maintained to this day. In 1932 Longman described a new genus 
of Cretaceous fish, Ftinderskhthys denmeadi '\ named after the brother oi a 
young man who worked during his university vacation at the museum, 
Alan Demnead — later to be chief government geologist of Queensland. 

- of Kichmond, who later came down to Brisbane to meet 
Longman, had found the fossil on the golf links— 'the holy spot', according 
to W.E. Schevilt of the Harvard Exploring Expedition * 

In 1915 Longman turned his attention to fossil reptiles with a paper 
in the Mewoirs on a giant fossil turtle which had been donated by 
Frederick Bemey from Sylvania station. He described a new genus and 
species Cratochelon? bmieyi and noted that it was 'a matter of some 
surprise to those interested in palaeontology that the Queensland 
Cretaceous formations have as yet yielded comparatively few remains of 
the grant reptilian forms whirh chararierr/ed Mesozoic faunas' * Longman 
put this down to lack of systematic research in these areas. Over the next 
three decades he went on to describe ichthyosaurs; the plesiosaur 
Krou<- juemsldndicus* 7 , identified amazingly from only a scrap of 

jawbone given to the museum m 1899 by A Crombie of Hughenden; the 
giant sauropods Rhoetosaurus hrownei w and Austrosaums omcktllopr-'K the 
former found by Thomas Jack and a Mr Wood and dedicated to the station 
manager of Durham Downs. Arthur J. Browne, who sent the first pieces to 
the museum and helped Longman visit the Eurombah Creek site in 1926; 
and the crocodiles Pullwmarchits pollens de Vis, and Crocodilus nuthani 
named after the governor of Queensland at that time, Sir Matthew 
Nathan™'' 1 . 

Fossil marsupials ajso came under Longman's discerning gaze. In an 
elegant paper, he described and reconstructed a new genus Euryzygoma 
dunense from material de Vis had referred to as Nuthotherium" . The 
model, so admired by Sir Arthur Smith Woodward of the British Museum 
of Natural History"', had been made by Longman and his new assistant, 
Tom Marshall, with the aid of Portland cement and glue. More marsupials 
donated by Charles Campbell, by Thomas Jack of Dalby and N. Pearson of 
Nobby were worked on in the 1920s 4 ' 1 ' 4 . Longman also spent some time on 
the fust major cave fauna of vertebrates from Marmor Limestone Quarry 
near Rockhampton where he arrived in 1924 with the manager Samuel 

Longman did endeaA^ur to bring scientific matters to the public, at 


least in Queensland, through newspaper articles* 5 " 8 and lectures. He was 
also probably the first to give courses on vertebrate fossils at the 
University of Queensland in the geology department 57 t thus inspiring some 
local people to consider vertebrate fossils in their geological work. 
Vertebrate palaeontology had never been an integral part of either 
geological or biological courses at the University of Queensland, which had 
been founded in 1910— the museum being recognized as the centre in 
Queensland. Schools, however, had long taught geology and had certainly 
considered vertebrate fossils 33,57 . 

In the early 1930s Longman invited a young Melbourne geologist, 
Edwin Sherborn Hills, to take up the study of Queensland's Tertiary fish 
which had been turning up in geological surveys around the Brisbane 
region for about 20 years. Hills had recently begun work on fossil fish at 
Melbourne University and had won a research scholarship to London"*. Ht 
produced two papers on the Tertiary fish from Darra, Bald Hills and Red 
Bank Plains in 1934 and 1943 s9,80 . This work remains largely unreviewed to 
this day and only recently Anne Kemp, an associate of the museum, has 
been studying the Tertiary lungfish. 

Other palaeontologists were encouraged by Longman, as by his 
predecessors, to work on museum specimens. These included Henry 
Casseli Richards, the first professor of geology at the University of 
Queensland, and A.B. Walkom. In 1915, Walkom reviewed de Vis' work on 
plants and named Nilssonia mucronala, another of Berney's finds, this one 
from O'Connel Creek on Wyangarie, and described plants apparently 
collected by one of the few women who accumulated fossil collections, Mrs 
Lumley Hill of Bellevue, near Esk 61 2 . F.W. Whitehouse, of the geology 
department at the University of Queensland, did much pioneer work on 
the important Cretaceous ammonite collections which Robert Etheridge 
had not found time to tackle at the turn of the century. Among his type 
specimens are ammonites collected by Henry Hurst from Victoria Downs 
station, Morven, and Walsh River material from E.W. Smith 63 . 


Longman preparing the skull of 
Kronosaurus collected in 1935 froftl 
Telemon Station. Hughenden 
(photograph from the Queenslander 28 
May 1936). 


During the post- World War I depression years the museum was run 
on very stringent lines and there was little or no funding available for field 
work or research. However, Longman gave hospitality and assistance to 
two major expeditions which came to Queensland. Firstly, Australian-born 
Sir George Hubert Wilkins led a British Museum expedition in 1923-4 to 
explore the 'unknown' regions of north Queensland. He was pleased to 
receive museum and state assistance, eventually honouring Longman in 
the naming of species 64 . Although not the main objective of the expedition, 
fossil reptiles and ammonites were collected and sent to the British 
Museum, and some were later donated to the Queensland Museum 
(see Chapter 8). 

A decade later, from 1931 to 1933, the Harvard University Museum of 
Comparative Zoology Exploring Expedition toured Australia. For much of 
the second year Harvard geologist W.E. Schevill was expedition leader. 
He travelled widely, recruiting local help when he could. The Queensland 
Museum was offered the opportunity to participate but this was not 
approved— because of lack of funds or lack of interest on the part of the 
state government. Longman gave the expedition every assistance, storing 
specimens as they were sent to him, fixing collecting permits, and keeping 

The skeleton of Kronosaurus 
queenslandicus Longman, prepared and 
on display at Harvard University 
Museum of Comparative Zoology in 1959. 
Viewing the exhibit are the distinguished 
vertebrate palaeontologist Alfred 5. 
Romer and Mrs. Romer. 

up a correspondence with Schevill. However, the major consequence of 
Longman's inability to join Schevill was the loss to Australia of the first 
articulated skeleton of Kronosaurus, the genus which Longman had 
described in 1924 from a scrap of jawbone. This is one of the most 
fascinating fossils to come out of Queensland and its loss was a source of 
some comment at the time 65 . Later, Longman tried to persuade Harvard to 
return a cast of the restored skeleton but war intervened and this was not 
to be 66 . The fossil was found when Schevill came to hear of a series of 
large nodules in a paddock near Hughenden. Schevill's assistant, a British 
migrant whom he called The Maniac', had experience with explosives 
from his military training and, after initial confirmation that they were 
dealing with a large reptilian fossil, they decided to dynamite out these 
heavy blocks— 'The Richmond district took much more time than I had 
anticipated, largely because of some heavy lumps that were hard to shift — 
I had to use gelignite for some of them' 45 . They then dug a trench into the 


paddock to the lower level of the concretions and loaded them into the 
back of their Ford truck — which just managed to get them to the nearest 
railhead. The blocks were shipped off to Harvard wrapped in end-of-sale 
bloody wool, which so horrified the director of the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Thomas Barbour, that he made Schevill wash 
enormous block with disinfectant for fear of anthrax 67 . 

In 1934 Schevill asked Longman to send a cast of the original jawbone 
to compare with the new material, and his assistant, Tom Marshall, made a 
fine copy. Eventually the almost complete skeleton was prepared by T.E. 
White, and Kronosaurus queenslandicus, the species which Longman had 
first named in 1924, was revealed. It fulfilled Longman's predictions, based 
on only the fragment of the lower jaw, about the plesiosaurian 
relationships. The Harvard Kronosaurus was spectacularly mounted and 
displayed in 1959**. When this event was announced in the Australian 
press without a mention of Longman, Professor W.H. Bryan sent a cable to 
Harvard reminding them that Longman was the discoverer xAKronosautm 
and that it was a matter of regret that such an important announcement 
should lack any reference to the original discovery and to Mr Longman's 
masterly interpretation of the initially fragmentary material. Longman was 
certainly consulted throughout the early work on the skeleton but, 
presumably after Longman's death and with Schevill leaving Harvard to 
enter the world of oceanography, his contribution was allowed to fade. 

Longman in his letters to Schevill dropped several hints that he 
would like to see the Kronosaurus during preparation in the late 1930s 
but he never was to leave Australia. An attempt was made to send Tom 
Marshall to the USA on a Carnegie travelling scholarship in 1939"" 
However, with the coming of war Marshall was not able to take up this 
chance. Longman was naturally disappointed and not a little envious at the 
loss of the prize specimen, and it seems ironic that Kronosaurus remains 
inadequately known to this day. At least one large block of Kronosaurus 
and other reptile remains collected by Schevill rest, still unprepared, in 
the stores of Harvard University Museum of Comparative Zoology. New 
material collected in 1935, and by Bartholomai and Tebble in 1979, is now 
being prepared in the Queensland Museum. T.E. White did venture that 
the more common plesiosaur remains from Queensland were similar to 
the New Zealand Mauisaurus, but suggestions that this be written up for 
the Memoirs were not carried through 70 . 

\\M. S< hevill {left) with colleague R.H. 
Denisun outside Harvard University 
Museum of Comparative Zoolugy in 1983 
(photograph by courtesy S. Turner). 


I ; fldescrlbfcd Triassic cockroach from the 
Ipswich Coal Measures, collected in 1984. 

The Post War Upsurge 

There was a break after Longman's retirement in 1945 until 1948 
when Juck Tunstall Woods joined the Stiff, but from thereafter the holders 
of the euratorships of geology, mammals, and of the post of director have 
continued to lay emphasis on vertebrate palaeontology. 

Woods, a 1946 graduate of the geology department, University of 
Queensland, had been much influenced by Professor H.C, Richards, 
changing his course from engineering to geology. On joining the museum 
staff as assistant he was thus The lirst qualified geologist to handle the 
collections, and his appoinrmeni began a new era for geology in the 
museum. One of his first jobs was to clean up all the old geological 
displays and specimens, but after a thorough grounding in the more 
menial tasks of euration he took up the vertebrate palaeontology banner, 
working over de Vis' and Longman's material with the aim of a review of 
fossil marsupial genera 7 '. During this work he recognized the Pliocene 
nature of the Chinchilla buna and made the first thorough restoration 
of the skull of the marsupial lion Thylacoleo. His work on the skull of 
Thyiacoko camifex was the first truly modern vertebrate palaeontological 
study from the museum '\ He prepared the material with modern 
techniques, and provided not only accurate morphological data on brain 

and external structure but also an analysis of the function of 
marsupial lion teeth with an extrapolation about the dier of the animal. 
More receni work on tooth wear has sustained his conclusions 

Woods' first publication in the Ahtmurs was about a small fauna of 
Cretaceous crabs and tobsters from Currane station — a donation (torn 

anna Shannon (now Mrs Huessler) in the late 1940s r \ His work on 
the marsupials Pahrchestes, Propkopus and the extant HypsiprwmoiUw 
again went beyond basic data to functional morphology, and provided 
thorough (axonomic revision' 1 . Admirers of his invertebrate work 7 * 
implied that he had regressed from invertebrates to Cainozoie vertebrates. 

In 1949 Woods collected Tertiary plants and insects from deposits 

Brisbane in company with Olof Selling, well known Swedish 
palaeobotanist. The museums collection of fossil insects did not increase 
again until in 1961 it acquired its first specimens from the Triassic Ipswich 
Coal Measures. These were donated by F.A. Perkins of the entomology 
department of the University of Queensland, The collection was 
subsequently added to by Dahms, the museums entomologist. However, 
apart from reports on the Hemiptera ,;5 little work has yet been done on 
these Triassic collections 

Woods did much to popularize the dinosaurs and other vertebrates * 
as well as to enhance the scientific reputation of the museum abroad. One 
of the important tasks he carried out was the location of most of the type 
specimens in the museum collections re , which has been the basis for more 
recent compilations J To broaden his experience he moved to the Mines 
Department in 1959 as senior palaeontologist, but was recalled to the 
museum to be acting director during the last difficult months of Mack's 
life, he subsequently became director in 1964. 

Woods was succeeded as geological assistant by another Queensland 
University graduate, Alan Bartholomai. Bartholomai began extensive 
field work throughout Queensland collecting fossil marsupials from many 
horizons. His work on Cretaceous fossil fish with a review of the predatory 
pachyrhiziodids was published in 1966 ^ Later in the same decade the 
American Museum of Natural History began a senes of field expeditions 
to Australia and Bartholomai was to work with them. 


Modern Times 

Bartholomai became director in 1969, and continued the museum's 
tradition of research in vertebrate palaeontology covering a wide range 
from Cainozoic marsupials to Mesozoic reptiles and fish. More importantly 
he fostered a whole team of experts in vertebrate and invertebrate 
palaeontology— adding to the strength of the geology section by the 
appointment of honorary fellows who have been able to use the museum 
as an institutional base from which to apply for government grants. 
Research fellows Anne Kemp — formerly of the University of 
Queensland— working on lungfish, and Susan Turner — formerly of the 
Hancock Museum, Newcastle-on-Tyne— studying Palaeozoic to Mesozoic 
fish, are both adding new and known taxa to the collections and extending 
the museum's field of expertise. Director Bartholomai's assistant, Tempe 
Lees, is working on Cretaceous fossil fish — including Belonostomus. 
Further, Bartholomai has encouraged links with palaeontologists in other 
institutions both in Australia and elsewhere, and close collaboration with 
invertebrate and vertebrate palaeontologists in the University of 
Queensland, notably J. Jell and R.A. Thulborn, both being associates of the 
museum. Another associate, F.S. Colliver, formerly curator of the geology 
museum in the University of Queensland, has donated his extensive fossil 
collection of Australian and overseas material to the museum. 

Measuring the distance between the 
dinosaur footprints in the ceiling of 
Westvale Colliery, Rosewood, southeast 

J.T. Woods with natural limestone 
concretions, often containing Cretaceous 
fossil vertebrates, from the Back Channel 
of Flinders River near Richmond. 


Ebenaqua ritchieri, an almost complete 
fossil fish from the Late Permian, Rangal 
Coal Measures, Utah coal mine, 
Blackwater, Queensland. The type is in 
the museum. 



A new genus of bony fish from the 
Cretaceous, Laura Downs Station, Julia 

Peter Jell, a third University of Queensland graduate appointed by 
Woods, succeeded Bartholomai as museum geologist in 1969. He was the 
first full-time invertebrate palaeontologist on the staff and during his short 
tenure added significantly to the collections of Palaeozoic fossils and 
Cambrian trilobites from north-western Queensland. Unfortunately Jell 
left the museum in February 1970. His replacement, the present curator of 
geology, Mary Wade, was also an invertebrate palaeontologist when she 
was appointed in 1971 Wade came from the University of South Australia 
where she had been studying the peculiar Precambrian fauna of Australia. 
Finding no such deposits in Queensland, she turned her attention to the 
rich faunas of Cambrian and Ordovician nautiloids from the north-west of 
the state. She also succumbed to the vertebrate fossils. The world's most 
complete Cretaceous ichthyosaur, which came from Telemon station in 
north Queensland, had been languishing on display in a half-prepared 
state since 1935. Wade arranged for its preparation and eventually 
described some of the museum's ichthyosaur material 80 . Several more 
ichthyosaurs await preparation — the rocks laid down in the Cretaceous 
seas, which covered the Great Artesian Basin 120 millions years ago, seem 


to have preserved at that time as many ichthyosaurs as the rest of the 
world put together. 

In 1976 the museum became involved in a project which gained 
international recognition. A chance discovery in the 1960s by Ron 
McKenzie while opal fossicking near Winton led to the subsequent 
exposure of thousands of dinosaur footprints. Bartholomai and R.H. 
Tedford of the American Museum of Natural History had seen the site in 
197L But it was not until 1976 that Wade and Thulborn, guided there by 
McKenzie, made a trial excavation. A museum party, assisted by the army 
and volunteers mainly from the university excavated a much larger area in 
1977. This revealed that Queensland had the world's only known stampede 
of dinosaurs in rocks about 100 million years old. Thulborn was the first to 
realize that all the dinosaurs but one, the biggest, were going one way and 
were probably running hell for leather at that. He and Wade took on the 
huge task of counting, measuring and identifying the footprints— a task 
which has culminated in a definitive monograph 81 . 

As a consequence of this work, the museum is now a trustee, with the 
Winton Shire Council, for Lark Quarry Environmental Park, being 
responsible for its conservation, and for the interpretive information 
supplied through Queensland National Parks and Wildlife Service to the 
public. The park is named in honour of volunteer worker, Malcolm Lark 
of Miles, who helped with the 1976 excavation. This site, which contains 
nearly all the known tracks of running dinosaurs in the world, is truly a 
part of our world's heritage. 

Wade and Turner with Jell of the University of Queensland, have 
made collections of Silurian and Devonian corals, nautiloids, plant and fish 
remains, as well as early Carboniferous fish including some very unusual 
sharks" from the Broken River district of north Queensland— a place of 
great beauty first shown to the geological world by Richard Daintree in 
1873 8 *. 

A large Jurassic labyrinthodont amphibian was also located when 
Wade was investigating tooth-bearing rock found by Colin Kehl, a farmer 
at Wandoan 83 . It is now named Siderops kehli by Anne Warren of La Trobe 
University. Until a slightly younger specimen was found in China in 1985 
this was considered to be the last known labyrinthodont in the world. 
However, Siderops is one of the largest and most complete known. The 

The head of the icththyosaur 
Platypterygtut, australis found at Telemon 
Station between Richmond and 
Hughenden in 1935. It is one of tht mOSl 
complete Cretaceous ichthyosaurs in the 


: : : ■'■'■:■.■■■ ■■■■ ■ 


■ _ 

Museum staff working on the dinosaur 
trackways at Lark Quarry. Winton, 1977. 

The dinosaur trackways at Lark Quarry 
Environmental Park. 

Entrance to the covered observation 
platform at Lark Quarry. 


specimen had been buried at right angles to a river cliff and was collected 
by excavating a cut Through the collapsed cliff front, following carefully 
from the partly-buried head to the shoulders at the top of the cliff. The 
rest of the body and most of the tail were found later in a buried pile of 
bounders 50 metres away towards the bottom of the cliff. Despite their 
enthusiasm no member of the collecting party felt tempted to excavate 
further for the tip of the tail, which apparently went downhill with an 
earlier rock fall. 

In 1978 Wiide, Thulborn and Bartholomai joined a British Museum 
(Natural History) expedition to Queensland to collect: Mesozoic reptiles. 
Most of the important specimens from this expedition are being prepared 
in London and then will be returned to the Queensland Museum. An 
exception was the dragonfly wing from the Cretaceous which was retained 
in Queensland— a wing of the same age and possibly the same family as 
that acquired by the museum in the 1920s. In 1980 further Cretaceous 
insects — a cockroach wing and a beetle ehira — were collected from the 
Wmton area by a museum party. 

Another interesting site at Rewan in the Carnarvon district of central 
Queensland has yielded many vertebrate, and more recently, plant fossils 
to a Succession (A museum field parties since it was visited by Bartholomai 
who investigated its small Triassic reptiles. Warren has also defined an 
extensive range of labyrinthodont amphibians from this site. Surprisi 
in 1929, Longman had misinterpreted a fossil from Rewan as Cainozoic 
crocodilian. It was a small mistake but one that held up the search for 
Triassic vertebrates for a while. When reexamined, his specimens also 
turned oul io be Triassic thecodonts and labyrinthodonts. Thulborn, an 
expert on dinosaur locomotion, worked on the description and restoration 
of a Triassic pre-dinosaur Kulisuchus from Rewan, and has recognized 
bones of the first Australian mammal-like reptiles, the forebears of the 
mammals over 200 million years ago. As well as the 'Rewan beast', a 
kannemeyeriid similar to forms found throughout the southern continents 
in the early Triassic. he is studying Longman's Rhoetosaurus, a further leg 
and hind loot bones of the sauropod having been collected by Wade and 
himself from the original site. 

At the end of 1972 a graduate of Yale University, Michael Archer, was 
appointed to the newly-created position of curator of mammalogy. He had 
first come to the Museum of Western Australia as a Fulbright scholar in 
1970. He was to work on both recent and fossil mammals during his five 
years at the museum, pushing bade through time to older marsupial faunas 
in the Tertiary deposits found especially in north Queensland in the 
Carpentaria sub-basin (Pleistocene), at Bluff Downs (Pliocene) and at 
Miocene sites in the Northern Territory. His identification of a fossil bat 
enabled dating of this site by comparison with a Middle Eocene bat in 
France where terrestrial and marine deposits are mterlayered. Thus a 
virtually complete Tertiary record is present in the sediments of 
Queensland. He also completed an analysis of the basicranium of all extant 
Australian marsupial genera, necessary to interpret fossil material. He was 
involved in several major fossil collecting trips, some made jointly by the 
museum and the American Museum of Natural History and also some 
financed by American fossil collector, Ray E. Lemley. 

Archer left the museum to join the University of New South Wales in 
1978, from which institution he continues his exploration of Australian 
mammalian fossils, his latest excavations being made at a remarkable site 
at Riversleigh-'. R.E. Molnar. also from the United States, who replaced 




The re- discovery u! the Rewan site. A 
Bartholomai cxc3V3ting. 


Archer on the staff of the museum, has concentrated on fossil crocodiles, 
dinosaurs and marsupial locomotion. He discovered the first pterosaur 
remains in Queensland and, with Bartholomai, undertook a study of the 
large Cretaceous ornithopod dinosaur which they named 
Muttaburra&aurus after the town of Muttaburra in central Queensland. 
This is one of the most complete skeletons of an Australian dinosaur. It 
was originally collected in 1963 by Bartholomai and Dahms — the 
entomologist on the museum staff. Its preparation for display was possible 
only through the corporate sector support of Kelloggs — through an 
Australia-wide 'back of pack' promotion on their Rice Bubbles product. 
Understanding of geology, and particularly the study of fossils and 
their use to the state of Queensland, has come a long way since the 
founding fathers began amassing their private collections over 140 years 
ago. It is a science which underpins many of the endeavours of the state to 
this day, for accurate knowledge about the rocks of Queensland is still 
necessary for a proper understanding of its history and its resources. 
Coxen, Gregory, Daintree, D'Oyly Aplin, de Vis, Longman and many others 
would wonder at the changes of the last few years and each would have 
applauded the endeavours of the men and women who built on the 
foundations that they put in place. 





Altingham Creek. Above:: Archer 
excavating kangaroo skeleton; below. 
main quarry. 


Jurassic Durikai plant beds near 
Warwick, Queensland. L to R: Associate 
Stan Colliver, Tempe Lees, A.R. Colliver. 

Archer, assisted by Errol Beutel, 
excavating Miocene deposits at Alcoote, 
northwest of Alice Springs, on an 
expedition financed by American fossil 
collector Ray E. Lemley. 






PrrviauspQge: Marble Velvet I 

OtutUTV mfirmnraUi Gray. 1842. A 
widespread species in the open forest: 
Queensland (drawing from Furty 
Quevnsuitvi Lizards, a Queensland 
Museum Booklet, illustrated by staff 
artists S, Hiley and M. Oakden). 


In Europe in the 19th century the study of natural history 
became very popular. Much of the popularity resulted from the 
persuasiveness of the doctrine of natural theology- By 
contemplating nature one contemplated God through the 
tangible products of His Works. Here, it was thought, was a 
noble amalgamation of science and theology, 

One of the important endeavours of the 3t udy of natural history was 
to discover new species, In this search for novelties, collections of 
preserved animals were in demand. In Victorian society it was also 
fashionable to have some of Gods Works on show in the household. 
Stuffed animals and ones preserved in spirit were highly prized, tn 
response to the demand for spec taiens collectors travelled to all parts Of 
the globe — often under the patronage of the wealthy. There were also 
entrepreneurs who set up shop as natural history dealers in the major 
cities of the colonial powers. These shops \v.t< clearing hem urge 

numbers of collections K 

In the early part of the century nearly all collections made in 
Australia were sent, or taken hack to England or mainland Europe By the 
1860s most of the obvious Species Of Vertebrates bad been discovered and 
named by naturalists overseas. Later, with the growing independence oj 
the colonies, the colonists themselves began to study their own animals. 
Collections were being amassed by people who had little desire to see 
l hem leave the colony. However. Study of these colonial collections was 
impeded by the very fact that the named specimens were overseas. 
Without access to these named specimens, the local naturalists were often 
not in a position to know if their animals were new or not. In the young 
Queensland colony, study was also dogged by the lack of relevant 
literature Without the published findings of European naturalists, 
working in the colonies operated very much in the dark lfj . 
These w T ere the circumstances when the Queensland Philosophical 
Society began gathering specimens together for a museum in 1862. This 
was [he atmosphere in which research on mammals, birds, reptiles, 
amphibians and fishes began in Queensland. 

A Pioneer Museum and its Ornithologists 1862-1882 

In most museums of the mid-19th century specimens were either 
exhibited in jars of sptrit-of-wine, or as skins laid more i -r less flat, or 
skins were mounted in life-like positions, oi they were dried if they kept 
their body form. Of course, the mounted specimen was favoured for 
exhibition. Collections were for display. A specimen that could not be seen 
in a gallery by a visitor was a useless specimen. The concept of separate 
storage for scientific specimens is very much a modern one 1 . This 
approach did have one advantage— properly built display cabinets were 
air-tight and excluded dust and insects. Since (he only other form of 
storage was boxes and chests that gave little protection those specimens 
on display tended to be better preserved than those that were stored. 

A consequence of the policy of displaying ail specimens was the 
redundancy of duplicates. Museums had space only for one example oi 
each species, or, at most, one of each sex if the sexes differed. The extras 
became duplicates and these were mostly used for exchanges. Thus, there 
was no museum policy to obtain all the material that passed by, nor indeed 
could the museum have afforded to purchase it all. It was only in the late 
19th century when many specimens were needed for the study of 
geographic variation and the designation of subspecies that the importance 
of replicates was recognised e , 


There was another consequence of mid-19th century museum display 
philosophy that had unfortunate implications for serious studies of the 
fauna. The labels on the specimens were designed to inform the viewer. 
They usually gave the name of the species and where it had been found, 
but there was no information on habitat, season, habits, predators, and 
colour and other characteristics that were destroyed by preservation. 

The following example is typical of the labels of those days: 


This remarkable example of the omnivorous appetite of the Varanus 
varius, or Lace Monitor, was found in the Kynuna District and 
donated by Mr W. Higgins. In endeavouring to swallow the well- 
protected Tachyglossus aculeatus — popularly known under the 
names "Native Porcupine", "Spiny Anteater", and "Echidna" - the 
Goanna or Monitor attempted too much and both succumbed in the 

The exhibit is shown as found. 

A decorative piece from a Victorian 
drawing room. It was owned by the late 
J.M. Bauman of Bauman's Gun Shop, 
Elizabeth St.. Brisbane and was donated 
to the museum by his daughter. Mrs 
Betty Harris, of Newmarket, Brisbane. 


Qurrnslanb ©tisimni. 



<• tt*}rr/-7i<! 

(j imt. 


/) ^ f P <3) 

1 i ji & 

' f c>n 7 

/ /. hi -to 

&&. a if. ~ 

Kendall Broadbent's first contract with 
the Queensland Museum. 

a, m 

Perhaps as a result of the emphasis on display the necessity for 
keeping other data was often overlooked. In the inventory prepared for the 
museum board in 1876 the only particulars listed were the species' names 
and how many of each were held. The collections of the infant Queensland 
Museum being set up by the Philosophical Society suffered from all the 
consequences of the contemporary museum display philosophy and 
accordingly their long term scientific value was impaired. In the young 
Queensland Museum the scientifically inclined had to stand toe-to-toe 
with members of the public to view the collections. Until the collections 
started to overrun the display facilities every effort was made to exhibit 
all the museum's specimens. 

However, even in the mid- 19th century, the men associated with the 
foundation of the museum recognized the scientific significance of the 
specimens they were collecting and much of the material was the basis for 
contemporary investigations rather than being used merely for displays of 
curious objects. Outstanding amongst these men were Charles Coxen and 
Silvester Diggles— both first and foremost ornithologists. 

Coxen, to whom we owe the foundation of the museum and the 
government's eventual commitment to it, had come to Australia in 1833 
to collect bird specimens for the London Zoological Society, of which his 
brother-in-law John Gould was the secretary 7 . Although Coxen later 
settled in Queensland much of his material was still sent back to Gould or 


to the Australian Museum in Sydney. He was also an intermediary for the 
purchase of collections for John Gould. For example, the Collection of birds 
made by John Jardine at Somerset passed through his hands™ Gould had 
close ries both with Coxen and his brother Stephen (see Appendix 1), 
Thus, although he made only one visit to Australia and did most 01 ; 
work in England his publications did find their way to Queensland, and 
Gould's Birds of Australia was one of the first accessions to the museum 
library. It was purchased from Coxen's widow in 1876. Coxen himself was 
a skilled taxidermist and helped lay out birds in the display cabinets Era 
the Philosophical Society's museum* 1 ", ft was thus, to some extent a! least, 
through Coxen that a tradition oi ornithological studied and some skill in 
bird taxidermy existed in Queensland from an early date- However, unlike 
Diggles. his influence was largely indirect and he did not contribute very 
much to the body of indigenous si ienfific literature himself. 

Silvester Diggles, like Coxen, was a founding member of the 
Philosophical Society- He was to become an important figure in Australian 
ornithology and he made a significant contribution to indigenous studies 
on birds. He was born m Liverpool, England, in 1817, and sailed for 
Australia with his femUy ill 1853, In 1854 he settled in Brisbane wK 
taught art and music, repaired musical instruments and hired out pianos*. 
As well as being a member of the Philosophical Society, he helped found 
the Brisbane Choral Society and the Brisbane Philharmonic Society 11 , 
Diggles was interested in insects as well as birds and often gave papers 
and exhibited specimens at Philosophical Society meetings. He donated 
many specimens to the Philosophical Society's museum and was one of its 
two curators iVorn 1869 i.o 1877 ,J . However, by 1373 most of the Society's 
collections had been handed over to the government and il 
probable that Diggles may have helped Coxen, the honorary curator 
and the new custodian, Karl Slaiger (see Chapter 3), 

Diggles' major work was the OrtiitMogy of Australia — an 
encyclopaedia of Australian birds u> . Diggles himself published two-thirds 
of this work in 21 pails, which were issued to subscribers. Then he ran out 
ol" money*, His fellow musicians held a benefit raising 1 1 16 which enabled 
him to reissue the first 21 parts in two volumes as a Companion to Gould'* 
Handbook. However, he was not able to publish the last third of hi 
The Ornithology was not successful financially and ult he ran into 

difficulties. Thus, although he had intended to donate his private 
collections to the Queensland Museum he was not able to do so. The 
museum bought: his original lithographs and part of his bird collection 
from the taxidermist Eli Waller 

The first vertebrate to be described as a new species from the 
museum's collections bad been pure ' the museum by Coxen u , 

apparently from Eli Waller, who had a taxidermy shop in Edward Street, 
Brisbane 7 . It was a parrot— Aprosmidus nisignissimus. John Gould in 1875 
announced the new bird to the world l \ Gould had first seen a painting oi it 

and exciredly asked for the specimen; and ' through the kindness of the 

authorities of the new Zoological Museum at Brisbane. I have received the 
actual specimen '* The specimen was collected north of Dalby in 1874. 

id was impressed with this 'splendid parrot' and illustrated it in his 
Birds of New Guinea. Unfortunately, in later years it was discovered that 
the bird was not a species, The specimen was a hybrid of the King Parrot 
and the Red- winged Parrot. The specimen was returned to the museum 
and, as late as 11)22 it could he seen on display*. Later il disappeared — 
probably destroyed in the dean up of 1946 (see Chapter 4). 

V it ( Ufiff* y 

fH *//-*«./,<*- /«c« /♦, t~f. j f4ar 
p *»•*-• 4g**«m .-<—*/ "t*&*>±cL. «*' 

** U*+~t , „ f-Z, * ^ — £l . tci AJ^^ 

■*~*^*< *"* fi ■* ■) ■»» iHj *i£*-^T 
U- | ^»«-^ iVw-m -++1 +*+-**<*• ■— "■ 

% "*tr>~+*<~ t J €*--**/£ J£_ 

i i rum Rruadtienl s diary: 
■ |!rng id j lerrur in this 
country.... rocks and precipices thrown 
her in beautiUii ojiiIumuu' 

The Golden Bowerbird. Pntmmiuns 

ttt-ifinnsann, S I ■'■■ I* 0\ ' k 

most beaiuUul ofbirds. 

A year later Diggles discovered two new birds .munigsi ;i collection 
of birds from Normanton. They had been sent to the museum by Tom 
Gulliver' 7 . Gulliver worked for the Telegraph Department and was 
employed on the erection of the telegraph line to Cape York 7 . Gulliver's 
collection was never displayed. In the 1876 inventory there is a note that 

specimens were at Coxeris residence and Qi probably 

the material returned after Ins death. Diggles' two new birds, 
however, were not new. They had been discovered and named elsewhere. 
This was not to be the last time this happened to Diggles. Of the 14 new 
birds he described in his lifetime none was really new, He realised thai 
this would always be a possibility without comparative material and the 
relevant literature' However, thai was not the reason on one occasion for 
he was the victim of a fraud. In 1873 and 1874 he presented papers to the 
Philosophical Society, bringing to its notice six new species or birds 1 "*— a 
notable achievement by any standard. They had been collected by one 
John T. Cockerell, a master mariner, and Diggles believed them to be from 
Cape York. Thes«r birds —a kite, a rail, two bitterns, and two kingfishers — 
were indeed new to Australia but they were not new to science. They 
were actually well known species from the Aru Islands in what is now 
Indonesia. The fraud was not discovered until after Diggles' death' 7 . 

Cockerell did not donate his supposedly Cape York specimens to the 
Philosophical Society. He sent his bird skins to the natural history dealer 
IV Edmund Higgins to be sold in London 7 , The 1394 birds were purchased 
by Frederick Godman who presented them to the British Museum in 188L 
Godman had bought the collection because it supposedly contained the six 
new species that Diggles had described. However, Diggles had not 
contributed to science. He had contributed to making Cockerell's collection 
worth money— -Use Cockerell. In the paper of 1874, Diggles gave some 
extraordinary information about the habitats ot the Albert Lyrebird, but 
this was also based on erroneous data given to him by Cockerell. 

Alter its formation in 1876 the first museum board of trustees 
instigated a policy of purchase and exchange o( collections. Because the 
board's policy determined that the representation of species should be 
complete, most of Ihe collections obtained by exchange were from foreign 
countries. Donations accounted for the bulk of the early local material, 
although some was purchased. Eventually the rate of accession of material 
outstripped facilities for display 

The limited space afforded by the present temporary building being 
altogether inadequate for the exhibition of the collections already in 
the hands of the Trustees, they have been compelled to pack up and 
Store onion Of these specimens which would not suffer 

material injury thereby; bur notwithstanding this, the Museum is 
inconveniently crowded with exhibits, especially in the department 
Of N. tory. the perishable nature of the specimens 

necessitating constant care and inspection: while from the same 
cause, it has been necessary to restrict additions to such of the rarer 
objects as might not be easily obtainable at a future date, when 
may be more available Space for exhibition B . 

Even with a new building and a taxidermist the trustees would not 
be able to display every specimen in the collections. Specimens had to be 
tucked away in alternative storage. Many would rarely see the light of day 
until a century later. 

In 1880 the local press carried accusations that a considerable numbei 
of specimens had gone astray at the museum'". These accusations were 
accredited to the same J.T. Cockerell who had misrepresented his Aru 


Island collection of birds to Diggles 7 Apparently the trustees had hired 
Cockerel] to arrange birds hi the new building— In the minutes Of the 
board meeting of 19 February 1880 it is nored that Cockerel! had been paid 
£10.6.0 for his work. Haswell, the curator, dismissed the charges as 
untrue**. In retrospect we can see that Haswell was wrong— at least in 
regard to the bird specimens. Between 1876 when the first inventory was 
completed, and sometime in the lS8()s when de Vis compiled the card 
index of holdings of birds, a considerable number of birds disappeared. 
One of the specimens thai vanished was a Night Parrot. This bird has 
always been extremels rare — only a handful o\ specimens were ever 
collected. Thus they are easy to trace. In the British Museum (Natural 
History), acquired in the infamous collection purchased by Frederick 
Godman, there is a specimen collected by J.T. Cockerell supposedly from 
Western Australia. It has been suggested that the information for the 
specimen was probably incorrect and that Cockerel] possibly purchased qr 
exchanged it from Frederick Andrews in South Australia '. Thi 
alternative explanation— this could be the missing specimen from the 
Queensland Museum. There me many coincidences between species and 
numbers of specimens that are missing from the museum and those that 
were in ihe collection of Cockerel! purchased by Godman. Cockerell 
appears to have been covering his tracks by spreading rumours of losses 
from the museum collections during its mavft 

The Collectors and de Vis 1882-191 1 

In 1882 Charles de Vis was appointed curator. He was an experienced 
museum worker having held the position >>t curator of Queen's Park 
Museum. Manchester. Since coming to Australia he had contributed 
natural history notes to the Qnemslander under the pseudonym of 
Thickthorn'". de Vis' training, however, had been for the Anglican Church. 
In his early days, he was the typical clerygman-natural historian and very 
much a part of the natural theological movement: 

If the love and discrimination of the beautiful be humanising - if 
ever wi eek to elevate the mental horizon of the 

governed by bringing the eye into < ithi h no ptionsofthe 

painter and sculptor — surely the pencil and chisel of nature working 
ieix happiest moods must stir within the most grovelling mind ils 

latent admiration of the ideal, and wean it from those gi i 
i iti ' ich are ultimately pernicious, il" not fatal. I 

Latet he waa a supporter of the theory of evolution y . 

de Vis was a prodigious worker and was at the museum for about nir_f 
hours a day every day of the week' 1 . From 1S82 to 1911 he wrote 136 
scientific papers and contributed about 120 articles to newspapers. He 
described 371 new icUfil vertebrates. These were 173 sp< 

of fish, seven species ol frogs, 70 species of reptiles, 107 species of hirds, 
and 14 species of mammals. With his death in 1915 he left behind several 
unpublished papers and books, Not all de Vis new species were so, but 
about two-thirds are presently regarded as valid. 

de Vis worked on collections and specimens that came into the 
museum— he did not collect himself. In this he was a closet naturalist and 
not a field worker 1 . The field work was done by others. Of the many 
collectors of zoological material Kendall Broadbent and Sir William 
MacGcegor were of particular importance to the museum during d-' 

In 1882 Broadbent was appointed zoological collector for the museum. 
During his employment he collected vertebrates at Cardwell and Tully 

de Vis found this new specie - 
spectacular Spiny Skink, Trojridopharus 
fiurrn-tlandiac, amongst a collection from 
: [l live i in the moist, dark 
litter of the rainforest. 


Broadbent to de Vis: 'I have the honour 

to report Mr. E.P. Ramsays collectors 

are in the district so I am informed '. 

(1882), Charleville (1883), Cape York, Murray Island, and the Gulf of 
Carpentaria (1883-4), Rockhampton and Cardwell (1888), and Bellenden 
Ker Range and Herberton (1889). de Vis described many new species from 
the specimens Broadbent collected — the most notable was the Golden 
Bowerbird Prionodura newtoniana. The specimen was collected at the 
Tully River Scrubs in 1882^. In his description de Vis apologised for the 

( 9***f - 

Cusia/o-T &*+*£***4& ***** rPf 



SU^&U- . /&£*£- tt>£t*t jf**** ^^^^C^ 

&a^A^cj tPfftt/e tit* tlt&r w*J^ 

i^Cf-ur^ tertrft £*£&, fc+trf & *&4tfctJia£r~ 

uM frfo^j^rt*^* TtT/s it**** %* j *^ 

fit* 4? ?*&* /t*c*^*£~< tbar 6a£e^^k^^ 


plainness of the species but he did not realise that the specimen was a 
female or an immature. This specimen was stolen from a show case in 
1888 *. In 1889 he received a beautiful golden male from Bellenden Ker 
collected by Archibald Meston. de Vis thought it was a new species and 
did not at first connect the specimen with the bowerbird he had described 
earlier. It was announced in the newspaper 27 that a brilliant golden 
bowerbird, new to science, was to be described as Corymbicola mestoni. 
Before de Vis could formally publish the description Broadbent informed 
de Vis that the bird was just a male oiPrionodura newtoniana. 

As a result of the economic depression of the 1890s the museum could 
not afford the luxury of a zoological collector after 1893 and the supply of 

SW4SV* /L*C£A***£j{ l<£^£^* ^i>^/ ^^f dr ^ jS ^^-» The ageing and much-loved Kendall 

/£ £>£**/-, A*&£** ££^*^ f4tAA*U^~ 

yA( j#£v /u*4^t A^/^ /%***- m 




Cslc /^c^~ W 


Broadbent discovered the Golden 
Bower-bird, Prionodura newtmuana, in 
the Tully River rainforest and, al a later 
date, he collected more near Herberton 
and at Bellenden Ker. He sent this 
drawing of two of the bowers to de Vis. 
who described the species— although the 
type cannot be traced in the study skin 



^ r vet*** pLll4sl<u+£; u*tf£: 

^ IM&XZ <P+t^ c^ot 


Broadbent's writing was on this 
photograph of a display that Spalding 
probably mounted. It was exhibited until 
replaced with the new dioramas in the 


specimens ceased. William MacGregor the administrator, and later 
lieutenant-governor, of British New Guinea ensured a supply of foreign 
vertebrate specimens for de Vis to study, de Vis discovered many 
novelties amongst the more than 3000 specimens — mostly birds— that 
MacGregor collected during his stay in New Guinea. The collection was 
technically the property of the British New Guinea government, later the 
Papuan New Guinea government, and, like the anthropological collection 
that MacGregor made, the major part of the it was held in trust for the 
Papua New Guinea Government (see Chapter 10). It received little 
attention for nearly 80 years after de Vis' work, for after 1893 the museum 
suffered from shortages of staff and funds that were not redressed until 
the early 1960s. 

One of the effects of the depression on the museum was to inhibit its 
ability to exhibit every specimen in its collection. There just were not the 
taxidermists to keep pace with the inflow of specimens; nor was there the 
floor space to exhibit them. Those that could not be displayed were stored 
away, often crammed into the little space available for alternative storage. 
The museum was, in fact, building up a research collection by default. The 
concept of research collections separate from display material was then 
coming into vogue in Europe. It was a reversal of the policy of trying to 
exhibit every object in the collection 1 . This change in philosophy may have 
resulted, at least in part, from the recognition of the importance of 
intraspecific variations in natural selection, following the publication of 
Darwin's Origin of Species in 1859. This was the subject that now excited 
naturalists, and instead of a single specimen now representing a species, 
they needed a whole range of specimens— the more the better— for their 
investigations. The hypothesis of natural selection had a profound effect 
not only on the course of natural science but also on the value of museum 
collections that had been made up to that time. With the recognition of the 
fact of intraspecific variation there arose the necessity to identify the 
actual specimens used to describe the species. These specimens became 
known as the type specimen or specimens— the name bearers of species. 
They are the standard for the species against which other specimens can 
be assessed. They remove the uncertainties that arise through ambiguity 
or inadequacy in descriptions; and they serve as the point of reference 
from which old descriptions can be updated, by applying new techniques of 
investigation and new perspectives to the type. Type specimens are now— 
and had become by the beginning of the 20th century —the most precious 
part of a museum's holdings— for they are unique and irreplaceable. 

Unfortunately in the Queensland Museum, the habit of displaying 
every specimen and dispensing with duplicates resulted in collections of 
unique specimens, many of which were, indeed, types specimens of the 
many species that de Vis described. However, the original label was often 
lost and the data about each specimen were often lean, and sometimes 
entirely lacking. It is fortunate from this point of view that MacGregor 
steadfastly refused permission for the museum to exchange duplicates of 
his collection, de Vis adhered faithfully to MacGregor's conditions and 
thus the museum has one of the largest and most comprehensive 
collections in the world from Papua New Guinea. The board minutes for 4 
May 1894 record that the British Museum requested some of the 
duplicates from New Guinea. It was refused of course, de Vis tartly 
commenting that for some years the museum had hoped for a share of the 
British Museum's annual distribution of duplicates too— apparently it had 
hoped in vain. Subsequently only two specimens from the MacGregor 

A Bird of Paradise, Paradisea raggiana, 
collected by Sir William MacGregor in 
Papua New Guinea in 1894. 


collection were presented to the British Museum by the Queensland 

Museum \ 

The Long Middle Years 1911-1946 

de Vis, some time in the 1880s, had started a card catalogue for birds. 
His system, however, was unwieldly. It was open-ended, for each 
specimen received a unique label under the name of the species with a 
letter of the alphabet. The difficulties become apparent if the name of the 
species is changed, or if some specimen is found to be misidentified, In 
1911 the new director, Ronald Hamlyn-Harris, instigated a modern system 
of data storage and retrieval for research collections. Each specimen was, 
from that time, to receive a unique number as a label. All the information 
known about the specimen was entered in a register under that number. 
The task of registering the backlog of unnumbered museum specimens, 
however, was beyond the means of Hamlyn-Harris' small staff. In the 
vertebrates, most of this registration was not done until the 1970s and 

Between 1911 and 1946 not many specimens were added to the 
museum's collections and there was little research conducted on 
vertebrates. The exceptions were some papers on reptiles by Heber 
Longman, and more importantly, the work on fish by James Ogilby. Ogilby 
was hired for a short period by the museum in 1901, but was dismissed for 
his 'extreme and undiscriminating affinity for alcohol' 28 . From 1905 to 1912, 
he was honorary curator for the Amateur Fishermen's Association of 
Queensland. In 1912 he was re-employed by the museum, and in 1913 the 
Amateur Fishermen's Association handed over all their type material of 
vertebrates to the museum. While in the museum between 1912 and 1920 
Ogilby published 22 papers and described several new species of fish. He 
died in 1025®. 

The type specimen of a new genus and species of turtle, Devisia 
mythodes, that Ogilby named in honour of Charles de Vis in 1907 ", 
illustrates the problems with labelling of some of the specimens in the 
museum. The type specimen appeared to have been collected by Sir 
William MacGregor in New Guinea, In 1947, the specimen was examined 
and found to be a specimen of Chelydra serpentina, the American Snapping 
Turtle- 1 '. This species does not occur in New Guinea. Someone slipped up 

The Taipan, Oxyuranus saUellatus 
(Peters 1867), is Australia's largest 
venomous snake and undoubtedly its 
moat dangerous species. It occurs in 
northern Western Australia and the 
Northern Territory, on Cape York 
Peninsula, and in coastal Queensland - 
eastof the main nu 


During the 1920s and 1930s scientific work was at a low ebb, not only 
in Queensland but also in the rest of Australia. In Queensland Director 
Longman tried to compensate for this by helping individuals and 
institutions from other countries to pursue investigations in the state (see 
Chapter 3). However, in other parts of Australia some serious opposition 
to the continuing depredations being made on the Australian fauna by 
foreign institutions had developed It was not only the old anxiety 
connected with the removal of type specimens that prompted this 
opposition, it was also a concern that local scientists, without resources to 
collect widely, could not compete with their overseas counterparts. Ellis 
Troughton, ebullient curator of mammals in the Australian Museum was in 
the vanguard of this opposition''". He was especially sensitive about the 
large collections of mammals being shipped to New York by Richard 
Archbold, the wealthy benefactor who financed and led a whole series of 
collecting expeditions to Papua New Guinea and northern Queensland 
through the 1930s and 1940s for the American Museum of Natural 
History ' Xi . According to Troughton, the material collected was being used 
by the American museum's mammalogist, G.rL Tate, to settle 'our mammal 
question Vt \ Troughton was opposed to any idea that Archbold's and 
others' olvaginous dollars be given full play m New Guinea or on the 
mainland'* and he claimed to have initiated, with his institution's support, 
the action — 

which led to the gazettal of restrictions on all foreign collectors in 
the (Australian) Territories— and had written to the Minister for 
Customs asking that the regulation re return ol types and examples 
of rarities to the appropriate State oi Commonwealth Museum be 
mcluded in (collecting) permit 

At about this time a young German zoologist, Dr Gabriele Neuhauser, 
arrived in Australia. Being Jewish, she could not work in Germany and for 
two years had been in Asia Minor earning her living as a collector of 
rodents and other small mammals. She brought with her a letter of 
introduction from Gregory Mathews in England 7 c , and she had made 
contact with Tate, who wrote to Troughton asking him to help her to obtain 
permits to collect in Australia for Archbold 34 , Troughton made his oavd 
personal — and chauvinistic— view very clear to Longman: 

one naturally found it difficult to t>e too discouraging *■> a woman's 
plans, but I certainly had no intention ol furthering Tate's egotistical 
scheme 14 . 

However, although Troughton believed that the federal government 
would impose restrictions in permits issued for collecting in the Northern 
Territory, he could not be so sure about what would happen in 

as Dr Neuhauser will be disposing of the collections of mammaK 1 1 
Archbold, it may be necessary for the State authorities to make some 
provision which will be binding on the institutions eventually 
receiving the collections, and 1 do hope you will be able to devise 
something in Queensland where she first promises to collect™. 

Troughton went on to suggest that she be permitted to take up to 12 
pairs of each mammalian species — 10 pairs for Archbold and a pair for the 
Queensland Museum, He may have been hoping that the twelfth pair 
would be given to the Australian Museum but appears to have thought it 
indelicate to actually suggest this. 

Longman provided all the assistance to Neuhauser that Troughton 
had denied her- The permit that he obtained for her imposed restrictions 

Acrobates pygmacus, frutn Deception Bay, 
on a Grnnflio banksii. 


The museum truck aboard MV Goori 
going to Fraser Island in the 1960s. 

on numbers of specimens only in respect of protected species — koalas, 
platypus and tree kangaroos 36 . It did not include any provision for 
representative specimens to be retained by the museum, nor indeed 
had Longman recommended that it should — for he was not expecting 
Neuhauser to perform as an honorary collector for the museum. He did 
arrange to purchase specimens from her, and others were exchanged for 
various services such as repacking specimens and making crates to 
despatch her collections overseas 37 . Longman was concerned about the 
implications of type material being removed from Australia. To that extent, 
at least, he agreed with Troughton. However, his recommendation that 
some provision requiring return of types be included in the permit was 
ignored 38 , so he wrote to Tate at the American Museum of Natural 

You will be interested to hear that Dr Gabriele Neuhauser has left 
for western Queensland en route for northern Queensland. I was 
able to help her with permits etc., on the definite understanding that 
paratypical specimens of any new species of mammals sent abroad 
would be returned to the Queensland Museum. Doubtless you will 
honour this undertaking fully in the circumstances 39 . 

Tate replied that the suggestion was 'eminently reasonable' 40 . 

Thus, all was settled amicably— although Troughton probably was 
not satisfied and may have felt that Longman was being altogether too 
cooperative. Longman wrote, gently chiding him: 

You will be interested to hear that Dr Gabriele Neuhauser left last 
Thursday with Mr J. Edgar Young, one of our honorary collectors. As 
she is unfamiliar with local conditions this arrangement is advisable. 
We hope to secure a representative series of specimens from her 
collecting, but I am not sure whether Mr Young will accompany her 

for more than a few months In any case, paratypical specimens 

are to be returned to the Queensland Museum, should she obtain 
new mammals. 

Whilst I am naturally anxious to see all possible work on our fauna 
carried out by local institutions and specialists, I do not see that we 
are justified in attempting to make Australia a strictly reserved area 
in which overseas collectors should be deterred from working. 

As a matter of fact we have received many specimens from the 
British Museum from the series collected by Wilkins and by Sherrin, 
and we also had some of Raven's specimens. 

And when I write to my friend Troughton in the Australian Museum, 
I cannot get a single specimen of Rattus culmorum although I 
advised, in the first place, that the material should be sent to him, as 
a specialist! 

I hope that you will be able to arrange for a series of exchanges with 
Tate. Unfortunately we have so little to offer that we cannot expect 
Papuan and Pacific species, but I do hope that you will obtain a 
representative series 41 . 

Despite all the assistance she was getting, Neuhauser found it 
difficult. She was pleased and relieved, when Professor Neumann at the 
Museum fur Naturkunde, in Berlin, wanted her to send birds — 

because the mammals here could not cover my expenses 42 . 

Even so, it was a blow to her when, early in 1938, the government 
imposed a royalty on restricted species— from five shillings per possum 
skin up to 10 shillings for a kookaburra 43 . 

Both Neuhauser and the museums she was supplying benefited from 
Longman's assistance in the packing and despatching of her specimens, 
and her correspondence with Longman probably helped to dispel some of 


The museum acquired its first vehicle — 
a 14 h.p. Commer truck— in 1950. It was 
used principally for field work. It is 
photographed here in 1954 at a campsite 
near Chinchilla, on the Condamine River. 

By the 1960s the museum's collecting 
expeditions were ranging widely through 
the state. Left: the museum truck near 
Johansens Caves, 16 miles N of 
Rockhampton; lower left: at the Annan 
River, 20 miles south of Cooktown. 


the sense of isolation she must have experienced. For the Queensland 
Museum it was almost as if it had a collector in the field again. 

Longman to Neuhauser: 

I think that the Pseudochirus obtained by you at Mt. Spurgeon is 
probably the original P. peregrinus Boddaert, collected by Banks. We 
had another skin received last year. This is a most interesting 

discovery I am hoping that you will be able to get two or three 

specimens of Dendrolagus bennettianus for us 44 . 

Neuhauser replied — 

I sent you from Spurgeon one specimen of each, P. peregrinus, and P. 
laniginosus. P. laniginosus is smaller, has much longer ears, and lives 
in the open forest, togethr with Trichosurus. (P.) peregrinus lives in 

the thick scrub I got one specimen of P. laniginosus from here 

(Coen), much darker and not so much white on the tail, while the 
Spurgeon specimens did not vary at all. There seems to be some 
confusion about the two species, as P. laniginosus is only mentioned 
in the books for south Queensland, and the P. peregrinus description 

could as well mean the 1 from here I do not know, if I ever have a 

chance, of getting Dendrolagus bennettianus. The tree-kangaroos did 
certainly not fly from New Guinea to the Daintree River, so it is 
quite likely, that they are in Cape York 45 . 

Longman to Neuhauser: 

I hope that you have got additional specimens of the Ps. laniginosus 
and peregrinus type. A copy of our Royal Society Abstract for the last 
meeting is enclosed, and you will see that I exhibited these 

specimens We are still hoping for specimens of Den. bennettianus, 

and it would be splendid to get some from further north than the 
Bloomfield 46 . 

Neuhauser replied — 

Did you know, that there are 2 different kinds of Cuscus in Cape 
York? the one I sent you, with naked inside of ears is not maculatus, 
which is the more common form here. What is the Latin name for 
both kinds? I think, the Pseudomys must be quite interesting too, and 
I would like to know her name, if you can tell me 47 . 

Ivor Filmer (left), general assistant in the 
museum, helps McAnna unpack a 
consignment of skins sent by Vernon 
from Cape York in 1948. 


Toward the end of 1938 Gabnele Neuhauser s brave and lonely travels 
in northern Queensland came to an end when she married, becoming 
Gabriele Scott She now lives in Queensland and is an honorary associate 
of the museum, 

Gabriele Neuhauser collected hundreds of birds for the Museum fur 
Naturkunde. and mammals for the American Museum of Natural History. 
and the Queensland Museum got a share of all she collected. Her 
specimens were the only significant additions to the museum 's vertebrate 
collections between 1893 and 1946. From the specimens of birds she 
collected, Gregory Mathews and Professor Neumann described new forms 
and new subspecies* 1 '. 

The Modern Era 1946-1985 

When George Mack became director in 1946 the institution had been 
through more than half a Century of neglect. There had been one aftoH 
period Of three or four years between 1911 and 1915 when there had been a 
reasonable staff complement. However, for most of the 53 years from 1893 
there had been a director and usually two preparators or collectors but 
there had never been a professional scientific staff member responsible for 
vertebrates (see Chapter 3). It was not very surprising, then, thai many old 
mounts from the last century were in bad condition from insect attack, 
were covered in layers of dust and had to be destroyed (see Chapter 1). 
Although there was no information attached to them, many were 
irreplaceable type specimens of birds and mammals. While it may have 
been possible to identify some of the types by idiosyncratic features and 
measurements given in the original description, the specimens were 
damaged beyond any hope of retrieval. Mack instigated i he policy of 
registering all display specimens so the unfortunate circumstance would 
not happen again. 

Mack then set about the collection of material— both for display, arid 
to build up the research collection and restore some of the information 
that had been lost. This was an unprecedented period of research and 
collection. In 1948 Mack sent the young taxidermist, Donald Vernon, to 
join the Archbold Expedition in Cape York Vl . During this four ntC 
Vernon added many valuable specimens and Mack reported on them 30 . 
From 1950 the size of the vertebrate collections increased several fold. Not 
since the time of Broadbenl had the museum collected its own specimens 
on such a scale. The single contributing factor to the change was motor 
vehicles. In 1950 the museum obtained its first, a truck, and in the 1950s 
and 1960s the preparators travelled around the state attempting to fill in 
the gaps in the research collections (see Chapter 4). On one occasion, just 
before Christmas 1947, the collecting was done closer to home. Vei 
assisted by Filmer, went collecting from the museum roof. They got the 
museum's first specimens of the Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis. A 
couple of days later, Vernon 'potted* a starling and a sparrow r through the 
workshop window 

The collections stored in spirit were overhauled from 1964 to 1966 
when Woods had become director. These were stored in large ceramic 
urns and concrete tubs attached to the concrete floor. Many specimens 
were found to be dehydrated or macerated and were destroyed. 
Unfortunately, here too many types were lost, some inadvertently owing 
to loss of labels. 

With the appointment m 1967 of the first curator in vertebrates, 
Jeanette Covacevich, many of the old problems of the unregistered backlog 
and unidentified types were solved. She began a concerted effort to 

A new bird is a very rare event. The 
Eungella Honeyeater was dia 

nomanc rainforesl near Maclcav and 

d bv Lonpmore ajld Roles in 

I I 


Aian Easton, museum photographer 

register all the reptiles 

and amphibia and to research 

and identify all the types of these groups. The results of her 

work on the types were published in 1972 and 198T'- :t . In 1969 

Sue Hoare was appointed curator of fishes and she also began to 

identify the types. After she left the museum in 1970 the work was 

continued by her successor, Roland McKay. The task was completed 

in 1973. Vernon became ornithologist in 1970 and he began the 

registration of the backlog of birds — and in 1984, with the help of 

volunteers and the new assistant in ornithology, Wayne Longmore, the 

task was completed by G. Ingram who also completed the work on the 

types of birds held by the museum. 

By 1983 the registers for the vertebrate sections contained over 
100,000 records. The size of the data base made it difficult to operate by 
hand. In that year the decision was made to computerize the records. 
With the aid of grants from the Australian Biological Resources Survey in 
Canberra, data entry began in 1984. By mid-1985 all the mammalian 
records and three-quarters of the reptilian and amphibian records had 
been entered. 

From 1970, museum curators and their assistants systematically 
surveyed and collected from rivers and from the waters of the continental 
shelf as well as from desert, heath and montane rainforest habitats 
throughout the state, and have contributed substantially to knowledge of 
the biology and distribution of the vertebrates. Among the significant work 
has been that of McKay on the commercially important whitings, grunters 




\ \ % ♦ •*» 

* i ' #» 

The Small-scaled 
Snake, Oxyuranus 
microlepidotus (McCoy 1879), 
photographed very much alive by 
museum photographer, Alan Easton, in 
1976. Known only from a handful of 
museum specimens until the 1970s, live 
specimens were first milked in 1975. Its 
venom, the most toxic known, is twice as 
toxic as that of the Common Brown, four 
times as toxic as that of the Taipan, and 
nine times as toxic as that of the Tiger 
Snake. The species occurs in ashy downs 
country of the Cooper Creek-Diamantina 
drainage system. 

and sweetlips; Ingram 
on the lizards and the bizarre 
and possibly extinct 
gastric-brooding frog, Rheobatrachus situs; Czechura on the unusual skink 
Nannoscincus graciloides; Covacevich on the highly toxic Small-scaled 
Snake Oxyuranus microlepidotus; Ingram on the Plumed Frogmouth, 
Podargus ocellatus; Longmore on the new species, the Eungella 
Honeyeater; and Van Dyck and Archer on small carnivorous marsupials 54 . 
The majority of the larger and more conspicuous of the vertebrates of 
the state now have been described and their habitats recorded. For this 
reason, it is probable that, in the future, some of the museum resources 
and staff previously dedicated to studies of vertebrates will be diverted to 


tackle those groups of organisms that are less known and more in need of 
documentation. Despite this, the vertebrate collections will continue to be 
an irreplaceable archive. With the application of new techniques for 
registration and preservation, new approaches to display and vastly- 
improved storage facilities and retrieval systems, the use of the archive 
will be enhanced. Further, bird and mammal reference collections assume 
special importance in the 1980s, for it is becoming extremely difficult to 
augment them. Natural areas are diminishing and there are stringent 
regulations under fauna protection legislation that, for conservation 
reasons, preclude collecting. Nevertheless, with the upsurge of interest in 
the environment, interest in the vertebrates, which flourished in the late 
19th century, has never been higher than it is today. 

The Black Mountain Skink, Qirlia 
scirtetis, is an inhabitant of the bare 
boulder mountains near Cooktown. It 
was describe tied by Ingram and 

Covacevich in 1980. 


Antechinus lea occurs only in the 
vineforests of Iron Range-McLlwraith 
Range on Cape York Peninsula. It was 
collected during revisionary work on 
small carnivorous marsupials and was 
described in 1980. 

M^^H , ' V - ''■ 



The Platypus Frog, Rheobatrachus silus, 

created u sensation in the scientific 
world. The female carries her young in 
her stomach. The young have a secretion 
thai protects them from their mother's 
digestive juices. 


Silvester Diggles, honorary curator of the 
Queensland Philosophical Society 1869- 

Previous page: the Cooloola Monster, 
Cooloola propator Rentz, 1980, the type 
species of the Cooloolidae, a new family 
of the Orthoptera, found in 1975 by 
a museum party (drawing by S.P. Kim. 
from Rentz, 1980 *»). 

Two environments on earth are noted for the diversity and 
spectacular form of their invertebrates— coral reefs and 
rainforests. Queensland has the lion's share of Australia's 
rainforests and the largest coral reef system in the world, as 
well as a wealth of other habitats. The museum's role in 
investigating and documenting these rich invertebrate faunas is well 
recognised in 1986— but it has not always been so. The development of a 
tradition of invertebrate studies has been a slow and sometimes painful 
process — a struggle to build collections of significance when interstate and 
overseas museums had collected widely in Queensland and its waters 
before the museum was on its feet; and a struggle to bring invertebrate 
studies out from the shadow of vertebrate palaeontology with its public 
appeal and with the institution's reputation for such studies already firmly 

The utilitarian role that geological collections could fill in allowing 
prospectors and miners to identify their ore samples was a powerful force 
in the establishment of the museum (see Chapters 3, 6). In contrast the 
biological collections began to accumulate through the more idealistic 
enterprises of the 'gentleman collectors' of the Queensland Philosophical 
Society. To the Victorian gentleman of that inclination his cabinet of ' 
specimens had several social functions — a conversation piece, an aesthetic 
display, a medium of exchange and communication with his 
correspondents elsewhere, a hobby that could dispel the boredom of long, 
slow bush travel, and for some, a means of serious scientific endeavour. 
Certain groups of animals found favour in the private collections of this 
era. Criteria for acceptability included intrinsic appeal of colour and form, 
ease of preservation and small size. Shells and insects fit these criteria 
admirably so it is no surprise that these are most frequently mentioned in 
references to the earliest informal collections brought together by the 
Philosophical Society. It was these collections that were to come under the 
official control of the honorary curator, Charles Coxen, in 1871 and 
ultimately the first board of trustees in 1876. 

There is little to indicate the size and nature of the invertebrate 
holdings when Karl Staiger became custodian in 1873. He reported to the 
Hon. W.H.Walsh on 2 June 1873 that the collection contained 'a small 
collection of insects and shells none of which I found named' l . However, 
only three years later, at its second meeting, the newly appointed board of 
trustees, having recognized the urgency of assessing the collections under 
its charge, set about the preparation of an inventory which duly listed 
about 4,000 insects, 5,000 molluscs, a modest number of crustaceans, and 
a few annelids, corals and sponges. 

The preponderance of insects and molluscs probably reflects the 
interests of the two most active contributors to the embryonic museum — 
Charles Coxen and Silvester Diggles. Although both were primarily 
ornithologists, Diggles was also interested in entomology, and Coxen, with 
his wife Elizabeth, had shell collections that later came to the museum. 

Because they are conspicuous in Queensland, and because they 
affected agricultural endeavours of the colonists, insects, as well as 
forming attractive displays in show cases, continued as the invertebrate 
group that was given most attention in the museum from the time of its 
foundation until only relatively recently. Molluscs came a very poor 
second. Other invertebrate groups were to wait a long time before they 
were studied and many remain almost unknown to this day. 



In addition to Silvester Diggles. the most conspicuous amongst 
those who have contributed to and worked un the insect collections in the 
Queensland Museum up to 1940 were W.H. Miskin, Henry Try. 
CJ. Wild, Henry Hacker, AA Girault and A.J. Turner. 

Silvester Diggles was a musician and artist who settled in Brisbane 
in 1854. He is regarded as Queensland's pioneer entomologist^, exhibiting 
oh en at the Philosophical Society's meetings on insect topics, sending 
many specimens to taxonomists around the world for description, and 
maintaining meticulous sketchbooks of the insect life histories he worked 
out. The butterfly Hypochrysops digglesii and the rare chafer beetle 
'Lapmiosdwma digglest are among the species that bear his name. 

In 1863 the Philosophical Society bought one of the largest and best 
private collections of insects in the colonies' for £1S from a Mr Salting of 
Sydney \ This comprised two cabinets and they were rearranged by 
Diggles who, in 1871 claimed that 'the curatorship in great part devolves 
on me'-. He was then one of the two curators of the society's collections, 
but at this stage these were being handed over to the government 
museum of which Coxen was honorary curator (see Chapter 3). He 
regularly supplemented the society's museum collection with specimens 
from his own. The latter comprised a cabinet of Australian Lepidoptera 
and Coieoptera and some foreign beetles. His collection was potentially of 
great long term value because it contained duplies my of the 

species sent to be described elsewhere. In 1877 the board of trustees 
declined his offer to sell it to the museum for £250 for the Australian 
cabinet and £102.9.4 for the foreign material 4 . After his death in 1880 his 
widow offered it to the museum for £100, the collection being then in 
Melbourne after having been recently exhibited in Sydney and Melbourne. 
Trustee Miskin had misgivings about its condition after such travels and 
the board delayed a decision on the offer'. Meanwhile, it was sold 
elsewhere— a great loss to Queensland. 

Miskin's association with the museum began when he was 
appointed to the first board of trustees in 1876. Coxen and Miskin, the 
biologically inclined trustees, had been appointed to help Chairman A.C. 
Gregory prepare the inventory of the collection. As Coxen had died 
soon after, the weight of this task probably fell on Miskin. It was one of his 
first tasks and he probably relished it, for he was a consistent attender at 
board meetings and clearly the security and care of the collections were of 
great concern to him (see Chapter 14). 

Trustee Miskin was an amateur lepidopterist, publishing a small 
series of fine papers between 1874 and 1B92*. He described butterflies 
collected by museum collector CJ. Wild in the Cairns area but for some 
reason always misspelt Wild's name, a fact to which the uncommon 
oakblue butterfly, Arhopala wildei, is permanent testament. He also has the 
distinction of having described, in 1876, the moth with the largest wing 
area in the world, the north Queensland Coscinocem Hercules — its types 
reside in the museum 7 . Miskin's most important work was his Synonynuca} 
Catalogue of the Australian butterflies which occupied pride of place as the 
first paper (93 pp.) in the first volume of the Annals of the Queensland 
Museum in 1891 Its preface made a challenge that sounded as though a 
particular person was involved: 

Rainforest- one of the most dr 

n earl h — in southeast 
land, Ml Cordesux [pbui 

Ml Tan ■■■ 

I declare myself an uncompromising opponent of the Bp>- 

makers still worse it is. when persons entirely ignorant of thr 

literature of the subject, from a mere desire to haVe thru names 

appear in type, recklessly publish descriptions of allegedly new 
species 8 . 

That person may have been T.P. Lucas, a Brisbane physician, who was 
concurrently describing butterflies, and who had applied for a position as 
entomologist at the museum in 1888 y . In 1889 Miskin had argued against 
Lucas' access to the museum collection because of implications that he 
was a dealer* 1 . Soon after, in April 1890, a controversy erupted within the 
board when Lucas made unspecified allegations against Miskin in a letter 
to the minister, and demanded an enquiry into the museum's 
management 11 . The board rejected the idea of holding an enquiry, but 
Miskin complained that its response to the allegations was 'too apologetic 
and with too much explanatory detail' 12 . Miskin appears to have rejected 
entomology soon after. Though only 50 when he resigned from the board 
and left Brisbane in 1892, his wife sold his entire collection and library 
(3 large cabinets, 4 small cabinets. 22 store boxes, 59 wall cases, 
200 books) to the museum for £226, and Miskin never wrote on insects 
again 13 . With the taxonomic hindsight of almost a century it is worth noting 

Coral reefs abound along the Queensland 
coast. Above: Heron Island and Us reef, 
Great Barrier Reef; below: corals at 
Heron Island {photograph by courtesy 


that more of Miskin's new butterfly species have survived synonymy than 
have those of T.P. Lucas. 

After the short terms of W.A. Haswell and F.M. Bailey as curator and 
acting curator, respectively, during the period 1879-1882, the eventual 
appointment, in 1882, of C.W. de Vis— as curator — began a period of 
development for the museum. Though the collections were already 
growing through regular donations following public appeals by de Vis,the 
first staff priority in the zoological area was for a field collector. Kendall 
Broadbent, a bushman-naturalist of remarkable energy and independence, 
first came to the board's notice through casual purchase of specimens from 
him in 1880 (see Chapter 3). After a temporary appointment at £3 per week, 
from May 1882 to March 1883, he was made full time in May 1883 w . 
Though Broadbent's talents were principally in the vertebrate field, his 
collections always included substantial invertebrate components, 
particularly molluscs. His trip to Cardwell in 1882 yielded 'Lepidoptera, 
Mollusca and other marine invertebrates' 15 ; from Cape York in 1884 he 
collected '951 vertebrates and 1324 invertebrates' 16 . He joined the colourful 
former parliamentarian, Archibald Meston, on his Bellenden Ker 
expedition in 1889, and gained a small batch of insects reported on by 
Henry Tryon and a more significant mollusc collection written up 
by Charles Hedley 17 . 

Broadbent was a field man and de Vis was a vertebrate specialist — 
a clear need existed for someone who could take scientific charge of the 
invertebrate collection. The fulfilment of that need in 1883 saw the 
appointment of a man whose actions were to occupy more board 
discussion than any other item for the next ten years, who was to go on to 
a distinguished career in another government department, and whom a 
posthumous biographer was to describe as 'an erudite and versatile 

scientist with a brilliant brain, a sarcastic tongue and a cantankerous 

nature' 18 . That man was Henry Tryon. 

Born in England in 1856, Tryon was lured from his studies of 
medicine by the call of natural history and adventure. After exploits in 
Sweden retracing the footsteps of Linnaeus, he travelled to New Zealand 
ostensibly to manage a grazing property for his father, but he explored 
widely, making plant collections as he travelled. He came to Brisbane in 
1882 with dreams of a future in the then embryonic sugar industry in 
north Queensland 19 . He first appears in the records of the museum, in 
September 1882, as the donor of '15 crabs, 7 fish, 8 shells, 3 starfish and 
1 urchin from Stradbroke Island' 20 . Tryon soon used the museum as 
headquarters for his natural history pursuits and began proselytizing and 
collecting for the museum, as the following extracts from a letter from him 
to de Vis, written from Mackay in December 1882, reveal: 

I spent a few days at Inskip Point despatched from there a box 

containing some bird skins, a few shells and plants. I called on the 
Telegraphist, he had some nice sea snakes in pickle for you, to which 

I added a few starfishes I told him to collect crabs which are very 

plentiful those among the mangrove swamps being particularly 

interesting. 1 made one excursion to the back of Tin Can Bay with a 
party of blackfellows, but as I was walking from morning to night for 

3 days did not find time to collect anything in Rockhampton called 

at the School of Arts tried to impress (the librarian) with the 

immediate necessity of sending you some specimens of snakes which 
he had in possession in accordance with your admirable proposal re 
formation of Local Museum. 

From Rockhampton I started on foot for Port Mackay which I 
reached in ten days after very arduous walking. Pedestrians are 

Henry Tryon, clerical assistant 1883-4, 
assistant curator 1885-93, government 
entomologist Department of Agriculture 
from 1894. 


regarded as vagrants and despicable objects here, hence the cruel 

inhospitality which I often experienced hence my motive for 

hurrying aiong J walked from Broad Sound in stages of 35. 20, 20 

and 50 (4.3) miles, and so you may conclude that I collected nothing. 

I hove been offered the combined duties of "kanaka" driver and 

accountant those occupations appear an end in themselves and 

i nay very well grow old performing them. I feel very much 
inclined to go to Sydney, where there are plenty of books and 

■ ■ r >'- 

1 left Mr Brown's spirit drum in Kockhampton to be forwarded to me 
here, and will fill it as opportunity offers. If you have time and any 
special desiderata 1 trust you will write to me quickly. You know 1 
Like great interest in any new discoveries ' 

A bizarre now species of flat-bug 

l Ai.ididut_\) !rum [he Gunge) la National 

Park. These curiou ii ;are under 
study Jt the museum (drawing by Sybil 

He was soon back in Brisbane and his volunteer work for the museum 
attracted special mention in the annual report for 1882. It continued on 
many fronts in 1883. In January he volunteered to help Broad bent with 
explorations of the rich fossil marsupial deposits on the Darling Downs. 
After the museum received an exchange of 300 species of Coleoptera from 
William Macleay in Sydney in February, the board noted, in May, that 'the 
collection of Australian beetles has been receiving attention. In the course 
of its arrangement about 500 species have been incorporated' — 
undoubtedly Tryon's work-. His enterprise and enthusiasm led to the 
recommendation, in September 1883, that he be employed for three 
months as clerical assistant at £3 per week. This was at about the time 
when Mrs Coxen ceased responsibility for the shell collections and Tryon 
assumed at least (tefudu charge of all the invertebrate collections. By the 
beginning of 1884 he was part of the permanent staff; nine months later he 
requested and gained a substantial salary increase; tour months after he 
gained approval to change his title to assistant curator. 

At this time Tryon was the only entomologist in the Queensland 
government service. The period also coincided with the introduction and 
spread of many new agricultural crops— with the inevitable problem of 
insect pests. Though a museum entomologist, the government turned to 
Tryon us their only source of expert advice. He was commissioned to 
investigate fruit pests at Toowoomba, then to serve on the Rabbit 
Commission, then to work on pineapple pests, then sugar cane. These 
duties Tryon accepted with gusto from the Agriculture Department and 
produced, among other things, a landmark 238 page Report on Insects and 
Fungal Pests No t in 1899*1 But this was attributed to the Agriculture 
Department, with no mention of his employer, the Queensland Museum. 
Relations letween Tryon and his board quickly soured. The board resented 
Tryon being absent for long periods without their knowledge and 
undertaking work for which they received neither funds nor credit. 

de Vis was anxious that the insect collections be developed. Jn 1887 
the board endorsed his recommendation that an entomologist be 
appointed, but funding was not possible. In December 1888 the board 
resolved that Tryon 'henceforth work solely on the Insecta'. This Tryon 
agreed to do but threatened to resign if forced to accept the title 
'entomologist' preferring to remain 'assistant curator'-'- 4 . In fact, Tryon 
had tost a commitment to museum work and, after several years of 
increasingly strained relations, the board took the opportunity, presented 
by the forced staff cuts of the 1893 depression, to dismiss him (see 
Chapter 3). The next year Tryon was made government entomologist 
in the Agriculture Department, a position he held with distinction 


for 31 years, as wdl as taking a leading role in Brisbane's scientific 


In July 1899, just before tire museum's shift to the Exhibition building 
several miles away, <le Vis suggested to the board that the museum's 
inseel collection be transferred to the Agriculture Department. At that 
time Henry Tryon would have been well consolidated as government 

entomologist in the Agriculture Department— just next dour in William 
Street— and making regular use of the museum's insect reference 
collection. Clearly de Vis saw the proposal as beneficial to both the 
museum and the Agriculture Department, given the pressures then 
operating on both. However it 'did not meet with the approval of the 
hoard'"' .and the Agriculture Department wvnt on to develop a rn.ijor insect 
collection of its own. 

Charles de Vis offered to allocate his own Sunday allowance to 
support an insect collector in 1889 and this provoked the board to a 
decision that sufficient contingency funds were available for this purpos 
Charles James Wild was immediately appointed temporarily at 30 shillings 
per week (see Chapter 3). This set CJ. Wild, then aged 30, at the start of a 
22 year association with the museum during which he held official titles 
which ran a sequence from insect collector to messenger, to entomologist, 
to acting director and back finally to insect collector. If a career could be 
said to have ups' and "downs' then Wild's had a preponderance of them. 

Wild appears to have been a man of modest ambition and ability of 
whom too much was asked. Though appointed as an insect collector his 
interests clearly lay with shells. He first appears in the records of the 
museum in March 1888 as a resident of Burpengary donating a collection 
of 'land and marine shells'^ 7 . A month after his first apointment it was 
reported that 'the newly-appointed insect collector displays most 
commendable zeal'-*, the following month he made 'satisfactory 
progress' 29 , but a month later Nerang was 'not rich'*'. The sea beckoned — 
by August the conchological department was able to report 'having 
received a large and varied collection of shells' from Wild at Burleigh 
Heads". Wild was active in the short-lived Natural History Society of 
Queensland, founded by Henry Tryon in 1892. but his exhibits were 
principally shells and plants u . 

In July 189(» Wild was sent to Cairns to collect insects, especially along 
the railway being then built to Herberton. He was to remain in the area for 
almost 16 months, but the museum collection today bears little evidence of 
specimens from that enterprise. After losing his collecting gear he was 
'instructed to travel less continuously but as a rule remain in each locality 
for not less than 3 months' l \ A little later it was thought 'advisable that 
the insect collector should be transferred to some other fields of labour' 
and he was recalled to Brisbane 

In December 1892 Wild was placed on the permanent staff after both 
de Vis- and trustee Joseph Bancroft spoke in his favour. He appears to have 
had an amiable relationship with both de Vis and Tryon, perhaps a difficult 
achievement, and was one of the two staff kept when the drastic 
depression retrenchments of 1893 occurred (see Chapter 3). At this 
time he was kept on as messenger— however, in 1894 he was 'in charge 
of the insect department' when a theft was reported of several American 
butterflies from the Miskin collection*. In 1899 he was sent to 
Cunnamulla to begin a mosquito collection which was to be sent to the 
British Museunr 1 ' 1 . 

Wild's position— as messenger — had become temporary in 1895. but 

Vi told pTVputur '. 
BpeciBS ol the new family found if) 
— the tal new family of its >r. 
described since 1914. A museum party 
fnund il in deep sand in the Cofl 
region of south-eastern Queensland fta 

anean babital in deep sand, 
probably concealed 11 \rotn earlier 
collectors* and resulted in remarkable 
adaptations that distinguish it from other 
families ot the Onhrop!cr:i (drawing by 
S.P. Kim, bom Rent/., 1980 **). 


when he was returned to the permanent staff, in May 1901, he successfully 
sought a change in his official title to entomologist. However, in 1903 the 
board was to note that 'exchanges proposed by insect collectors had been 
declined, the Entomologist having no leisure for such work' 17 . Wild never 
published in entomology, and his elevation to acting director following the 
retirement of de Vis in 1905 put paid to any possibility that he might. 
Robert Etheridge's report of 1910 was not complimentary to Wild and it 
included the scathing comment: 'he says Conchology is his hobby' *. 

When Ronald Hamlyn-Harris 
was appointed director, following the 
jjffc^^ recommendations of the 

Etheridge report, Wild's 
days were clearly 

numbered, but they 
could hardly 

have been 
more harshly- 
He was made 
insect collector 
again at age 58. 
Having spent 
most of the last 
decade in office work, 
including four years in 
charge of the museum, 
he was despatched 
alone into the Blackall 
Range for three months 
His task was to collect 
large insects. It was April 
1911— early winter, when 
insects, particularly large 
ones, are rare; and he was 
provided with written 
Instructions for Preserving and 
forwarding Insects such as one 
would give a school boy. His 
numerous letters to Hamlyn-Harris 
from the field record his progressive 
misery: 1 April 'I had a fall on the 

bank of the creek in my anxiety '; 

10 April 'I am sorry my efforts have not 

met with your approval '; 15 May Tor 

more than a week I have been very 

unwell for the last 3 days I have 

had nothing to eat '; 26 May 

There was a bitter frost'; 30 May 
'so cold I can hardly hold the gun 


On 5 June, at Woodford, a fire swept through his camp destroying 
everything including his tent, food and clothing. A police enquiry initiated 
by Hamlyn-Harris reported: 'Constable Leahy who visited the spot and 
inspected it is of the opinion that the fire originated from Mr Wild's own 
camp fire' 41 . Despite Wild's offer to accept transfer to another department 
he was dismissed on 31 July, after Hamlyn-Harris opined to the under 
secretary that 'Mr Wild is simply wasting his time and ours' 42 . 

The way Hamlyn-Harris got rid of Wild seems especially harsh, for 
his services as an insect collector were no 
longer essential to the museum. 
Entomologist Henry Hacker, 
with an outstanding 
reputation as a field 
collector, had 
already been 

appointed and 
Wild could have 
been more 
humanely directed 
into his favoured 
? conchology to eke 
out his final days at 
the museum. Wild was 
the last officially designated 
biological collector at the 
| museum and his 
departure marked the end 
of a traditional museum 
era where curators curated, 
collectors collected, and the 
twain rarely met. 
Thenceforth Hacker himself 
collected insects— with 
spectacular results. 

Hamlyn-Harris, appointed 
in 1910 and charged with the 
H* revitalization of the museum, came 
S^ to the task equipped with a classical 
European scientific education and a 
wide circle of established contacts in 
the scientific community. His 
background lay with invertebrates, having 
published a seminal paper on statocysts in 
cephalopods and having worked with bees 
in England and mosquitoes in the West 
Indies. He soon followed up some of these 
interests. In 1911 he wrote to Thomas 
Bancroft, of Eidsvold, asking for mosquito 
specimens to augment the museum's 

The type specimen of Coscinocera 
hercules Miskin, 1876— the moth with the 
largest wing span in the world. The 
female is shown, actual size. * 


Henry Hacker, 

Museum 1911- 

entomologist, Queensland 

collection which he found to be in a parlous state 43 . Thomas, son of Joseph 
Bancroft, a prominent member of the museum's first board of trustees, 
had published a review of Queensland mosquitoes in the 1908 museum's 
Annals u — it generated many reprint requests to the museum. Hamlyn- 
Harris also began to borrow cephalopods for study and he went to some 
lengths to gain permission to work up those from the Commonwealth 
survey vessel, Endeavour— named after Captain Cook's ship. Neither of 
these research aspirations was to bear fruit during his museum years — 
he wrote largely on ethnological topics. His principal contribution in the 
invertebrate field was to appoint capable honorary and permanent staff, to 
build up the collections and, importantly, to open a dialogue with the 
leading workers of the time. 

Within twelve months of his appointment Hamlyn-Harris was in 
contact with numerous workers offering collections for study and often 
publication space in the museum's own periodical. Entomologists of note 
contacted by Hamlyn-Harris included HJ. Carter, G.A. Waterhouse, 
R.J. Tillyard, E.W. Ferguson, A.M. Lea, and A.A. Girault. H.J. Carter, the 
prolific amateur coleopterist who was principal of Ascham Girls School 
in Sydney, wrote enthusing about a collection of Tenebrionidae he had 
received and offering to name a new pie-dish beetle Helaeus harrisi 45 . 
Hamlyn-Harris asked him to change it to Helaeus hamlyni 'because Harris 
is such a common name' 46 . Carter also diplomatically raised the penurious 
state of a young teaching colleague of his who was recuperating from ill 
health at Dorrigo without pay, and suggested that the museum might offer 
to buy named dragonflies from him 47 . Hamlyn-Harris contacted the young 
man and a deal was struck, but not without pangs of conscience on the part 
of the vendor, who wrote, 'I know you will sympathize with me in this. 
I never sold an insect in my life. I feel it a bit of a degradation (I hate 
professionalism in entomology) to have to do it, but I must do it or "go 
hang'*' 48 . The museum thus acquired for £10 a valuable set of named 
dragonflies from Robin John Tillyard, then on the hesitant brink of a 
stunning career in entomology. 

Another young man with a much greater dislike of 'professionalism' 
in entomology than Tillyard, and one who was to leave a much more 
enduring mark on the Queensland Museum, visited Hamlyn-Harris during 
his second year in office. Alexandre Arsene Girault was an American 
passing through Brisbane on his way to an entomologist's job in north 
Queensland. Although his duties were to involve investigation of sugar 
cane pests, his passion was the taxonomy of the Chalcidoidea, a vast group 
of tiny parasitic wasps on which he was already an established worker. 
Soon after he took up duty he wrote to Hamlyn-Harris enquiring about 
publication possibilities and offering to lodge his types in the museum 49 . 
Hamlyn-Harris, obviously impressed with Girault's enthusiasm, and 
anxious to get manuscripts for the first issue of the Memoirs of the 
Queensland Museum — replacing the Annals— agreed to publish his work. 
An awkward problem arose for Hamlyn-Harris when the first manuscript 
arrived for it contained a lengthy prefatory declaration of a polemical 
nature quite unrelated to the scientific content of the paper. Hamlyn- 
Harris was unhappy about this because of the precedent it would set for 
others wishing to express their personal opinions. But he felt obliged to 
honour his undertaking to Girault and he printed it unchanged, though 
with a footnoted disclaimer. Girault's paper occupied 124 pages, more than 
half the first issue of the new Memoirs 50 , Soon after it appeared Hamlyn 
Harris' worst fears were realized — he received a facetious letter from 


lepidopterist A.J. Turner threatening to: 

send you an entomological paper in which the n©W species w i 

named after the Popes of Rome and to dedicate each species with 

a sentence damning some particular heresy. 1 propose to precede the 
whole with a short dedication expressing in obscure and oracular 
terms a dogmatic view of the Universe from the stand point of 
Roman Catholicism *. 

After this Hamlyn-Harris reasoned with Gtrault and received his 
permission to use discretion regarding any future dedications that he 
might want published in his M&mn'rs papers. It did not happen again. 
Girault's next contribution ran to 570 pages and filled 2 volumes of the 
Memoirs. Hamlyn-Harris then received criticism from NSW government 
entomologist, W.W. Froggatt. for publishing what Froggatt felt were 
Girault's inadequate taxonomic descriptions M — a complaint with which 
modern entomologists would agree. Froggatt also thought — mistakenly — 
that Girault was creating so many new species that surely he must have 
entered into an arrangement with the museum whereby it would purchase 
his type specimens. 

Girault's subsequent tormented life has been well documented 
elsewhere 5: '. It was spent in and out of employment due to personal 
disputes and the constraints of periods of financial depression, In Brisbane 
he suffered poverty, debilitating manual labour, and the premature loss of 
his wife leaving five children to support. But he continued a prodigious 
output of taxonomic work, often resorting to privately printed pamphlets 
as an outlet. In these he expressed, in unconventional terms, his burning 
convictions about the low status of 'pure' science and his disdain for those 
whom he felt had prostituted themselves to ambition and 
'professionalism'. Heber Longman was to help Girault over the years with 
microscope slides, mounting materials and a degree of moral support 
during his low periods. Girault always spoke kindly of the museum and 
continued to lodge his types there. These, though initially in a pitiful state 
of preservation and documentation, total some 3500 specimens and 
represent one of the important type holdings in the museum. At his death 
in 194lGirauJt left behind an unpublished manuscript of 2483 handwritten 
pages weighing 37 pounds. The interpretation of his type specimens in the 
light of this document has presented an almost Giraultian torment to 
curator E.C. Dahms in recent years. 

Henry Hacker, whom Hamlyn-Harris appointed as entomologist in 
1911, was outstanding: 

not only did Henry Hacker have great observational and practical 
skills in dealing with insects, enthusiasm for collecting them, and an 
"eye for a species", but he was also physically tough, resourceful and 
self-reliant, with a capacity for meeting awkward situations, and 
mentally tough too. for when he had determined on a course he 
pursued it despite hazards and discomforts^. 

Gaining his original expertise with insects at the British Museum, 
he came to Australia in the late 1890s and led a mobile, adventurous life, 
following the gold discoveries, and collecting insects wherever he went. 
Unlike Henry Tryon, whose travels had been pedestrian, Hacker chose a 
bicycle. In a published letter to coleoptenst A.M. Lea he describes part of 
a 500 mile ride from Charters Towers to Cloncurry in 1907. 

It was impossible to ride or even to push my bicycle through the wet 
black soil, so I shouldered it at sunrise and started to walk to the 
next stopping place, Fishers Creek, a distance of 40 miles. With the 
help of a little riding in the harder parts of the country my halting 


Rowland Midge, a pioneer naturalist of 
the early 20th century, who worked on 
butterflies and beetles as well as birds. 
His association with the museum 
spanned nearly half a century. His 
interest in natural history is said to have 
first developed through Elizabeth Coxen 
in the 1880s. 

place was reached at midnight, after having to leave the bicycle on 

the road the hotel was closed, and I was compelled to sleep in wet 

cloths on the footpath. Next day I walked back to the bicycle 55 . 

During these travels he built up a large beetle collection of 6000 
species which he sold to the Berlin Museum about 1910 56 . More 
importantly for his later career he built up close personal contacts with 
working taxonomists around Australia. Hamlyn-Harris' letter to the under 
secretary recommending Hacker's appointment echoed Etheridge's 
observations about the existing museum insect collection, and to some 
extent it explains the new director's criticism of Wild: 

It must be known to you, that our insect collections are in such a bad 
state of preservation, that the specimens are mostly falling to pieces 
and the cases are full of vermin and unless something is done soon 
they will be irretrievably lost to science 57 . 

Henry Hacker was just the man for the job. Described as 'shy and 
retiring' and 'silent among a group' 54 he took no part in the public lecture 
series which Hamlyn-Harris initiated and is rarely mentioned in the many 
gushing press accounts of the museum stage-managed by his media- 
conscious colleague, Heber Longman. Hacker felt his task was to get the 
Queensland insect fauna collected, properly preserved with good data and, 
most importantly, studied— and he rarely swerved from that path. He 
travelled widely, later graduating to a motor cycle on which he earned a 
reputation equal to his earlier one on the bicycle, and made prodigious 
collections. He despatched material to specialists around the world, 
encouraging them by generosity in exchanges and donation of duplicates. 
A major discovery of his was a member of the primitive 'antarctic' family 
of moss-feeding bugs, Peloridiidae, living in the high Nothofagus forest of 
the Lamington Plateau— the species he described we now know as 
Hackeriella veitchi 58 . 

Henry Hacker went on to publish a series of papers in the Memoirs 
despite Hamlyn-Harris' remark that 'Mr Hacker is a qood working 
entomologist, incapable I take it of doing any scientific work' 58 . His papers 
reflect the breadth of his interests and his remarkable powers of 
observation. Many are illustrated by his own photomicrographs using 
primitive methods, but producing results ahead of their time. He had a 
special interest in bees, publishing a 6-paqe catalogue of Australian species 
in 1921 59 , and for years corresponded with and sent specimens to the 
eminent American bee specialist Professor T.D.A. Cockerel!. Cockerell 
described scores of species sent by Hacker and co-authored a paper with 
him. Typically, when Cockerell personally visited the museum in 1924, the 
press feted his meetings with Longman, barely mentioning Hacker. 

Recognizing Hacker's abilities the government transferred him to the 
Agriculture Department in 1929 where he did an equally efficient job in 
building up that department's insect collection. However he remained in 
charge of the museum's insect collection, working one or two days a week 
there until his retirement in 1943. This marked the beqinning of a close 
association between the entomologists of the museum and the Department 
of Agriculture, and from that time holotypes from the department have 
regularly been lodged in the museum. Hacker gave up entomology' and 
all connection with it after his retirement in 1943, although he lived for 
30 more years, dying in 1973 at the age of 97. 

When G.B. Monteith took charge of the museum's Hemiptera 
collection, in 1978, he was surprised at its small size in view of its having 
been one of Hacker's favoured groups. Recent chance information from 


America reveals (hat just before Hacker retired he sold a large colic 
of Queensland Hemiptera to a wealthy private American hemipterist. Cat) 
J. Diake Drake's collection is now housed separately in the U.S. National 
Museum of Natural History under (he terms ot a generous bequest from 
Drake. Australia's largest species of fungus bug (Aradidae) has its hoMype 
there, a specimen collected by Hacker at Buderim in 1912. It's name is 
Draktessa kackm (Drake), a permanent reminder of the partners in a 
museum impropriety 45 years ago. 

Soon after the secondment of Henry' Hacker to the Agriculture 
Department in 1929 AJ. Turner began informal periods as honorary 
entomologist at the museum. Turner's first association with the museum 
had been a brief term on its board just before its disbandment in 1907. He 
was an eminent paediatrician and prolific amateur Jepidopterist, having 
collected extensively and published 121 papers describing about 3.500 
species' 1 ". A collector colleague of his was Wilfrid Bourne Barnard, one of 
the noted Barnard family of naturalists. Barnard himself was not inclined 
to describe species hut Turner had described numerous species from his 
collection over the years. When Barnard died in 1940 his collection was 
bequeathed to CSIRO in Canberra but, by arrangement with his family, it 
came to the Queensland Museum. We can assume that the 'arrangement 
was influenced by Turner who, then retired, spent several years working 
on the Barnard collection at the museum, contributing three papers on it 
to the Memoirs. The Barnard collection contains about 750 of Turners 
types making it a vital regional adjunct to Turner's own collection — which 
did go to CSIRO, 

Little work was done on the entomological collections from 1940 to 
1962 though Hubert Jarvis of the Agriculture Department spent one day 
per fortnight at the museum during 1944-48. It was in 1962 that Director 
George Mack's long efforts to increase the curatorial staff of the museum 
resulted in the appointment of an entomologist, E.G. Dahms. rite 
responsibility, as Tryon's had been, was the whole of the insect, arachnid 
and other invertebrate collections. Mack himself acted as vertebrate 
curator. Dahms set himself the task of organising and cataloguing the 
collection, especially the 4,000 slides and 18 drawers of pinned specimens 
that comprised the Girault collection. Subsequently the check list of 3,000 
Girault species in the Chaladoidea was published with funds provided by 
the Australian Biological Resources Survey* 1 . 

In 1978 the responsibilities for entomology in the museum were 
shared out between Dahms and the newly appointed curator, G.B. Monteith, 
iVho had formerly been curator of the entomology museum m 
the University of Queensland. Monteith has pursued investigations on 
the biogeography of flightless Hemiptera— their limited capacity for 
dispersal making them excellent subjects for the investigation of isolating 
mechanisms between communities. The acquisition of honorary associate 
T.E. Woodward's collections of Hemiptera was an important one for the 
museum and, with those made by Monteith, the museum's collections of 
the families Aradidae and Lygaeidae in this order are strong. 

Tn the course of his Surveys Monteith has collected extensively, 
especially from rainforest and high altitude areas throughout the state, 
and has expanded greatly the museum's holdings. He has solicited the 
co-operation of many colleagues, who are studying much of the material 
he has collected in connection with his own research. The museum and 
science will benefit accordingly— through the establishment of identified 
reference collections of a variety of insect groups; and through an increase 

Naturalist WB. Bainard. wh<<-.. 

entumuki^cal collection, coniafitinj 
ni Turners types, cam* tu the 
Queensland Museum. 


Charjee nudity kls., <m Northwest ' . 
Capricorn Group 1936. He was ;" this 

enl ' fli -*.- Ujt dj the I ■ i 
i i ■■'"■■I i ommittefi and bad 

Accompanied 3 party ol students from Hie 

j sity of Queensland to the island 

(photograph b> caujtt&y a. Dfinntead). 

in the understanding of dispersal and speciation in rainforest refuge areas. 

The museum also holds the Eland Shaw collection of Australian 
cockroaches that formed the basis of his investigations oi 1914 to 1925 " :1 . 
These were catalogued by E.G. Dahms ,kt and the Blattidae were later 
reviewed by Josephine Mackerras between 1965 and 1968. 

The insects of Queensland are diverse. However, despite their 
economic importance that has resulted in rather more investigation on die 
gToup than for most others, the insects of Australia are still imperfectly 
known and will continue to be collected and studied in the museum for a 
very longtime, 


Alter the Philosophical Society's museum was moved to new quarters 
in the Queen Street Parliamentary' building in 1869, Charles Coxen lent hiy 
shell collection for display. As Coxen's mam interest was ornithology, it 
may be more correct to say that the loaned shell collection was that of his 
wife, Elizabeth Coxen (nee Isaac). She was a serious conchologi9t in her 
own right. Years later, one of her contemporaries, Henry Tryon, was to 
imply that it was her influence, and not that of her husband, which led the 
youthful Rowland Illidge to an interest in shells* 54 . After Coxen's sudden 
death in 1876, following only three meetings of the board of trustees he 
had worked so hard to establish, she offered 'his' shell collection for sale 
to the museum with the request that she gain some remuneration for 
maintaining the museum's shells. After some clarification of the 
demarcation between the Coxen collection and the museum collection at 
the request of ever vigilant trustee W.H. Miskin, the board agreed, on 
19 January 1877, to buy the collection (including birds and books) for 
£239,2.0, and to make £50 available for Mrs Coxen's curatorial services for 
the year at the rate of 10 shillings per day attended ^. She continued this 
casual arrangement up to about 1882. Thus, Elizabeth Coxen was the first 
person paid to look after invertebrates in the Queensland Museum. 

Between 1882 and 1893 Tryon, Broadbent and Wild added molluscs to 
the museum's collection. When Tryon was directed to devote his time to 
insects, in late 1888, the board solved the concomitant problem of lack of 
curalorship lor the Mollusca by appointing Charles Hedley to a temporary 
position of eunehological assistant. English born, Hedley had worked on an 
oyster lease on Stradbroke Island and at fruit growing near Gladstone. 
After a serious injury to his arm, the museum job gave him welcome relief 
from heavy work" During 1889 he completely rearranged the shells and 
donated a collection of his own w . A collection from Sydney conchologist 
T- Brazier was also received 6 ". 

In early 1890, Sir William MacGregor, having met Hedley when he 

•d through Brisbane, wroLe and asked for him to be allowed to join 
his New Guinea expedition, then in progress, The board was enthusiastic 
about this proposal and 'on the understanding that Mr Hedley would 
collect solely for the Museum he had been furnished with collecting 
materials and his passage paid to Cooktown'* The board also resolved 
that if an assistant zoologists salary should become available then it 
should be offered to Hedley. His report from New Guinea in July of the 
same year revealed the experience of many eager naturalists on their first 
visit to the tropics for his 'expectations of a rich harvest of objects of 
interest were somewhat disappointed' r,J . Malaria overcame him and on 
return to Brisbane he had to sever his connections with the museum. In 
1891 he joined the Australian Museum where his 30-year career made him 
a key figure in Australian malacology**. 


Years later, from the Australian Museum, Hedley was able to perform 
a service for the museum that resulted in its acquisition of an important 
collection. Hamlyn-Harris had met E.J. Banfield— the celebrated 
'Beachcomber' of Dunk Island — in Brisbane in 1911 and must have 
appealed to him for specimens from the Great Barrier Reef, for on his 
return to Dunk Island Banfield was to write: 

As I explained to you I am somewhat embarrassed. Your predecessor 
seemed not to encourage me and I made other alliances, which it 
would be vain of me to disregard 71 . 

One of the 'other alliances' Banfield was referring to was with the 
Australian Museum. It had arisen through his long friendship with Charles 
Hedley. After the 'Beachcombers' death in 1923 his widow, Bertha, offered 
his collection to the Australian Museum as a token of his long association 
with Hedley. However, Sir Matthew Nathan, Queensland's governor, and a 
great proselytizer for Great Barrier Reef studies, personally intervened 
with Mrs Banfield appealing for the retention of Banfield's collection in 
the state. Conscience wracked, Bertha wrote to Hedley explaining 
her dilemma: 

I regret my want of thought exceedingly, but will you after this 
explanation allow me to offer to the Queensland museum the first 

refusal of the shells I have tried to act as I have thought would be 

pleasing to my dear one, and he was so intensely patriotic as regards 
Queensland I think he would have liked his treasures to remain 
with her 72 . 

To her relief Hedley fully agreed that Banfield's memory 'should be 
especially cherished in Queensland' 73 and so the museum gained an 
important and historic collection which was placed on public display for 
many years. 

After Hedley left the museum there was no one to look after the 
shells — for it was soon after that the retrenchments of 1893 reduced the 
staff so drastically (see Chapter 3). Undoubtedly Wild would have liked 
to, but it is not likely that he had the time and he was not given 
the opportunity. 

When Hamlyn-Harris increased the scientific strength of the 
institution by appointing honoraries in 1912, John Shirley DSc was 
appointed honorary conchologist. He was an inspector of schools, a 
prominent figure in Brisbane's scientific circles, and later to become first 
principal of the Teachers' Training College 3 . He spent Saturday afternoons 
and all holidays reducing the collection from 'chaotic' to orderly. But in 
1914 he wrote to Hamlyn-Harris: 

The want of literature in your institution, especially of the works 
named in my former letter, and also of such French conchologists as 
Montrouzier, Crosse, Fischer, Quoy and Gaimard are also great 

hindrance to the determination of shells Under these conditions 

I find that 1 cannot spare sufficient time for accurate determination. 
I must therefore ask you to accept my resignation 74 . 

After Shirley retired from the teachers' college in 1919 Longman 
arranged his appointment as conchologist at the beginning of 1920 (at age 
71) at a salary of £200 p.a. He 'revised and rearranged with the skill of an 
expert who had made a hobby of the shells of our foreshore' 7S but he 
ceased work in 1921 and died the next year. His collection was donated to 
the museum in 1973. 

H.W. Hermann was another honorary conchologist to the museum. 
He worked there during the 1940s and he appears to have attracted other 
conchologists to the museum — 

Eland Shaw, the donor of an important 
collection of cockroaches. 


Queensland, 1975. Valerie Davies, curatoi 
m arflchnology, suriing spectmi 

Mr Hawkey a fireman in the railways often comes in for a chat. 

His Speciality is cqnchology — he has a big collection of shells. He 
also knows Mr li.W. Herman well, the honorary eonchologist, who 
spends many hours in the Shell Room where there is no ventilation 
and the smell is different to that pervading the rest of the 
ement 76 * 

Hermann did not even have a table to work at until Mack arrived 
and had cupboards shifted lo make room for one 76 . His large identified 
Collection was, like Shirley's, donated to the museum after about 30 years. 
Hermann's came via Tom Marshall in 1974, K.V. Oldham, the museum 
photographer, also donated his small collection of shells™. 

Thus, the museum had benefited from the work of many honoraries 
and, in due course, was to acquire their collections. However, up to 1970, 
the only significant work to have been published on the collection had 
been that of Hedley and Shirley. Generally the labelling was inadequate, 
registration and cataloguing incomplete and little scientific work had been 
based on the material — which largely consisted of marine shells. There 
was little alcohol preserved material in which the animai was retained 
wath its shell. In fact, although the collection had some value as a 
reference collection, it had little as a scientific resource. Further, there 
was only a very limited representation of the important non-marine 
molluscs that were likely to be unique to Queensland and were not 
represented in other collections in Australia. The first appointment to the 
position of curator of molluscs, Helen King, began to remedy this situation 
and worked on terrestrial species. However, the mechanical cleaning and 
sorting of the large collection of marine shells was a distraction. In 197b* 
Martin J. Bishop — the first museum appointee to come directly from an 
overseas institution — began his investigations on terrestrial snails. Before 
be returned to Cambridge in 1978 he had added significantly to [he 
collection of land molluscs and had contributed to the taxonomy and 
biogeography of Queensland terrestrial molluscs, especially those m 
rainforest areas. In 1980 J. Stanisic was appointed curator, and he 
continued the emphasis on non-marine molluscs, initiating investigations 
on the relatively unknown smaller species of terrestrial snails, especially 
those living in rainforest litter that are important in the energy-flow 
relationships of rainforests. As a result of King's. Bishop's and Stanisic's 
efforts, the terrestrial component of the museum's mollusc collection, 
encompassing a comprehensive coverage of taxa from most habitats 
throughout the state, constitutes an important research tool 

The most recent addition to the mollusc collection is the large 
donation of about 400,000 specimens of marine and non-marine shells 
from honorary associate F.S. Colliver. Apart from its size, the geographic 
and habitat range that is represented makes the collection a valuable 
acquisition) compensating for the poor label data on some of the older 
components of the museum's holdings. Thus the museum now has a 
comprehensive reference collection of tropical Indo-West Pacific marine 
molluscs as well as its growing collection of non-marine species. 


de Vis was the first person in the museum to work on spiders— he 
had a minor Jong-term interest in them. He used to come into the library 
on Sundays to work on them, and in 1911 he described a spider whose silk 
was used by the aborigines for fishing. He also translated keys and 
prepared catalogues of Australian spiders. It was probably de Vis who 
•sted Joseph Lamb in the group. Etheridge in his 1910 report heaped 


praise on Lamb — 'in my opinion the one capable man of the staff who, 

among many other duties, was 'making a special study of spiders and 
frogs' 38 . Lamb, though classified as assistant in the industrial department 
and a painter by trade, published a short paper on new spiders in the 1911 
Annals of the Queensland Museum. But this promising future for 
arachnology came to an abrupt halt with Lamb's resignation, in March 1911, 
because he 'wanted to settle on the land'. A brief flirtation with 
arachnology in the museum about this period manifested itself also in the 
loan of the New Guinea, Northern Territory and Blackall Range spiders to 
W.J. Rainbow at the Australian Museum for description; the donation of 
mygalomorphs by Thomas Bancroft of Eidsvold; the visit of R.H. Pulleine, 
an amateur arachnologist from South Australia, in 1912; and the loan of 
jumping spiders to G.W. Peckham in New York. 

From 1943 to 1946 Mrs Grichting, the librarian, was looking after the 
spiders, and bottles and specimens were brought into the library so that 
she could work on them without leaving the library unattended 76 . She does 
not appear to have published on the group and it was not until 1971 that a 
curator was appointed. 

In 1962, when E.C. Dahms was appointed to the position of curator 
of entomology, his responsibilities included the arachnids, which were 
delegated to an assistant. In 1971 it was an assistant in entomology who 
had been looking after the arachnids, R.W. Monroe, who became the first 
curator of arachnology. He added more than 2,000 specimens from the 
Darling Downs and mid-eastern Queensland to the collections. Valerie 
Davies succeeded Monroe in 1972. Davies specialised in the family 
Amaurobiidae (Araneomorphae) in which she described numbers of new 
species and gernera. However, she also developed a comprehensive 
collection of all taxa, exploring every major habitat in most parts of the 
state. Features of the collecting programme conducted by Davies were the 
rainforest surveys — from the sub-tropical forests of the sand masses of 
south-eastern Queensland to the montane forests of Cape York Peninsula. 
These surveys, which involved continuous periods of up to two months in 
the field, echoed the achievements of the museum collectors of the late 
19th century. They added many thousands of specimens to the collections, 
and included a vast number of as yet undescribed species. From the 

Museum expedition to Iron Range, 
northern Queensland, 1977. L to R: Paul 
Filewood, assistant; Valerie Davies; 
Martin Bishop, curator of malacology. 


northern Queensland material, families with Papua New Guinea affinities 
were recorded in Australia fur the first time. 

Robert Raven became assistant in the arachnid section in 1975 and 
succeeded Davies as curator of arachnology in 1985. Raven specialised in 
My^alomorphae— trapdoor spiders — applying his data to the elucidation 
of biogeographic relationships between the fauna of Australia and the 
western Pacific and the other continents of Gondwanaland. The Lyeosidae 
—wolf spiders — have been studied by R. McKay — who works on the 
family in addition to his responsibilities as curator of fishes. 

Protozoan and Helminth Parasites and Symbionts 

Until the appointment, in 1976, of Lester Cannon— a turbellarian 
specialist — as the curator of lower invertebrates, the museum has not 
had the benefit of an authority on helminth or protozoan parasites. 
Nevertheless it has acquired, through the work of associates and others 
working in Queensland, one of the important Australian collections of 
these groups reflecting the importance of veterinary and medical 
pathology in this tropical state. The first donor was T. Harvey Johnston, 
who arrived in Brisbane in 1911 to become the inaugural lecturer-io-charge 
(and later professor) of the biology department at the newly founded 
University of Queensland. Like Hamlyn-Harris, who had taken up the 
museum directorship the previous year, he was interested in 
invertebrates. Harvey Johnston served as honorary zoologist at the 
museum from 1912. The museum was to become repository for many of 
the helminth and protozoan parasites of vertebrates emanating from his 
work until he moved to the University of Adelaide in 1922. Johnston's 
appointment as an honorary of the museum marked the beginning of a 
long and fruitful relationship with the University of Queensland zoology 
departmenr which still endures. Agreements for deposition of primary 
types in the museum by members of the zoology and entomology 
departments have benefited the museum's invertebrate holdings over 
the j'ears. 

An outstanding student of Harvey Johnston *s was Josephine Bancroft. 
She was the grand-daughter of museum trustee Joseph— the celebrated 
naturalist and medical practitioner who had contributed to the 
identification of the filarial worm causing elephantiasis; and she was the 
daughter of Thomas— who had determined details of the transmission of 
filarial disease by mosquitoes. She collaborated with Harvey Johnston in 
much of his work during his University of Queensland days. As the wife 
of Ian Mackerras the tamed medical entomologist who later became the 
director of the Queensland Institution of Medical Research (QIMR), 
Josephine went on to a distinguished career as a parasitologist in 
that institution. 

Josephine and Ian Mackerras began to work together while at Heron 
Island on their honeymoon. They combined her interest in blood 
protozoans with his interest in vectors of pathological organisms that had 
been particularly important in combatting malaria and other disease in 
the Australian and American armies during World War II. In due course 
Josephine Mackerras made a major contribution to the understanding of 
haematozoan Protozoa and filarial parasites of the Australian native fauna, 
much of veterinary significance 77 . The museum holds her unique and 
comprehensive collection made between 1947 and 1961 

At about the same time D.F. Sandars, a colleague of Josephine 
Mackerras and also a former student of Harvey Johnston's was studying 
helminth parasites at the QIMR. Professor John Sprent of the University 


Professor T. Harvey Johnston, came to 
the University of Queensland in 1911 and 
began a tradition of co-operation 
between that institution and the 


The museum acquires a boat for 
estuarine surveys, 1972. 


Garden C. Wallace, curator of lower 
invertebrates 1970-7. with the ootal 
collet:! ion. 

of Queensland was beginning to work in the same area. Sandar's 
specimens came to the museum; and, in 1986, Sprents collection will be 
accessioned. Thus the museum's helminth reference collection is second 
only to the Australian National Collection, which was first brought 
together by Harvey Johnston and his students at Adelaide University and 
since has attracted other donations. 


Though molluscs received attention at the museum in the earliest 
flays there were equally conspicuous and aesthetically pleasing marine 
invertebrates that were neglected. This was despite the proximity of the 
Great Barrier Reef. Their neglect was partly the result of the sheer 
expense and logistical difficulty of working in those dangerous and remote 
waters; and partly because there was no practical need for knowledge of 
these groups, de Vis had been member of a committee for scientific 
enquiry into the Barrier Reef but it was disbanded for lack of funds. 
Hamlyn-Harris recommended the advisability of the establishment of 
biological stations on the Reef during a lecture tour in Adelaide in January 
1914. Later that year he visited the Reef personally, spending two weeks 
on Dunk Island with the 'Beachcomber', EJ. Banfield. His views on the 
need for a Reef research station received extensive press coverage and 
were supported by Banfield's own regular columns in the Townsvilk 
Daily Bulletin \ 

In the absence of a biological station the Queensland museum is 
performing some of its functions and strenuously fostering the idea 
Or Hamlyn-Harris devoutly believes tu be in the interests of 

science generally 78 . 

Hamlyn-Harris' dreams of a reef station were not realized in his time. 
In 1922 the Great Barrier Reef Committee (GBRC) was formed as an 

iation of invited delegates under the auspices of the Royal 
Geographical Society of Australasia of which the Queensland governor, 
Sir Matthew Nathan, was then president, The committee's chairman was 
H.C. Richards, professor of geology at the University of Queensland. Heber 
Longman, the museum's director, was a member and he suggested, at its 
first meeting, that the committee set up a permanent research station - 
Tbte suggestion, emanating originally from Hamlyn-Harris, was not to be 
adopted until, in 1953, the GBRC, founded the Heron Island Research 
Station*'. Instead, the committee's approaches to the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science resulted in the 1928-29 Yonge expedition 
to Low Isles. Longman, Richards and E.O. Marks visited the expedition as 
committee representatives in October 1928. At the same time, Longman 
encouraged public awareness of the Reef by opening the famous rural 
diorama in the museum. This was developed from material collected by 
preparator Tom Marshall assisted by local Bowen resident E.H. Rainford 
who senr reef invertebrates to the museum for many years until his death 
in 1938. Longman's association with the GBRC produced no great material 
benefits in the way of systematic collections. The committee did not see 
that its responsibilities included the collection of invertebrates for 
Australian museums, which Richards thought were 'already stuffed with 
collections that remained un worked'-* 1 . 

Nevertheless, the museum did receive a collection of corals from the 
GBRC. It was made by Charles Hedley who, in 1924, having retired from 
the Australian Museum, came back to Queensland as scientific officer for 
the committee at a salary of £700 per year*. Hedley made this collection 
when he joined the HMAS Geranium surveying in the waters of the Reef, 


These corals were identified by J.W. Wells of Cornell University who used 
them as the basis for one of the earlier works on taxonomy of Great 
Barrier Reef corals 81 . 

The GBRC coral collection, together with that from Low Isles from 
the University of Queensland, formed the basis of the identified coral 
collection that came under the care of Carden Wallace when she became 
curator of lower invertebrates in 1970. She set herself the task of 
unravelling the taxonomy of the family Acroporidae— the stag-horn corals. 
This group— the dominant one in the reef community— had confounded 
previous efforts to understand it owing to the variability of its growth 
forms, which are readily modified by the environment. She applied an 
innovative numerical approach to the problem with great success, bringing 
credit to the museum 82 . Later, she was coauthor —with J.E.N. Veron of the 
Australian Institute of Marine Science— of the definitive monograph on 
the Acroporidae 83 . 

The coral collection that Wallace built up in the museum before she 
left in 1976 will be vastly expanded in 1986 by the large and important 
collections of James Cook University and the Australian Institute of 
Marine Science — both in Townsville. These collections formed the basis 
for the whole series of monographic works on coral taxonomy that were 
published by the latter institution. Initially, much of this coral material will 
very likely remain in the Townsville branch of the museum to open in 1986 
(see Chapter 14). There is current interest in coral taxonomy in the 
Townsville institutions and it is the museums policy to take cognisance of 
the needs and interests of the local community in deploying its collections, 
expertise and other services through its branch establishments. 


Bruce M. Campbell, formerly curator of the museum in the zoology 
department of the University of Queensland, became curator of zoology 
in 1964. He brought with him, from the zoology department museum, the 
corals from Low Isles reported on by Stephenson and Wells 81 and the 
rocky shore molluscs and other organisms that had been surveyed by 
Endean, Stephenson and Kenny 84 , as well as a variety of other 
invertebrates. Campbell's appointment was at the end of the era of the 
general curator, whose responsibilities ranged through so many diverse 
animal groups that constructive research or even collecting was almost 

Monteith {left) and Dahms, curators of 
entomology, collecting in the rainforest, 
Mt. Glorious (outside Brisbane). 


Queensland Museum-Earthwatch 
expedition to Beiienden Iter, northern 
Queensland* In 1981, Assistant Doug 
Couk descends the cable tower lo iHe 
expedition bivouac at 1000m altitude. 

impossible. In the Queensland Museum his responsibilities excluded only 
insectSj arachnids, reptiles, birds and terrestrial mammals. He curat ed the 
rest of the invertebrates and fishes and aquatic mammals. It was the first 
time since 1888, when Medley had been on the staff, thai an entomologist 
had not had the responsibility lor the entire invertebrate collection. 
Nevertheless, it was a formidable portfolio and it was not until 1968 that 
there was some relief —a curator of fishes was appointed. Campbell kept 
the whales. Not until 1970, with the appointment of other invertebrate 
curators, was he gradually able to assume full time responsibility for 
Crustacea — the subject of his own research. He began to systematically 
develope these collections. Unfortunately Campbell's research on shore 
and mangrove crabs, as well as his participation in surveys of wetland and 
estuarine habitats, came gradually to a halt as he assumed the duties of 
deputy director from 1976. His successor as curator of crustaceans, 
R. Monroe, did some useful work on barnacles before his resignation. 
P. Davie the present curator is continuing the work on crabs. 


The three new curators, appointed in 1970 to alleviate Campbell's 
awesome responsibilities for all of the invertebrates excluding insects and 
atachnids, were m the fields of molluscs, and lower and higher 
invertebrates. The division between the last two was entirely arbitrary, 
depending on the interests and expertise of the encumbents. At first, 
Wallace, as curator of tower invertebrates, had the lion's share — just aboul 
everything except bryozoans, echinoderms and prochordates, none of 
which were particularly well represented in the collections, tn 1974, after i 
year as a caretaker curator of molluscs. Patricia Mather — publishing 
under her maiden name of Kott — became curator of higher invertebrates 
with responsibilities for annelids, bryozoans and prochordates. 
Echinoderms went to Wallace's successor as curator of lower 
invertebrates— Lester Cannon — for no other reason than that he had 
some expertise with them, while Mather had some research experience in 
the Annelida. Mather came to the museum with a sound international 
reputation as an authority on ascidians — commonly known as sea 
squirts— the only authority in the southern hemisphere and one of the few 
in the world. Although an important group of filter feeding organisms in 
temperate as well as tropical seas, the only ascidians that were in the 
collection at the time were some from Moreton Bay that she had lodged 
while a research fellow in the University of Queensland. So she set about 
building up a collection— now a comprehensive representation of species 
from other parts of the tropical West Pacific as well as from both tropical 
and temperate locations around the Australia coast— collected from 
intertidal habitats and complemented by donations of survey material from 
other bent hie habitats. The collection, containing in the vicinity of 25% of 
the holotypes of the species known from Australia, was the basis for 
taxonomic and biogeographic work on the Australian and Indo-West Pacific 
fauna published from 1974 s5 , and culminating in monographs on the 
Australian ascidian fauna being published as volumes in the Memoirs*'. 

The Balance Sheet 

Inevitably, museum collections reflect the interests of the successive 
curators, of the honorary associates of the institution, and of other donors 
wlio have worked in the area. There are other groups of organisms not 
well represented in the collections and some of these have not yet been 
investigated — for the invertebrate fauna is vast and the number of 
workers relatively few. 


Bellenden Ker base camp in lowland 
rainforest at the foot of the mountain 
near the tower of the Telecom cable-car 
used for access to stations along the 
altitude transect up the mountain. 

Bellenden Ker expedition leader Geoff 
Monteith (left) and Ted Edwards from 
CSIRO collect insects from a light trap 
inside the forest. 

In camp at Bellenden Ker pinning small 
moths collected the previous night. 


On the credit side, the museum holds important protozoan and 
helminth collections; earthworms that formed the basis of the taxonomic 
reviews of B.G.M. Jamieson of the University of Queensland; leeches from 
L.R. Richardson's works on Queensland fauna; mites from R. Domrow, 
Queensland Institute of Medical Resarch; ticks from F.H.S. Roberts, 
CSIRO. There are comprehensive collections of spiders resulting from the 
museum's own collecting efforts. Of the larger groups of insects, there are 
good collections of certain families of bugs, beetles and butterflies and 
moths and an important collection of cockroaches. However, on the debit 
side grasshoppers and crickets are not well represented, nor are flies and 
many other insect groups. The collections of Chalcidoidea contain 3,000 
species described by Girault — but there are many habitats yet to 
be sampled and about 75% of the total number of species are estimated to 
be as yet unknown. Collections of non-marine molluscs are growing and 
constitute a unique resource, but there are many habitats yet to be 
sampled and a large part of the fauna remains undescribed. 

The purchase of an ISI Akashi Super II 
scanning electron microscope in July 
1977 greatly extended the museum's 
research capacity, making possible 
magnifications of the order of X10,000— 
about 10 times that of the light 
microscope — and projecting a three 
dimensional image. Right: tarsal claws of 
mygalomorph spider Namea capricornia; 
Opposite page, top: rostrum/head of scrub 
tick, Ixodes holocyclus. middle and 
lower: sponge spicules. 


In the marine field, the Crustacea from Moreton Bay mangrove 
habitats are well represented in the collections. Good collections of 
portunid, grapsid and xanthid crabs that formed the basis of the taxonomic 
investigations of Stephenson, Campbell and Davie are held, as well as the 
barnacles collected by Munroe. Collections of Isopoda came from N. Bruce, 
D. Holdich and K. Harrison; and freshwater crayfish were donated by 
G. Morgan. In addition the museum holds crustaceans from the 
northeastern and northwestern continental shelf received, respectively, 
from Queensland Fisheries Service and CSIRO, providing a resource for 
future studies of deeper water faunas. The collections of the Ascidiacea 
are a comprehensive representation of the Australian species, as are the 
coral collections. However there are many other groups that await 
investigation and there are many habitats still to be explored. The 
museum has collections of echinoderms from Heron Island that formed 
the basis of Endean's reports in 1953-65 * 7 but systematic surveys and 
collections from other areas are lacking, as are identified collections of the 
class Crinoidea. Taxonomy of Queensland sponges, bryozoans, polychaetes, 
coelenterates other than corals and hemichordates awak investigation; 
and the collections held in the museum require the attention of experts to 
build them up to the level of a useful resource. Larger marine molluscs are 
well represented although smaller species have not been sampled and, as 
yet, little scientific work has been done on the collection. Larger 
representatives of the benthic fauna in many phyla were taken from the 
north-eastern continental shelf in a trawl survey exploring waters down to 
300 metres. Deeper waters of the continental shelf have not been sampled; 
nor have the smaller components of the fauna on the shelf. 

There remains much to be done. The museum has never had the staff 
establishment that included experts on every group— nor indeed has any 
museum. By careful planning and judicious appointment of professional 
staff, including honoraries, the museum has, since 1970. gradually been 
building up its collections and its own taxonomic expertise. This will 
continue until it can provide a comprehensive reference collection and 
until the fauna of the state is understood. For it will be from this 
foundation that ecological, physiological and chemical investigations can be 
soundly based and the relationships and significance of all the components 
of the fauna be determined. 







Many of the early colonists of Queensland who founded the 
museum — Coxen and his friends in the Philosophical 
Society — had broad, liberal educational backgrounds that 
enabled them to dabble in many areas. This was also true of 
others who had an association with the museum — members 
of the board of trustees as well as the directors, de Vis, Hamlyn-Harris 
and Longman. They were all interested in evolution, and the new concepts 
proposed by Darwin included the evolution of man. Aborigines were 
regarded as representing 'living exemplars of one of the earliest stages in 
the evolution of mankind. Their social customs and material culture were 
deemed an appropriate subject for museums which were fascinated by 
evolution' 1 . Aboriginal anthropology was therefore seen as a branch of the 
natural sciences and it was displayed 'in taxonomic classification 
comparable to (that of) fossils or fauna' 1 . Eventually this view was to have 
an unfortunate consequence, for in the 20th century it alienated 
Aborigines, who did not accept that museums were protecting, rather than 
exploiting, the material evidence of their culture. Nevertheless it was a 
view that had ensured that aboriginal and other anthropological material 
was collected by the Queensland Museum and, indeed, by the museums 
of other colonies too. 

Hair combs decorated with red, yellow 
and black dyed cane strips from Malaita, 
Solomon Islands, collected by Captain 
W.H. Lawrence master of labour-trade 
ships, and purchased by the museum in 


European notions of a paradise in the south-western Pacific were an 
additional influence on much of the collecting from the islands to the east 
and north of Australia. Pacific cultural material— ranging from embalmed 
heads to ornate spears and elaborately carved figures— was acquired by 
curio hunters and in due course found its way into museums. In fact, 
Pacific displays in museums appear to have been merely collections of 
curios right up to the early 20th century. Gradually, as men saw the south- 
western Pacific as less than paradisial, the emphasis changed and the 
objects were classified and fitted into an evolutionary sequence in much 
the way Aboriginal and other anthropological material had been from the 

Previous page: Message sticks from the 
museum's collection discussed by 
Hamlyn-Harris in 'On messages and 
message sticks employed by the 
Queensland Aborigines' {Mem. Qd Mus. 
1918 6:13-36). 

A 'tomahawk' from New Guinea donated on 24 April 1874 is the 
earliest record for the museum's anthropological collections. However, the 
inventory signed in February 1876 by A.C. Gregory, the first chairman of 
the board of trustees, shows that at that date there were already 227 
anthropological items — 171 from Australia, six from Torres Strait, 15 from 
New Guinea, 25 from Island Melanesia and 10 from New Zealand . Thus, it 
is probable that at least some of this material had been acquired earlier 
than 1874. The status of these anthropological collections is clear: they 


were relegated to the last section of the inventory — headed 'Curios. 
Machinery, Weapons and Furniture'. 

The South-west Pacific 

By 1884 the anthropological collections in the museum had expanded 
to about 700 items, over half of which were from the islands of the south- 
western Pacific — a change had occurred in the ratio of Australian to 
Pacific collections from that of 1876 that forshadowed a permanent bias. 
It reflected the growing interest of Queenslanders in the neighbouring 
islands and peoples as exploration revealed possibilities for trade, mineral 
deposits and cheap labour for the state's burgeoning sugar industry. 


The exploitation of these peoples for labour— the labour-trade — 
brought ships and men from Australia to the Pacific islands. Under 
government regulations each labour-trade vessel had to be accompanied 
by a government agent from the immigration department. These 
gentlemen were often reasonably well educated in the Victorian tradition, 
eager to do their bit for the advancement of science. They, in their turn, 
influenced the less scholarly ships' masters and both — often from the 
same vessel — collected zoological and, apparently as an afterthought, 
ethnological material which they offered as donations or for sale to the 
museum. Involvement in the labour-trade was often a violent and 
dangerous occupation, especially to the islander recruits, but also to the 
Europeans, Indeed, Douglas Rannie, previously a government agent and 
a donor, collector and librarian at the museum, noted that — 


**-. %f 



Whilst engaged on the work of classification (of the Queensland 
Museum collection) the names of former comrades as they recurred 
on the contributors lists recalled many pathetic incidents and 
associations of dear friends who sleep their last long rest beneath 
the waters of the blue pacific or whose lone resting place is known 
alone to the painted warriors of some savage isle-. 

Details are revealed in the records themselves: spear that wounded 
Captain J.W. Coath on the island of Espintu Santo — 18 March died 27 
April 1874, donated by F.J. Pearce, government agent of the Jessie Kelly 
on August 12, 1874; the Ramparamp effigy from Malekula donated on 27 
August, 1883 by Mrs Belbin the widow of Captain R.J. Belbin shot and 
killed on the neighbouring island of Ambrym the day after acquiring the 

The major part of the museum's collections from the Solomon Islands 
and Vanuatu was acquired or collected (and donated later) during the 
period 1885-1906. Donors included senior public servants connected with 

Wan hau ceremonial batons. South 
Malaiia. Solomon Islands collected by 
Captain W.H. Lawrence master of 
labour-trade ships in the 1890s, 
Purchased by the museum in 1901- 


Ancestral board from a men's house at 
Maipua, Gulf of Papua, collected by Sir 
William MacGregor and transferred to 
the museum in 1894. 

the immigration department, and politicians— notably Sir Thomas 
Mcllwraith and Sir Samuel Griffith who were consistent political 
opponents not the least over the labour-trade issue. 

The New Guinea Connection 

This was the age of imperialism and annexation. Suspicion of German 
activities on the island of New Guinea, and perhaps a hope of more 
recruits for the labour trade, led to the declaration of the Protectorate 
of British New Guinea in 1884. The second special commissioner 
administering that protectorate from 1886 to 1888 was an ex-premier of 
Queensland, John Douglas, who was also on the museum board of trustees 
concurrently with his New Guinea appointment. Two collections were 
made during his administration, one for display at the 1886 Colonial and 
Indian Exhibition, London and the other for the Queensland Court of the 
Melbourne Centennial Exhibition of 1888. These collections were the 
beginning of a systematic sampling of cultural items rather than the 
random assortment of curios usually collected from this part of the world. 
In the end, the New Guinea collections represented a remarkable and 
almost unique archive of a people's 'lifestyle, which the collectors — 
mistakenly— believed to be entirely unaffected by western European 
incursions. The collections reflect foresight on the part of those who 
made them and an understanding of the true role of a museum— an 
understanding that is rarely found, even today. 

The first collection, of some 178 items, was purchased by the 
Exhibition's Queensland commissioners— who included two museum 
trustees and the curator, and was intended as a donation to a proposed 
colonial museum in London. Fortunately, the collection was returned to 
Australia in error, and it was transferred to the Queensland Museum 3 . 
The colonial museum didn't eventuate in any case. The second collection 
was made by Anthony Musgrave of the British New Guinea administration 
at Douglas' direction and was intended for the museum after the 
exhibition had closed 4 - 5 . 

Meanwhile the protectorate had been replaced by another form 
of colonial government headed by a new administrator, Sir William 
MacGregor, an Aberdeen-trained medical practitioner with previous 
colonial experience in the Seychelles and Fiji 6 . Administration of the 
colony of British New Guinea was unusual in that it was divided between 
the Colonial Office in London and the separate self-governing Australian 
colonies of Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, each contributing 
to its operation. All despatches to the Colonial Office were sent through 
the governor-in-council in Queensland. During the early part of his 
administration MacGregor looked to Queensland for aid in framing 
ordinances, auditing accounts and so on, so it was a normal occurrence for 
him to approach the Queensland government when he had to find a home 
for the collection of several hundred artefacts from Musgrave's collection 
at the close of the Melbourne Exhibition. MacGregor's intentions in regard 
to this collection were made in a despatch to Sir Henry Norman, governor 
of Queensland: 

There was brought recently from British New Guinea a valuable 
collection of bird skins and there are other articles of natural history 
or ethnology collected by officers paid by the Government, and 

therefore public property They are an asset of the Government of 

British New Guinea, as they have been procured by its paid officers 
but it does not appear to me that they should be kept in British New 

Guinea It is therefore my opinion that it would be better that 

provision were made in the public museum in Brisbane for the 


proper exhibition of New Guinea collections, as a separate and 
permanent branch of that establishment 7 . 

Having received the agreement of the Queensland government 
MacGregor proceeded to have further large collections made under his 
direction. Initially these were zoological, the first ethnological consignment 
of 2876 items not arriving until October 1892. He later stated his reasons 
for undertaking this task: 

The collection belonging to this Colony has been made with the 
object of it possessing as full a set of arms, utensils, products of 
different kinds, etc., as would illustrate its past and present position 
in the future 8 . 

and again later he observed — 

Timely warning has been taken by the omission by Fiji, Hawaii and 

some other places to secure collections of the natives before it is 

too late 9 . 

Knowledge of these collections apparently reached the British 
Museum, for in late 1892 it requested through the secretary of state for 
colonies, Lord Ripon, that the British New Guinea administration aid it in 
the acquisition of ethnological collections from the Micronesian islands 
and New Guinea. MacGregor suggested that a catalogue of the collections 
in the museum should be forwarded to the British Museum for its 
consideration. Charles de Vis, the curator, appears to have stalled — he 
provided a manuscript catalogue that was forwarded to London. Augustus 
W. Franks at the British Museum complained that the catalogue gave 
insufficient detail 10 , and made a general request for items from a wide 
range of localities, de Vis pointed out that due to the reduction in museum 
staff— 1893 being a depression year — he had 'no longer the time to bestow 
upon' the preparation of a systematic catalogue and that 'until the 
catalogue is finished it would be injudicious to set aside for presentation to 
other museums any objects which until critically examined may appear to 
be duplicates. This has been done in cases which have been reported and 
regrettably mistakes have naturally been made in consequence' 11 . He 
therefore recommended that the matter of the transfer of material to the 
British Museum be deferred, a conclusion with which the Queensland 
premier and Sir William MacGregor concurred. By that time MacGregor 
had amassed another large collection of 2136 items and this arrived in 
Brisbane on 1 August 1894. 

During a visit to Brisbane that year MacGregor gained the 
impression, apparently in conversation with de Vis, that the museum 
understood it had the right to exchange specimens from the British New 
Guinea collections. He entirely dissented from this view, and formally 
notified the Queensland governor a year later that he regarded 'the 
Curator and Trustees of the Queensland Museum simply as custodians of 
the British New Guinea collection and as possessing no power whatever to 
alienate any article in the collection' 12 . Subsequent correspondence 
between MacGregor and the Queensland government over the next twelve 
months ended when the chief secretary Sir Hugh Nelson— also a donor— 
informed MacGregor that the government had 'no desire to dispute the 
propriety rights of British New Guinea to these collections' 13 . However 
the chief secretary informed the governor (Lord Lamington) — 

that notwithstanding their acquiescence in His Excellency's 
(MacGregor's) views as to the ownership of these collections, the 
Government are unable to regard with entire satisfaction the 
conditions which they are understood by him to maintain a separate 

Shield from the Trobriand Islands, Papua 
New Guinea, collected by Sir William 
MaGregor and transferred to the 
museum in 1892. 

Canoe washboard, Lower Fly River, 
collected by Sir William MacGregor and 
transferred to the museum in 1892. 


Sir William MacGregor, 

and permanent branch of the Queensland Museum for the 
accommodation and care of property in respect of the accumulation 
of which they have no power or control. 

He concluded: 

it is thought desirable that His Excellency should be asked to 
propose some modification of his definition to the relations of the 
Trustees of the Queensland Museum to the British New Guinea 
collections which will not altogether leave out on account such 
powers as are generally understood to accompany trusteeship 14 . 

Sir William MacGregor graciously modified his own stand in a 
despatch to Lord Lamington but he re-iterated his position in regard 
to the collection 15 : 

The first and most important point is to make this official collection 
as complete as possible. To that I cannot but attach great importance, 
knowing as we do how seldom efforts are made to form a collection 
of that kind before it is too late. Its formation and preservation I have 
watched with jealous care, but purely as a public question and from 
the New Guinea point of view. I am now satisfied that it will be 
preserved intact and will not be broken up and dispersed. 

He then went on to suggest that the best specimens should be placed in 
the British New Guinea collection and that duplicates might be disposed 
of by the trustees, first to fill up vacancies in the national collection of the 
contributing colonies and in the British Museum and the remainder might 
be used as exchanges for the museum. These latter would 'be at the 
disposal of the Queensland Government as some acknowledgement for 
their co-operation in preparing and maintaining the British New Guinea 
Collection, without whose co-operation it could not exist'. Despite the fact 
that staff numbers had not changed since 1893 and that no catalogue had 
been completed, collections were assigned late in 1897: 949 items to the 
Australian Museum, Sydney; 833 to the National Museum of Victoria; 
775 to the British Museum and 1635 to the Queensland Museum. The 
remainder comprised the British New Guinea collection and the museum's 
share of the duplicates, together with two further consignments that 
arrived in December 1897 and October 1898. 

The British New Guinea collection of some 3000 specimens was not 
separately catalogued and, between 1908 and 1910, it was mixed with the 
museum's share and the duplicates, and the whole lot came to be known as 
the MacGregor Collection which in total comprised some 8000 specimens. 
This was to cause immense curatorial heartache in the future. 

During MacGregor 's administration in New Guinea 19 consignments 
of anthropological and zoological material (notably birds) were sent to the 
museum under the terms and conditions set out above. Anthropological 
items numbered 11,500/the most magnificent collection of Papuan 
specimens ever collected or ever likely to be collected' 16 , de Vis and other 
museum staff provided scientific appendices for inclusion in MacGregor 's 
British New Guinea Annual Reports (see Chapter 8), but he was 
disappointed that the museum was unable to publish a printed catalogue 
of his anthropological collection. Later, during his term as governor of 
Queensland, MacGregor did have occasion to be pleased with the displays 
set up by Director Hamlyn-Harris. 

Protectors and Collectors 

Although the museum classified and displayed Aboriginal 
anthropological specimens, the staff actually collected ethnographic 
materials very rarely. During Kendall Broadbent's long service he made 


Photograph from Wanigela Village, 
Collingwood Bay, Papua New Guinea, by 
Percy Money about 1904-1910. One of a 
series of 100 purchased by Hamlyn- 
Harris and used in the display of 
MacGregor material. 



» ip, t,J 


. ** aw} 

cauciUN or new guinea 


" s. A. 

■ / 

. ■ 

■ ■■■ 

■ ' 

■.'■■■ ■ 

Page from the MacGregor collection 
register catalogued by Rowland Illidge 
between 1918 and 1920. 


only one small collection of 52 items from Cape York as early as 1884. 
Henry Tryon made minor collections in the Bunya Mountains and the 
Macpherson Range. A pattern had emerged for the Australian Aboriginal 
as well as the Pacific collections — a dependence on outside sources for 

A number of prominent Queensland residents were taking an interest 
in Aboriginal material culture. Notable among them were Dr W.E. Roth, 
Archibald Meston, Clement Wragge, Stephen Buhot, the Rev. N. Hey and 
J.C. Coghlan. Public servants, a missionary and a grazier, they were all 
donors or vendors of Aboriginal collections to the museum in the late 
1890s and early 1900s. Between them they accounted for 77.5% of the total 
Aboriginal collections in 1910 (3027 items). In 1897 the first two were 
appointed, respectively, northern (later chief) and southern protector of 
Aborigines. They were all making collections that reflected a culture that 
was undergoing traumatic change as a result of the arrival of 
Europeans— the moving frontier had rolled over the 
Aboriginal people and they were already fringe dwellers. 
Roth, a scholar, carried out intensive ethnographic 
research in northern and north-western Queensland 
between 1894 and 1905. In a letter to de Vis he wrote y 

'I am trying to do good scientific work my chief 

aim is to treat the northern ethnology from a 
comparative point of view' 1T . He also made 
collections 'I may tell you that I applied for and was 

Pituri bag, used for carrying and storing 
pituri— a nicotine drug from the plant 
Duboisia, used and traded in western 
Queensland. One of 207 items purchased 
from JA Coghlan for £15.10.0 in 1897. 


granted, a small amount of tobacco annually in order to purchase curios 
from the blacks for your museum' 17 . Between 1900 and 1903 Roth passed 
330 well documented items to the museum; and the government, through 
the Home Secretary's Department, began publishing the first eight 
bulletins of his North Queensland Ethnography, as it had his earlier work 
Ethnological Studies among the North-west- central Queensland Aborigines. 
He resigned in 1905 amid some controversy which included 
his sale, to the Australian Museum in Sydney, of a collection of 2000 
Aboriginal artefacts, a major part of which was certainly 'the property of 
the Queensland Government' 18 . Robert Etheridge indeed 'made a brilliant 

move when he acquired for the Australian Museum Roth's invaluable 

collections from Queensland and arranged for the (Australian) Museum to 
publish bulletins 9-18' 19 . It is not obvious why Roth would have abandoned 
the Queensland Home Secretary's Department as the publisher of his 
bulletins nor, indeed why he sold the specimens to the Australian 
Museum for £400— a large sum in those days. Certainly there had been 
rumours of his selling specimens as early as 1903 and perhaps he felt he 
had to leave Queensland. He may even have been concerned about the 
Queensland Museum's ability to conserve the material — de Vis, in 1905, 
being 76 and the staff then being reduced to four (see Chapter 3). 
However, if this was so, the mystery remains as to why he did not give, 
rather than sell, the collection to the Australian Museum. 

While Roth was a professional scientist, Archibald Meston, at various 
times a member of parliament, journalist, editor and explorer, was, both 

Necklace of mother-of-pearl stitched 
with fibre string, purchased from C.L. 
Wragge government meteorologist in 



Rnmparamp mnerary effigy from 
Malekuta Island. Vanuatu collected by 
Captain K.J. Helbin of the labour-trade 
vessel Borough Belle in mid-1883, 
donated by his widow following his death 
by gunshot on the neighbouring island of 

before and subsequent to his appointment as sou* hem protector oi 
Aborigines, a collector and learned amateur, He was a keen observer but 
many of his published accounts were written thirty or more years after the 
events described. The museum acquired Queensland Aboriginal material 
from him between 1892 and 1907 and, a& late as 1916, a further collection 
from Melville (stand in the Northern Territory. Wragge, Queensland 
government meteorologist, was a man of completely different stamp who, 
in the course of his duties, travelled in the remote areas of western and 
northern Queensland and made large collections of Aboriginal material 
culture. He sold a large collection— in the vicinity of 900 items - to the 
museum in 1901 

Charles de Vis' major museologicai contribution began in 1892, when 
he started three separate anthropological registers — for New Guinea, for 
Australia and for the south-western Pacific Islands and elsewhere. They 
were numerical registers and the entries ranged from meticulous to 
slipshod, depending on workload and staffing levels. Importantly for later 
curators de Vis not only described items but he measured them too— in 
metric units. 

After de Vis' retirement in 1905, C.J. Wild, in an acting capacity, 
directed a gentle slide into the doldrums. During this caretaker period 
donations were few although funds were found to purchase collections 
fromMeston and Buhot. The new museum director, HamlvTi-flarris. was 
appointed in 1910. 

The Hamlyn-Harris Approach 

Ronald Hamlyn-Hams' appointment had particular effect on the 
museum's anthropological collections. He was the only director to profess 
a personal interest in ethnology and his influence can be seen in the 
collections, display, research and publication and public led arcs 

As early as February 1911 he had distributed a printed circular to 
police officers (as protectors of Aborigines), missionaries and teachers in 
most centres of northern and western Queensland including the Torres 
Strait. The pamphlet sought their help in making ethnological collections 
for the museum. The replies were usually couched in the following terms 
'Civilization has reduced the blacks in thus district to a very few, who 
retain no weapons etc. of historic value' ■ and T am afraid so far as this 
District is concerned that I will be unable to accede m your request as the 
aboriginals have been (such) a number of years civilized that they have 
abandoned using their native implements'- 1 . However, collections were 
received that year from the more outlying centres of Croydon (Sgt 
Sullivan), Mapoon Mission (Rev. N. Hey), Turn-off Lagoon via Burketown 
(Const. E. Smith) and Mitchell River Mission (Mr H. Mathews). 
Collections continued to filter in over the next six years as a result of this 
circular and later there was some material from the chief protector of 
Aborigines and other correspondents from Weipa, Aurukun, Coen, 
Mornington Island, Cairns, Cardwell and Yam, Badu, York, Damley and 
Murray Islands in the Torres Strait. The collections, together with a majQJ 
purchase from the Cairns region made during Hamlyn-Harns' term, were 
the last major Field collections of Queensland Aboriginal material culture 
made for the museum before the mid-1970s. Collections were also 
received from the Northern Territory notably Roper River, Melville Island 
and Port Essington. During this period over 2800 items were added to the 
Australian Aboriginal material culture collection— in seven years 
Hamlyn-Harris had almost doubled the Australian collections. 

He also arranged for collections to be made on the Fly River in Papua 


All communications to be 
addressed to the Director, IL 
Hamlyn-Harris, D.Sc.,FM.M.S., 
F.Z.8., F.L.S., &c. 


Brisbane, 191 


The Director of the Queensland Museum, presuming upon your 
willingness to promote the growth of an Institution tending to the advantage 
and reputation of the State, respectfully begs your co-operation in his endeavours 
to further augment tin collections under his charge, and hi all Departments of 
the Museum. 

The richness of this Country in objects of Natural History cannot be 
too fully represented in the National collections in their Mineral, Fossil, Animal, 
and Aboriginal Departments. 

Since the Aboriginal Tribes are fast dying out, every effort should be 
made to acquire those symbols of the life of the original Australian inhabi- 
tants, whose rites, ceremonies, customs, and traditions are becoming obsolete 
and behi£ entirely lost to us. 

The Director, therefore, appeals to you in the confidence that you will 
take every opportunity of securing specimens of all kinds, and forward them 
to the Museum. 

Instructions as to the best methods of preservation will be gladly given 
if desired. 

1 have the honour to be, 
Your obedient Servant, 


Circular sent by Hamlyn-Harris to police 
Director stations seeking help with collections. 


A necklace of reed beads strung on 2-ply 
fibre string from the Gulf of Carpentaria, 
sent by Constable Martin in response to 
Hamlvn-Harris' circular. 

(Sir Rupert Clark Bt) and in various centres of occupied German New 
Guinea (W. Potter) and purchased collections from the Gulf of Papua (S.G. 
McDonnell) and the Solomon Islands and Vanuata (Mrs P. Tarnaros, 
C.A. Bernays). 

A new museum-wide system of registration was introduced in 191L 
Hamlyn-Harris followed the recommendation of the Etheridge report 
adopting and adapting the system used in the Australian Museum. Two 
registers were begun for anthropology early in 1911; QE for Queensland 
Aboriginal material and E for non-Queensland material. Later, in 1914, a 
third register— NGE — was introduced for New Guinea material. All 
incoming specimens were now documented and registered within days 
of their receipt by the museum. 

In 1913 J.H.P. Murray the lieutenant-governor of Papua had again 
raised objections to the possibility of the museum exchanging items from 
the MacGregor collection and requested that a catalogue be prepared. 
Hamlyn-Harris vigorously denied that any material had been exchanged, 
stating that the collection had 'been zealously guarded and since I have 
been in charge not one single specimen has left the building' 22 . He agreed 
to compile a register and in fact £50 was placed on the Papuan government 
estimates for the financial year 1914-15 and sent to the museum to cover 
the cost of cataloguing. Two copies of a specially printed MacGregor 
(MAC) register conforming to the Queensland Museum format were 
purchased and paid for by the Commonwealth government. Compilation of 
the register began in 1915 but the work was laid aside due to depleted staff 
and the £50 was returned upon Hamlyn-Harris's resignation. 

The Etheridge report had criticised the sad state of the 
anthropological displays especially the MacGregor collection The cases 
are crammed to repletion, the specimens roughly sorted and not a label!. 
Of what possible use is such a display?' 23 . Hamlyn-Harris initiated a 
programme to modernize all the displays but particularly that of the 
MacGregor collection. He also supervised the construction of the diorama 
of the Aboriginal campsite which, with slight modifications, was exhibited 
until November 1985 (see Chapter 4). 

Hamlyn-Harris was a marine biologist, not an anthropologist. In the 
manner of the time, this did not deter him from carrying out research and 
publication in anthropology. Some of this was pedestrian, some interesting 
and innovative and some archaic and still-born. Between 1911 and 1918 he 
published thirteen papers in the Memoirs of the Queensland Museum and a 
number of notes and comments in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of 
Queensland. Eight of the articles dealt with Queensland Aborigines, two 
with Torres Strait Islanders and four with Papua New Guinea and the 
Pacific Islands. Perhaps his most interesting and best researched project 
was a joint work with a chemist, Frank Smith, on fish poisoning and 
poisons used by the Aborigines of Queensland' 24 . Here he combined his 
own talents with his wide range of informants who, at his request, 
collected the ethno-botanical specimens for the museum. 

He was not a noted field worker, but he took the opportunity during a 
lecture tour to the north in May 1914 to do some collecting on Aboriginal 
campsites on Dunk Island and near Yarabah, the former in the company of 
E.J. Banfield— journalist and author— who lived on Dunk Island and was, 
perhaps, his most erudite correspondent and collector. In late 1915 he 
again made an archaeological collection from Aboriginal shell midden 
sites in sand dunes in the vicinity of Bargara near Bundaberg. 

The series of popular science lectures at the museum introduced by 


Hamlyn-Harris in 1912, as well as the lectures given in provincial towns, 
always included some anthropological titles such as Primitive Man in 
Australia (R. Hamlyn-Harris, 1912); Manners and Customs of the Salomon 
Islanders (D. Rannie. 1914); Fossil Remains oj Man (A.B. Walker, 1916); 
Aborigines and their Customs (R. Hamlyn-Harris, Bundaberg 1915). 

In his seven years Hamlyn-Harris raised the status of the study of 
anthropology within the museum, and consolidated and built up the 
collections especially from Aboriginal Australia. As a result the collections 
were, in so far as resources permitted, professionally documented and 
curated and the displays were classified and well labelled by contemporary 

The Longman Years, 1917-1945 

Hamlyn-Harris resigned in September 1917 and was replaced by 
Heber Longman who had been his senior scientific assistant since 191L 
Longman was essentially a palaeontologist, his only real interest in I he 
anthropological field was in physical anthropology. He published one paper 
on human crania in the Memoirs tfl 1918, but a year later writing to 
Professor A.C. Haddon in Cambridge he noted 'my time is now so greatly 
taken up with routine and administration work that I am seldom able to 
work at the crania' ■'-'. In fact, he published no further work in this area. 
However, he was assiduous in gaining human skeletal material for the 
collection, especially from the police, and in the early years of his tenure 
he continued many of Hamlyn-Harris 1 programmes- However, he gradually 
lost touch with most of his predecessor's anthropological correspondents 
except E.J. Banfield, with whom he remained in close contact until the 
latters death in 1924. 

In July 1918, the £50 cataloguing grant from the Papuan government 
was returned to the museum and Longman employed 'Mr Rowland Midge, 
a well-known local naturalist** to continue the registration of the 
MacGregor collection 'at a fee of £2.10.0 per week of 4 days working 
from 10 am to 4 pm excluding one hour for lunch' 27 . He began in late 
September, compiling both a register and a card catalogue. In October 
Longman asked for and received a further £50 from the Papuan 
government for display case and storage furniture. He also envisaged a 
comprehensive printed catalogue prepared by an eminent 'specialist in 
ethnology' and he twice mentioned the name of Dr Bronislaw Malinowski 
in this context^"-' but was informed that he would not be available as he 
would be 'leaving for England at an early date' i ". Malinowski was one of 
the founders of the British structural-functional school of social 
anthropology- 11 and considering his later published comments, that he had 
'always had a certain amount of impatience with the purely technological 

enthusiasms of the museum ethnologist and that he considered the 

fetishistic reverence for an object of material culture is scientifically 
sterile' :G , it is doubtful whether he would have undertaken the job. 

The registration task proved to be so great that Longman sought and 
received permission to use the Papuan governments extra £50 to continue 
paying Wedge instead of purchasing display and storage furniture. Later a 
further £10 was obtained before the project was completed in May 1920. 
Illidge made a copy of the register in 1922 for the sura of 112 and it was 
despatched to Papua. This copy appears to have disappeared from the 
Papuan government anthropologist's office and bungalow in Port Moresby 
when Australian militia troops rioted in February 1942. 

Between 1919 and 1923 Longman continued to consolidate Hamlyn- 
Harris' display work. New labels were prepared and all display items, 

A bag from the rainforest in the Cartlwvll 
area sent tram Constable Creedy in 

ISC to Hamlyn-Han ir an 


particularly Queensland Aboriginal material, were re-registered. A large 
proportion of the reserve collections in storage were also re-registered to 
the QE and E registers between 1924 and 1928. 

Anthropological material donated or purchased during Longman's 
time included a number of important collections notably from Dutch New 
Guinea — Irian Jaya (H. Jackson 1920), the large Dr C.F. Marks collection 
from Australia, New Guinea and the Pacific Islands (1920), the Lee Bryce 
collection from North Queensland and Papua (1921), the Hartmann 
collection from the Port Moresby region collected in 1887 (Toowoomba 
City Council 1924), the Skertchly collection of European palaeolithic 
implements (purchased 1926), the Denning collection from Fiji (purchased 
1935), the Archbold Expedition collection from the Fly River (1937), the 
Petrie Family collection from the Brisbane area (1939) and the W.S. 
Chaseling collection from eastern Arnhem Land (purchased 1940). 

Rainforest sword clubs illustrate the 
adaptation of a new artefact for a 
traditional use. This page: the traditional 
article, collected in 1900; opposite page: a 
sword club made from a cross-cut saw 
blade, collected in 1915. 

G.K. Jackson was appointed as a cadet in October 1937. He was a 
naturalist with an interest in Aboriginal anthropology especially developed 
during two years he spent in southwest Queensland before joining the 
museum staff. He took over the day to day running of the anthropological 
collections, becoming responsible for registration of incoming material, 
working on displays and providing public information. He collected 
archaeological material from sites in southern Queensland and published 
a number of small papers in The Queensland Naturalist and the Memoirs. 
Ken Jackson joined the 2/9 Battalion AIF in October 1939 and served with 
it in the United Kingdom, North Africa, Syria and New Guinea. During his 
service he visited as many museums as possible and even made 
collections in Egypt, Syria and New Guinea. His absence from the museum 
had a particularly detrimental effect on the anthropology collections. 
Longman noted in a letter to Chaseling— the missionary from Yirrkala 
in Arnhem Land who had sold, at cost, significant collections to many 
Australian museums — 'As Mr Jackson of our staff, who is in charge of this 
section, is abroad with the AIF, we shall not be able to do much until his 
return' 33 . Lieutenant Jackson was killed in action in the 'swamps of 
Sanananda' on 12 January 1943. In his will he left his private collection of 
126 anthropological items from Australia and the Pacific to the museum. 
Unfortunately his service revolver, also donated, was stolen from the 
display gallery in a burglary in the 1970s. Due to war-time exigencies 
Jackson's position, for which he had been credited with yearly salary 
increments, was not filled after his death. Longman referred to this in a 
letter to Colonel J.K. Murray, head of the Army School of Civil Affairs 
(later first administrator of the Territory of Papua and New Guinea) 
'As we have at present no specialist on our staff who is able to give full 
time to ethnology, I regret that I am unable to give more assistance' 34 . 
Storage space had also become a problem. In 1944 Longman was forced to 
exchange a valuable Mornington Island raft with the South Australian 
Museum because the museum had 'no storage space for it' 35 . In exchange 
the museum received two plaster casts. Longman, now suffering from ill 
health, retired in late 1945. 


A Bleak Period, 1946-1965 

Between 1946 and 1960, during much of George Macks 
administration, the position of the anthropological collections was bleak. 
Only a small proportion of the material donated was registered, 
consequently some documentation has been lost, Ursula McConnell's 
important collection from western Cape York, which had been deposited 
on loan from the Australian National Research Council in 1935, had to be 
sent to the South Australian Museum in 1948 because the museum felt 
unable to store it adequately, was not interested in displaying it, and could 
not provide an avenue for publication. McConnell published her paper 
'Native Arts and Industries on the Archer, Kendall and Holroyd Rivers, 
Cape York Peninsula, North Queensland' in the Records of the South 
Australian Museum in 1953. Some of McConnell's material however was 
passed to L.P. Winterbotham of the Anthropological Society of Queensland. 
That same year Winterbotham founded the Anthropology Museum at the 
University of Queensland, under his honorary curatorship. During the 
next decade and a half, that museum, with the help of the Anthropological 
Society became the centre for museum anthropology ir\ Queensland. The 
Queensland Museum all but withdrew from the area, maintaining its own 
substantial collections but not actively seeking donations and carrying out 
field work only in emergencies. Storage conditions did not improve — to a 
request from an American postgraduate student for information on the 
number and locality of tapa cloth, Mack replied 'the way in which it is 
stored make it almost impossible to state what there is in the way of tapa 

Mack was certainly conscious of the importance of the collections in 
his care and indeed had endeavoured to obtain the services of a 
professional anthropologist to curate them. However, having convinced the 
public service commissioner of the need for such a position, it was some 
time before he could make an appointment owing to the lack of qualified 
people in Queensland. In April 1953, M.J.C Calley, an honours graduate in 
anthropology from the University of Sydney w r as appointed assistant in 
anthropology. There was an immediate clash both of personality and 
theory. Calley was a social anthropologist of the British school and Mack 
an old museum man. Calley resigned after four months to continue 
postgraduate study and, before his premature retirement and death, 
became a reader in anthropology - at the University of Queensland. 
Ironically, he was one of those instrumental in ensuring that the 
university's anthropology museum was professionally staffed and housed 
in modem purpose-built premises in 1972. 

Mack made no attempt to fill Calley 's position. For the remainder of 
his directorship the anthropology collections were curated by the director 
himself or by geologists, J.T. Woods and, after I960, A. Bartholomai, both 
helped by museum assistants, notably BJ. Smith. From 1960, staff 
increases allowed some field examination of archaeological sites. 
Bartholomai together with photographer Stan Breeden surveyed and later 
published two Aboriginal stone arrangements on the Darling Downs in 
1960. Mack himself made one trip to Carnarvon Gorge and Injune in 1961 
and preparator D. Vernon with Smith collected on Mapala Station in 1963. 


When Jack Woods became director in February 1964, he moved 
speedily to appoint a curator of anthropology. The position was advertised 
late that year, but Woods anticipated difficulties, as he indicated to R.V.S. 
Wright of the Department of Anthropology, University of Sydney, 'While I 
realise that a suitable applicant may be difficult to find, I am very keen in 
getting this position filled if at all possible' 37 . Eleanor Crosby, then a 
temporary lecturer at the University of Auckland, was finally appointed in 
April 1965. Her MA thesis commitments however delayed her arrival in 
Brisbane until October 1965. Meanwhile field inspections of sites 
continued to be made by other staff. A. Bartholomai and T. Tebble 
examined Aboriginal stone arrangements in the Emmet district in May 

Putting Things Right, 1965-1985 

When Eleanor Crosby eventually arrived she began cleaning and 
checking the collections, and registering the 19th century material — 
untouched since 1929. In fact, she tried to unravel the mysteries brought 
about by years of neglect. In two years Crosby and her assistant Penny 
Wippell added over 3000 entries to the anthropology register (in contrast 
to 266 entries between 1946-1960 and 709 entries between 1961-1965). 

As the first permanent professional curator she also faced an 
enormous problem in the collection storage area. The collections were 
located in a number of separate nooks and crannies about the building; the 
storage furniture itself was inadequate, most of the collections being 
housed in galvanised iron storage tanks and old display cases, although a 
small number of custom-built, lightweight and insect proof wooden 
cupboards and drawer cabinets were in use. The mechanical damage due 
to overcrowding coupled with the lack of a conservator caused her much 

Because of the perceived need to concentrate on collection 
management and the limitation on funds, research opportunities were few. 
However, Crosby carried out archaeological fieldwork in the 
Condamine River, Taroom and Carnarvon Ranges in 1966 and on the 
Warrego River around Wyandra in 1967 and these trips resulted in 
research reports in the Memoirs. Some display projects were undertaken 
in conjunction with display staff, the most notable being the mini-diorama 
of the Samford Bora ring (see Chapter 4). 

Eleanor Crosby, curator of anthropology, 
and Mary McKenzie, artist, measuring 
dimensions of the Samford Bora Ring, 
1965. Penny Wippell, assistant in 
anthropology is standing at right. 


Frustrated by the work situation, the lack of research opportunities, 
unequal pay for female professional staff and the possibility of forced 
resignation on marriage, and suffering a feeling of professional isolation — 
that could have been alleviated had the Queensland Public Service had a 
less parsimonious attitude towards professional development through 
conference participation, Eleanor Crosby gave three months notice of her 
resignation in early September 1967. She completed her PhD at the 
Australian National University in 1973 becoming a curator at the Northern 
Territory Museum and later a consultant archaeologist. 

Michael Quinnell took over in February 1968. An honours graduate in 
archaeology from the University of Sydney, he had previous museum and 
field experience in Australia and India. Despite Eleanor Crosby's 
endeavours the collection management situation was still very grim. A 
mezzanine floor in the anthropology section, built after Crosby had left, 
created a little more space but there were no new storage units to use in 
this space. 

Problems of collection management dominated staff activity for the 
next few years. Crosby's forecast in her letter of resignation — that there 

was at least three years work on the older coUections— proved reasonably 
accurate. Some 4500 register entries were completed between 1968 and 
1970 and another 1500 over the next five years. Inadequate storage proved 
to be a longer term problem. As the 1972 annual report pointed out The 
storage capacity for the anthropology collections has now reached an 
optimum. In the present space situation any further introduction of 
storage units will impinge on the already overcrowded work and office 
space, even though the storage is still inadequate' 3 *. The overcrowded 
storage, poor conditions including the lack of controlled environment, 
increased use of the material and lack of conservation facilities that were 
putting such strains on the collections and were so detrimental to their 
condition were alluded to in the Piggott Report l . There was an 
improvement in 1976 when Australian ethnography, now a separate section 
under R. Hardley, moved into the south wing of the building that had been 
vacated by the Queensland Art Gallery. The Melanesian anthropology and 
Aboriginal anthropology and archaeology collections expanded into the 
new storage cabinets that by 1979 filled the recently acquired space to 

Geoffrey Mosuwadoga. director of the 
Papua New Guinea National Museum. 
ana Quinnell discussing the return of 
specimens from the MacGrcgor 
collection to New Guinea. 


Quinnell with artists Mary McKenzie and 
Eloise Gehrmann (right) cleaning chalk 
marks off rock, Scrub Creek Aboriginal 
engraving site. 

Stencil art, Carnarvon Gorge, recorded 
by a museum party led by Quinnell. 

capacity. Storage was no longer at crisis point — it was merely inadequate. 
The unavoidable damage that occurred, due to crowding and lack of 
environmental controls, emphasised the need for conservation facilities 
and trained staff. The appointment of a conservator, Neville Agnew, in 
1980 and the slow build up of a temporary laboratory over the next few 
years has only begun to address the effects of half a century or more of 

Meanwhile the MacGregor collection again came to notice. As early as 
1969, questions were being asked by members of the Territory of Papua 
and New Guinea administration about the ownership of a number of 
anthropological collections held in Australian museums. The matter was 
raised at the 1970 and 1972 meetings of the Conference of Australia 
Museum Directors by representatives of the Papua New Guinea Museum. 
Quinnell had been independently researching the origins of the 
MacGregor material as part of a collection management exercise and this 
led him, in 1973, to an intensive examination of source materials in 
museum, state and commonwealth archives. Legal interpretations of these 
documents resulted in the announcement by the Queensland premier in 
late 1974 that, in principal, the collection would be returned when the new 
Papua New Guinea National Museum building in Port Moresby was 
completed and that both museums would confer on the selection and 
transfer of the collection. Informal and cordial discussions at curatorial 
and directorial level, initially with expatriate staff, were then instituted 
and continued for a number of years. Close relations were established, and 
Director Alan Bartholomai was an official guest at the opening ceremony 
of the Papua New Guinea National Museum in its completed building in 
1977. By this time the Papua New Guinea staff had taken control and a 
typical Melanesian consensus was achieved when, in mid-1979, agreement 
on cataloguing and selection procedures was concluded. A pilot selection 
of shields from the MacGregor Collection to be returned to Port Moresby 
was made in February 1980 by the Papua New Guinea Museum director, 
Geoffrey Mosuwadoga, and the Queensland Museum's curator, Quinnell. 
At the same time a joint meeting of the boards of trustees of the two 
institutions was held to formally conclude the agreement whereby a 
substantial portion of the collection would be returned to Papua New 
Guinea, while that part of the collection to be retained in Queensland, in 
keeping with Sir William MacGregor's instruction, would have a separate 
identity in the museum collections and would be maintained in perpetuity 
for education and scientific purposes. By 1985 six selections had taken 
place, some 2100 items being returned to Papua New Guinea and 1697 
retained by the Queensland Museum. In the vicinity of 4000 items remain 
to be selected in this continuing cooperative programme. 

In 1968 the anthropology and archaeology section of the museum was 
responsible for Melanesian and Aboriginal ethnography— the extant 
cultures and lifestyles— and archaeology— past cultures and lifestyles. It 
was staffed by the curator and one assistant and was even further 
overloaded by the negotiations about the MacGregor collection. In 
particular, the items that comprised MacGregor's Papua New Guinea 
collections which, between 1908 and 1910, had been mixed with the 
museum's share and the duplicates, had to be identified. An extra 
assistant, Janet Buhmann, was appointed in 1974 to concentrate on the 
indexing and stocktaking of the MacGregor collection. She was succeeded 
by Arthur Palmer who between 1976 and 1979, not only continued her 
work, but also photographed each item. 


Meanwhile, in 1974 Richard Robins was appointed on a 12-month 
grant from the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies to catalogue 
Aboriginal ethnographical collections. Roger Hardley, who had succeeded 
Wippell in 1968 as the permanent assistant in the section, had begun to 
specialise in Aboriginal ethnography. When, in 1975, Aboriginal and Torres 
Strait ethnography became a separate section, Hardley became its curator. 
Julia Findlay, a graduate in anthropology, assisted him from 1982 to 1985, 
specialising in Torres Strait material. 

Thus from 1975, some of the load— Aboriginal ethnography— had 
been lifted from Quinnell's shoulders. However, he was still deeply 
involved with the Papua New Guinea material, and Aboriginal 
archaeological items were being rapidly acquired by the museum as it was 
now the official repository under the Aboriginal Relics Preservalion Act 
1968. A solution was found by appointing an archaeologist to the position 
vacated by Palmer. Thus Robins, who had been working in the archaeology 
branch of the Department of Aboriginal and Island Affairs since leaving 
the museum four years earlier, was reappointed to deal with Aboriginal 
archaeological collections. Norma Richardson succeeded Robins in 1984 
and, with two Aboriginal trainees, Lori Richardson and Shane Rawson, 
implemented the system Robins had developed. 


Quinnell (centre foreground) surveying 
Aboriginal rock shelter, Oakey Creek, 
Carnarvon National Park. 

Joint museum and University of 
Queensland archaeological excavation in 
south-eastern Queensland in 1968. 


In the Field, 1968-1985 

Despite the pressures of collection management, the sections of 
Australian ethnography and of anthropology and archaeology carried 
out field work throughout the state from the time they were established. 

Archaeological investigations by Quinnell between 1968 and 1970 were 
confined to local small-scale excavations on the Gold Coast and surveys 
and site examinations for the Department of Aboriginal and Island 
Affairs — at Cooktown, Townsville, the Carnarvon Ranges, the coast and 
its hinterland both north and south of Brisbane and on Stradbroke Island. 
During the survey on Stradbroke Island Quinnell was detained by the 
police after he had been reported as behaving suspiciously with a coloured 
stick — a painted surveyor's ranging pole. In 1969 he recorded Aboriginal 
rock art near Gatton. Then, in a series of eight field trips between 1970 
and 1975 that were funded by grants from the Australian Institute of 
Aboriginal Studies and the Department of Aboriginal and Island Affairs, 
Quinnell recorded and researched Aboriginal rock art in the Carnarvon 
Ranges. Museum photographer Allan Easton usually accompanied him on 
these trips. This work 'yielded a detailed description of a Central 
Queensland art body and defined the general framework for future work 
in the area' 39 . In 1975 Harley participated in archaeological work on 
Moreton Island. 

In ethnographic field work between 1975 and 1977, made possible by 
grants from the Aboriginal Arts Board of the Australia Council, Hardley 
photographed and documented items of traditional and transitional 
material culture at the Edward River settlement on Cape York (with 
Easton); at Mornington Island and Aurukun; and at Kowanyama, Bamaga 
and Thursday Island (with Palmer). Palmer participated in a Queensland 
Museum-Queensland University Anthropology Museum ethnographic 
investigation in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. 

Archaeological surveys and excavations were also conducted by 
Robins on Moreton Island in 1979 and 1980; and between 1980 and 1983 he 
began ethnoarchaeological work in north-west Queensland at Lawn Hill 
Gorge, on the Wellesley Islands, at Wujal Wujal on Cape York and at 
Doomadgee. Findlay participated in ethnographic field work in the Tully 
area in connection with preparations for a new Aboriginal display. Grants 
from the Australian Heritage Commission to re-examine and document 

Michael Quinnell, curator of 
anthropology from 1968. 


archaeological sites from which the museum already held items became 
available from 1980 to 1985 and funded the appointment of Norma 
Richardson and after her appointment to the permanent staff, the 
appointment of her successor Harvey Johnston. 

Maintaining an interest in Papua New Guinea, Quinnell made field 
collections there during 1983 and made arrangements for the Papua New 
Guinea Museum to collect material for the museum in the future. 

During these years most collection-based research by staff has been 
carried out as part of collection documentation procedures. An example of 
work of particular significance is that of Robins, Buhmann and M. Cause 
on the identification of woods used in Aboriginal spearthrowers. This 
demonstrated some of the inbuilt biases in museum collections that were 
made from a society undergoing rapid change. This is in part due to the 
museum's past role as a passive rather than active collector, dependant on 
donors from all walks of life who (with the exception of W.E. Roth) 'had no 
anthropological training and were neither sympathetic nor responsive 
towards the complexity of aboriginal society'. The collections show a bias 
'towards the secular, technologically curious and materialist aspects of 
Aboriginal life' 4 ". For instance, while spears, boomerangs, stone axes and 
ceremonial objects were prized objects to these collectors, the simple 
humble objects of the people's lives— the objects used by the women, 
such as their digging sticks, were largely ignored. 

Change, a continuum 

No culture is static, for change occurs continuously. In indigenous 
Australian Aboriginal and Pacific Islander societies, influenced by 
European cultures and 20th century technologies and political and 
religious philosophies, change has been, and continues to be, rapid. These 
societies have gained high profiles in the world — overseas colonies have 
become nations and, in Australia, European cultures and peoples are 
changing too. Dynamic and adaptive societies respond to internal as well 
as external stimuli and cultures change accordingly. 

The objects in museum anthropological collections are the raw data 
from which information can be derived about a culture now and in the past 
and about the modes, rates and directions of change. Collectors' 
backgrounds affect the content and context of the collections and the 
regions represented; and the perceptions of the observer are subjective — 
affected by personal and cultural influences. However, the objects 
themselves are real and true and the information that is contained in them 
is accurate and objective— for they are the material evidence, free of the 
interpretive ambiguity and the bias of written records. 

A museum does preserve the evidence and the information but it 
does not preserve a culture, for a culture is a product and a part of a 
people's lifestyle. 

When it moves to its new accommodation in South Brisbane the 
museum itself will be changing— by increasing and improving access to 
the collections and the information contained therein. Increased access 
will lead to increased participation by the community, and particularly by 
Queensland Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, in research, 
education and display . Thus will they satisfy their needs to identify with 
their own cultural past and present and will recognise their part in the 
continuum of their peoples' histories. 

Ceremonial mask, named Gasama, made 
by Ambram of Marawat Village, Yuat 
River, East Sepik Province, Papua New 
Guinea. Collected by PJ. Hallinan in 1982 
and purchased by the museum in 1983. 



History and 

Previous pugt : Attendartl Len Taylor, with 
Ben Holder's AVRO Bah before its 
restoration by the Queensland Aero Club 
(photograph by courtesy the Conner Mail). 

The members of the new coiony who sought intellectual 
stimulation from one another at meetings of the Philosophical 
Society were interested in, and presented papers on, a wide 
range of subjects, including the technology of the day. William 
Pettigrew, one of the mechanically minded members, spoke on 
drainage, shipbuilding, railways and timber, usually illustrated by models. 
Charles Tiffin, colonial architect responsible for the first Brisbane Hospital 
building on its present site, gave an important paper on earth closets— one 
then on trial at the hospital he had designed himself. John Waugh, a 
medical practitioner spoke on spectrum analysis with a demonstration of 
his spectroscope; James Thorpe spoke on meteorology; and William 
Brookes on cotton growing in Queensland 1 . However, this interest in 
technology did not extend to the collection of objects of a technological 
nature. With the exception only of the microscope donated by Tiffin and 
some Stereoscopic photographs donated by Daintree, the society's 
collection consisted solely of natural history items. The first permanent 
staff member, Custodian Karl Staiger was also the government analytical 
chemist, but although he gave several papers on technological subjects as a 
member of the Philosophical Society he does not appear to have seen the 
museum in the context of technology. The staff members who succeeded 
Staiger were geologists and zoologists and the emphasis on natural history 
collections persisted — an emphasis that was reinforced in 1910 in the 
report to the premier by Robert Etheridge jnr, director of the Australian 
Museum in Sydney'. 

Curios, Machinery, Weapons and Furniture 

As early as April 1881, the board of trustees had decided to press the 
government to allocate funds for a technological branch of the museum, 
but nothing further seems to have happened at that time. By 1S84 there 
was no space: 

There are many subjects of public interest which the Museum fails 
to illustrate fur want of room. Mining appliances and processes, 
metallurgy, chemistry and its trade products, raw and manufactured 
materials of food and clothing, building materials, textiles and textile 

materials and wares — these with others should be sufficiently 
represented to assist in the rise and progress of colonial industries 
but they demand space :t . 

Nevertheless, the shortage of space did not affect the expansion qf 
the zoological, geological and ethnographic collections. Lack of space was a 
rationalisation— the excuse given for the fact that the development of 
technology collections was low on the list o\ priorities lor (he museum. 
Despite this, technological and historical items were gradually being 

The first technological items in the collection came in 1873, from 
Richard Daintree. As government geologist for north Queensland he had 
gained a wide knowledge of the geology and the potential for mining. 
When he became agent general for Queensland in London he heLped to 
promote mining development in Queensland by sending to the museum 
five cases of models of mining equipment then in use in the Cornish | in 
mines 4 . 

The next reference to items of historical and technological relevance 
occurs in the earliest surviving complete inventory of the collection, 
carried out in 1£76 for the board of trustees'. Among the mineral and 
natural history specimens listed there is a single section entitled 'Cunos, 
Machinery, Weapons and Furniture', which lists 36 objects belonging to 


the areas now covered by the history and technology section. The first 
two, a pair of 'Hindoo' bracelets and an English knitting sheath, are still 
in the collection. Some of the others lack sufficient description to allow 
certain identification. An ivory Chinese pagoda donated by Mrs J. 
Stephenson in September 1883 6 is also still in the collection and has 
featured in various displays over the years. An additional Chinese item 
was acquired in April 1898 when the board made one of its few purchases 
for the history collection— a Chinese mandarin's suit from Captain W.H. 
Blake for £5. Over the next few years Captain Blake provided the museum 
with further interesting examples of Chinese crafts and items collected 
during the Boxer rebellion. 

In 1887 a fine donation of ancient pottery and glassware, collected in 
Cyprus by Mr S. Brown, a member of the British team excavating there, 
had been presented to the museum by his sister, Iris Brown. Seeking a 

On display on the verandah of the 
museum in 1922: Mary Watson's water 
tank, in which she, her baby and a 
Chinese servant fled from Lizard Island. 


Mephisto, World War 1 German Tank A7V 
Kampfwagen. Above : at Vaux, France, 
after its capture: centre: arriving in 
Brisbane; below: hauled into the museum 
grounds by two City Council steam 
rollers in 1919. 


better representation of the material being excavated in the Middle East, 
Director de Vis wrote to the director of excavations, Beni Assan, in April 
1904, applying for a share in the distribution of Egyptian antiquities \ A 
promise was received that the museum would share in future finds. 
Shortly after, a collection of Egyptian pottery was received, although 
whether or not it was in response to the initial request is not known. It 
was excavated at Esna and Hierakonopohs for the University of Liverpool 
by John Garstang, and accessioned, without description, in the donor 
register as D 72673, dated 21 August 1905. Subsequently, this Egyptian 
material was mistakenly reaccessioned with the Cypriote items donated 
in 1887. It was not until 1981, when an inquiry was received from the 
Department of Egyptology at University College, London, that the mistake 
was discovered and the two collections were once again correctly 

Although much of the material added to the collections at this time 
was donated, the director and the board did make some effort to develop 
the museum's technological and history collections. However the nature of 
many of the items acquired —donations as well as those that the museum 
bought — suggests that Australians did not regard their own artefacts as 
particularly interesting or significant, while objects from the Orient and 
from archaeological sites in the Middle East did excite their curiosity and 
interest. Further, apparently Queensland was seen in the context of an 
English colony and, in the first instance, the trustees invariably sought 
help from the great museums m London. At this time the museum's role 
was regarded as primarily educational rather than archival. 

Toward a Technological Branch 

In 1880 the new curator, W.A. Haswell. corresponded with the 
colonial secretary proposing that measures be taken to obtain specimens 
(in England) for a technological branch of the museum 8 . However, with 
Haswell's resignation at the end of that year the proposal lapsed for 
several years. Haswell's successor, de Vis. had developed some technology 
exhibits for the Manchester Natural History Museum before he came to 
Australia 9 and he set about developing similar displays in Queensland. He 
obtained samples of local wool for the proposed technological branch, and 
he had some success in persuading the board to further actions, de Vis' 
influence can be seen in the board minutes of 7 November 1882: 

In view of the importance of establishing a technological branch of 
the Museum it is suggested that application be made to the Science 
and Art Department, South Kensington, lor a grant of the 
publications issued by it, also of such illustrations of the materials, 
Constituents and adulterations of food and of the components of the 
body as it may be disposed to offer. 

Again the response to the request took some time. In July 1885 the 
board requested that details be obtained of progress in forming the food 
and adulteration collection — three years after the initial request 1 ". By 
April 1886 the curator was able to report that a food collection was being 
prepared in London for the museum. It finally arrived in 1887 ll . 

In June 1886 a W.A. Allen contacted the museum offering help in the 
formation of a technical museum. At the board meeting at which the offer 
was considered the following statement of intent was made'-; 'Provision 
having already been made for a food collection, it is thought advisable to 
add a collection of drugs and other objects of technical interest which 
might be transferred to a Technical Museum if such should at any time be 
established'. This is the first comment from the board on the possibility of 


The AVRO Avian Cirrus flown on the 
first solo flight from England to Australia 
by Bert Hinkler. Acquired by the 
museum in 1929. 

a separate technology museum. At the same meeting the curator was 
authorised to procure photographic apparatus for the museum for 

During 1888 the museum arranged to obtain standards of weight 
and volume through the agent general in London u and it maintained 
responsibility, in Queensland, for weights and measures for many years 

There was only a small amount of Australian material received during 
these early years. In 1887 Elizabeth Coxen presented a portrait of her 
husband, Charles Coxen, founding father of the museum. At the end of 
1888 a significant addition to the small technology collection, the model of 
the Queensland government's new steam yacht, Luanda, was placed on 
display 14 . A model of cattle station yards, prepared by Mr FA Blackman, 
was on display at the museum briefly, before shipment to London for the 
Colonial and Indian Exhibition in 1886. In April the next year, Mr 
Blackman donated the yards, now safely returned from England, to the 
museum where they have been regularly displayed ever since. Blackman 
became a member of the museum board of trustees in 189L 

In the museum board's annual report for 1888 Curator de Vis once 
again referred to the view that lack of space prevented development of 
the technology collections, de Vis stated 'the proposal to establish a 
technological department must remain in abeyance from sheer want of 
space'. This was the last mention of the possibility of a technological 
section for some time, as the state moved into a period of severe financial 
depression in the 1890s. The application of technology to the museum's 
general operation continued, however, with approval for the curator to 
purchase a typewriter in October 1892. 

In December 1894, in another effort to improve the technological 
collections, the curator requested, through the agent general in London, 
specimens of porcelain products from Sir H. Doulton & Co. B . A competitor 
for items that were of interest to the museum now appeared. At the same 
board meeting, in April 1895 at which a favourable response from Doulton 
and Co. was received, it was reported that — 


By order of the Colonial Secretary, issued with the consent of the 
Secretary for Public Instruction, the portrait of the Queen, the bust 
of Justice Mein and the vase of Doulton Ware herefore in the 
Museum had been removed to the National Art Gallery, no letter of 
request or of acknowledgement having been received 16 . 

C.S. Mein, had been a prominent member of the Philosophical Society 
from 1869. As minister for Public Works he had supported the moves for a 
museum building and when that failed had appointed Coxen honorary 
curator in 187L Since this was the event that signalled the government's 
commitment to the museum, C.S. Mein could be said to one of the more 
significant people in its history. The bust of Mein was therefore an artefact 
that was of particular relevance to the museum's collection. Although the 
trustees received an apology, the items stayed in the art gallery. Overlap 
of interest in the area of decorative and applied arts between the 

The AVRO Avian Cirrus on display in the 
Exhibition building from 1929 until the 
museum closed in November 1985. 

Queensland Museum and the Queensland Art Gallery had begun and has 
continued over the years, though generally on more amicable terms than 
those of this inauspicious beginning. 

In fact, in 1930, the Queensland Art Gallery moved into the concert 
hall section of the Exhibition building in Gregory Terrace. For the next 44 
years it was the close neighbour of its sister institution, the museum— by 
then installed in the exhibition hall and basement of the same building. 
That the institutions co-operated well is illustrated in a remarkable 
incident that resulted from the vigilance exercised by the museum's chief 
preparator, D.P. Vernon, and culminated in the art gallery's acquisition of 
one of the state's most treasured works of art 17 . Vernon found, in the 
basement of the museum, a beautiful red wax, bas-relief sculpture, glazed 
and in a gilded, though shabby frame. On it, a pencilled note, possibly of 
Longman's— the director from 1918 to 1945— read: 'cf. Bologna Italian late 
16th century'. Mack, the director at the time, received advice that the 
sculpture was not of any importance. However, Vernon's belief in the 
pencilled attribution persisted. He cared for the sculpture, and eventually, 
in 1965, the director of the art gallery discovered, following 
correspondence with the Victoria and Albert Museum, that Vernon was 
right. It was, indeed, the lost model called The Flagellation of Christ 


One oi the treasures from the 
Queensland Museum's horological 
colleclion, a bracket cluck by the great 
clock maker Thomas Thmpi i4ty1. U 

was made in the early ibth century and 
presented to ihr museum in 1954 bv 
Mrs. A.R Marks, 

created by Giovanni de Bologna, a contemporary- of Michelangelo. 
Originally it was one of six wax models that were later cast in bronze for 
the Grimaidi Chapel in Genoa- The sculpture was presented by the 
director. J.T. Woods, on behalf of the museum, to Sir Leon Trout who 
received it on behalf of the ail gallery on 1 December 1965. 

Following the move of the museum to the Exhibition building during 
1900 the curator's report of January 1901 detailed the layout of displays. 
His comment that 'Our industrial materials are not represented as such in 
any way' gives an indication of the museum's lack of success in building up 
a satisfactory collection for its intended technological branch in spite of 
the avowed intention, expressed repeatedly over the years, to do BO. 
Despite this overall failure many significant items were preserved through 
the museum's effort during the latter part of the 19th century. With the 
move into the new building and the 20th century things did not improve 

In August 1903 a number of manufacturers' samples, collected in 
England by the agent general, were displayed at the National Association 
Show by the Geological Survey Department* These items were suggested 
as forming a good beginning for an industrial department of the museum. 
The question of soliciting more items was raised at a board meeting in the 
expectation that the concert hall space in the new premises would be 
handed to the museum in a few months^. Neither happened. 

Soon after Hamiyn- Harris took over as director in 1910 he initiated a 
imvv series of collection registers, including the A register, which started 

" February 1911 This register included many of the items of history 
and technology in the collection, as well as archival and photographic 
items that had previously been recorded in the donor registers, or had not 
been recorded at all. Oddly, it also included natural curios such as the 
inevitable two headed chickens beloved of early museum visitors. Thus, 
although the A register is not an entirely reliable guide to the rate of 
increase in historical and technological collections, it does give some 
indication of their growth. At the end of its use in August 1966 number 
A4519 was the final entry. The rate of growth of the collections had been 
very slow indeed and there is, regrettably, no evidence that Hamlyn- 
Harris applied the same diligence to the historical and technological 
collections as that which he had so successfully brought to bear on the 
collections in zoology, geology and anthropology. 

In 1882 the museum had obtained a typewriter; and in 1886 
photographic equipment. The telephone, introduced to Brisbane in 1S80, 
was connected to the museum in 1885 m The museum's failure to develop 
technology collections during these early years is surprising when at the 
same time it was so quick to use new technology for research and 

Elsewhere in Australia, the Industrial and Technological Museum 
(later the Science Museum) was founded in Victoria in 1870, taking over 
the mining and agricultural collections from the National Museum of 
Victoria. The Museum of Applied Arts and Sciences in Sydney was 
founded in 1880 as a result of interest created by the international 
exhibition staged there in 1879^ ■'•. Brisbane's own small 
international exhibition, in the Exhibition building in Bowen Park already 
under consideration as a home for the museum, was not held until 1897 ^ 
and did not provide the stimulus for any significant change in the 
collecting interests of the museum. 

The empha&is on primary production, and the lack of development 


of significant secondary industry also contributed to lack of interest in 
technology collections, compared with Sydney and Melbourne. The 
Industrial and Technological Museum in Victoria was heavily oriented 
towards educating the population to develop local industries 22 . The 
founding of the University of Queensland in 1909 lessened the likelihood 
of the museum being able to build up technology collections for use in 
education; while the Royal Historical Society at Newstead House, rather 
than the museum, acquired many of the items significant in early 
exploration and settlement of the state. 

Heber Longman, in taking over as director in 1917, sought to redress 
this situation. In 1918 he appealed to both the Royal Historical Society 24 
and the University of Queensland 25 : 'With a view to building up a distinct 
section of historical objects with local associations, I am endeavouring to 
supplement the few specimens of this nature now in the Queensland 
Museum. Any assistance by your society would be appreciated'. The rate 
of growth of the collections following this appeal does not indicate that 
there was any dramatic response to it. However, during Longman's time 
as director the two most important items currently in the museum's 
technology collections were acquired. These were the World War I 
German A7V fighting tank Mephisto, and Bert Hinkler's famous AVRO 
Avian, in which he completed the first solo flight from England to 
Australia. These two items are now firmly associated with the museum. 

It was a minor accident to the AVRO Avian that ensured its 
preservation in Queensland. The under carriage had been damaged in 
a heavy landing at Hinkler Park, Bundaberg, in September 1928. While 
Hinkler was waiting for it to be repaired he received an attractive flying 
offer from an aircraft manufacturer in England. Although he would have 
preferred to fly back to England, there was a possibility of a long wait 
before the Avian could be repaired and a maritime strike forced him to a 
quick decision to go by sea— taking one of the last boats to leave Australia 
before it became isolated by the strike. He left the Avian with his family in 
Bundaberg until, early in 1929, he offered it to the Queensland 
government with the hope that it would be of educational value to young 
Queenslanders. It was a generous gesture— the plane was costly for 
Hinkler to replace— made in appreciation of the public's interest and 
support. QANTAS staff carried out minor repairs on the plane, and 
transported it to Brisbane where it was exhibited at the annual RNA show 
of 1929. It was then moved into the museum, where it was displayed, 
suspended in a flying position, until 29 January 1986 when it was lowered 
in preparation for the move to South Brisbane 

The museum also holds what is thought to be the sextant belonging 
to Edmund Kennedy, the leader of the ill-fated expedition to Cape York in 
1848. In an attempt to retrieve the expedition's equipment, a party led by a 
Captain Simpson subsequently returned to the place on the Escape River 
where Kennedy had been speared by Aborigines. There, on searching 
under a bush among the leaves, the horizon glass of a sextant was found 26 . 
In 28 January 1937 an article in the Courier Mail recounted how a party 
surveying for stock routes had come across further relics of Kennedy's 
expedition. Perhaps it was this reminder that resulted, some two months 
later, in the museum receiving a parcel containing an ebony sextant — its 
horizon glass missing, a sailor's jacknife, a shell ornament and an 
Aboriginal dilly bag. There was neither a message nor a return address 
either on or in the parcel. At about the same time Director Longman, 
received a letter from an A.R. Meldrum, a newsagent at Cooktown. It read: 

Arnold Sweetser, technician in the 
museum 1966-74, a man of diverse skills. 


The Commissariat Store in 1978. 

Mt M. O'Shea has asked me to send y<>u wnne information 
connected with the murder of Kennedy the explorer also some relic 
he has in connection with same- 7 . 

At first, Longman did not connect the parcel with the relic referred to 
in Meld rum's letter. He replied to the latter asking if O'Shea had any 
further information, referring him to Jade's account of the expedition*, 
and offering to pay freight on any 'small relics suitable for exhibition* 28 . 
Nine days later— possibly after he had done sotne research, he did realise 
that the contents of the parcel were the suppose! relics. '1 am assuming 
that the Sextant and Knife are specimens associated by Mr O'Shea with 
the Kennedy Expedition' B . He asked where the objects had been found, 
but did not receive a reply. Then, in September, four months later, 
Professor Richards of the University of Queensland forwarded a letter 
from Cmdr T.F. Roberts who was involved with a nautical survey on Cape 
York Peninsula for the Department of Harbours and Marine. Roberts 

•Id boot-maker joined the ship in Cooktown and spun me the 
following yarn. Many year* ago he fcrei prospecting up the Pascoe 
River and came across some nomad blacks, one of whom (an old 
gin) had a sextant In her dilly bag. He persuaded them to give him 
the instrument and firmly believed H had belonged to an explore! 
named Kennedy who was killed by blacks up in that country w . 

Roberts went on to say that O'Shea had got Meldrum to parcel up the 
articles and send them to the museum; and he gave the address of 
O'Shea's son who later brought his father to Brisbane to see the articles or* 
display in the museum. Longman said, in his letter of acknowledgement to 
O'Shea's son 11 , u is seldom that we receive historical specimens of such 
interest as these relics \ 

Although it has not been possible to prove that the items are correctly 
attributed, the sextant is oi the right age, its horizon glass is missing and 
T.F. Roberts, in 1985, recalled O'Shea's strong conviction that it had 
belonged to the explorer 

Another fine gift during Longman's term started the museum's 
horological collection. In 1919 the museum received, from the Victoria and 
Albert Museum, twelve watches and five watch movements from the 18th 
and 19th centuries, duplicate material from the collection of Evan Roberts. 
In 1954 there was another gift of four splendid clocks from Mrs AH. 
Marks on behalf of her late husband. Dr Ail. Marks. Two of these, a 
Thomas Tompion bracket clock and an Eamshaw chronometer, are of 
particular importance and mark the beginning of the recent growth of the 

The Hall of Science Industry and Health 

While there was organised community support for the museum in the 
days of the Philosophical Society only at one other time did this happen 
again. It began after World War 11 with the surge of interest in science and 
technology that occurred then. In about 1947 the idea of developing a 
technological museum in Brisbane was raised by the Queensland 
Electrical Institute — an organisation concerned with the proper training 
of those engaged in the electrical industry. The museum proposal was 
supported by a number of technical and professional organisations* 19 . 

As a result a Commn I lie Development of a Technical Museum 

was formed and in April 1949 a letter signed by J.S. Johnston as chairman 
of the committee was forwarded to Premier E.M. Hanlon MLA, urging that 
in parallel with the Queensland Museum there should be established a 




Brisbane 1856. The Commissariat Store, 
built in 1829, is the building half way up 
the hill in the centre of the picture- 
partly obscured by the boat-builder's hut 
and store on the wharf. Today it is one of 
the two buildings of the convict era to 
survive (photograph by courtesy Oxley 

Ian Sanker, curator of industrial 
technology, and Michael Quinnell, 
curator of anthropology and archaeology 
working on the excavation of the 
Commissariat Store, 1979. 


The brick-lined underground drains of 
the Commissariat Store. 


'Museum of Science, Industry and Applied Arts', Collecting material was 
not considered to be a problem, as much was already available, but 
accommodation and staffing obviously required state government funds. 

The proposal was referred to the director-general of Education who 
supported the arguments for a technological museum, but the Public 
Service Commissioner's Department concluded that satisfactory 
accommodation was neither available nor in sight; further, at the time, 
suitably qualified staff would be difficult to obtain and such as were 
available were wanted by other government departments. The outcome 
was that 'the question will be reviewed by the Government on a more 
opportune occasion'. 

The idea then seems to have lapsed until 1963 when two of the 
original supporters, I.O. Marsh a senior engineer with the City Electric 
Light Co. and John O'Hagan of the Red Cross Blood Bank, discussed with 
Professor S.A. Prentice of the University of Queensland the possibility of 
reopening the matter, but no plan of action emerged. However, a year 
later the graduates and students section of the Institution of Engineers 
Australia, Brisbane Division, included in the annual display of the 
Engineering Undergraduate Society a combination of old and new 
electrical apparatus. 

This display received a deal of interest and early in 1965 the time 
seemed opportune to canvass a wide selection of the Queensland 
community to ascertain the extent of interest in development of the 
technological side of the museum. All relevant learned societies and 
similar bodies were included and, at a meeting in April at the University of 
Queensland, representatives of these interests agreed to the formation of a 
committee which adopted the name 'Queensland Hall of Science, Industry 
and Health Development Committee'. A council and an executive 
committee of the council were formed — the latter consisting of chairman 
S.A. Prentice, senior vice-chairman J.E. O'Hagan, junior vice-chairman 
I.O. Marsh, honorary treasurer C.F. Cottis, and acting honorary secretary 
L. Wager. The council represented a wide range of technical interests — 
agriculture, architecture, education, engineering, health, industry, science, 
veterinary science as well as the museum and I he graduate students' 
section of the Institution of Engineers Australia, Brisbane Division. 

Arnold Sweelser assesses ihe problems 
before collecting the Beam Engine from 
Lars Anderson's Sawmill at Esk, l%8. 


A constitution was approved by the Department of Justice in 1966 and 
this included the appointment of three trustees to deal with property of 
the committee. The object of the committee was to work with the museum 
toward the development of a display hall of science, industry and health 33 . 
Accommodation for the desired development remained a problem. The 
Brisbane City Council's disused power house at New Farm was carefully 
studied as a possible solution and in 1970 the council of the Development 
Committee prepared a report, entitled 'Suggested Development of the 
Queensland Museum', on the intended development of that site. However, 
the estimated cost of building modifications to the power house was 
considered too great for the matter to be taken any further. 

Thus, although displays in the museum resulted from these efforts, a 
separate Hall did not. Nevertheless, real development of the museum's 
activities in history and technology was initiated by the Queensland Hall 
of Science, Industry and Health Development Committee. In addition to 
raising public support, and being responsible for the addition of many 
important items of early technology to the museum's collections, the 
committee realised that the museum did not operate under legislation — 
and it saw this as a serious drawback. It produced the first draft of what 
was to become The Queesland Museum Act 1970, which made provision 
for a board of trustees and defined the museum's charter in the broadest 
terms, with responsibilities for history and technology as well as natural 
history collections. Prentice, one of the driving forces behind the Hall of 
Science, Industry and Health, was an appropriate appointee to the re- 
established board of trustees— for it was largely through his efforts that 
history and technology was to become a well recognised and well 
supported responsibility of the museum, and that the museum itself 
acquired a firm statutory base. In 1971 the Hall of Science, Industry 
and Health Development Committee became the Museum Society of 
Queensland; which, in 1985, became the Queensland Museum Association 
Incorporated— thus continuing in the supportive role of its predecessors 
(see Chapter 3). 

The Final Commitment 

Meanwhile, in 1959, the museum had staged its first major display on 
the history of the state for the Queensland centenary celebrations. The 
display was a great success, and although many of the items had been 
loaned (some from Newstead House) it firmly established the museum 
as an authority on the state's history and its responsibility to maintain 
collections of material relevant to the history of Queensland was now 
recognised. From this time on the emphasis changed and acquisition 
of large collections of exotic items from China and the Mediterranean, 
already well preserved in museums throughout the world, were not 
actively sought for the museum's collections. In 1970 the museum was 
involved in another historical display for the bicentenary of Captain James 
Cook's voyage of discovery up the east coast of Australia. It also prepared 
and installed displays in the James Cook Museum in Cooktown for the 
National Trust of Queensland. 

In 1966 the museum at last made a real commitment to the 
development of a history and technology section when it appointed 
Squadron Leader H.A. (Arnold) Sweetser, a retired airforce engineer, 
to the staff, with responsibility for reorganizing and actively expanding 
the collections in these areas. Items were sorted, researched and 
reaccessioned in the newly established historical and numismatic registers 
and additions to the collection were actively sought and acquired. 

Errol Beutel {left), assistant in history 
and technology, helping Sweetser to 
assemble the restored beam engine in 
the museum grounds, 1973. 


The museum's Garrett traction engine 
during its working life with the 
Normanby Shire Council at Harrisville in 
about 1920. 

Vernon recalls that on one occasion Sweetser was contacted by a member 
of the public wishing to know about telegraph insulators. The inquirer 
made an appointment to visit the museum the following week. 
Sweetser, meanwhile, read up all he could find on telegraph line 
insulators. Having done that he contacted the post master- general's office 
(responsible in those days for telephones) and, with his newly acquired 
knowledge, persuaded it to donate a collection of insulators. When the 
original inquirer called at the museum he was provided with all the 
information he needed. 

Publicity for these new activities, together with Sweetser's 
enthusiasm and hard work, led to dramatic improvements in certain 
displays and new ones, showing glimpses of the state's historical and 
technological development, were fitted in wherever space was available in 
the galleries. Workshop facilities gradually improved to keep pace with the 
restoration and display programme. Eventually, the first curator for the 
section, DJ. Robinson, was appointed in 1972. 

In 1974 I.G. Sanker was appointed curator of industrial technology 
and initiated involvement by the museum in historical and industrial 
archaeology in the state. This involves field studies of history and the local 
use of technology. The evidence sought are sites and material remains as 
well as documentary and pictorial records. Studies have included a convict 
building, industrial and mining sites, and a regional study of the industrial 
history of the Darling Downs. 

The most important item added to the collections during Sweetser's 
tenure was an 1866 beam engine. Sweetser realized that a beam engine 
represented the most important type of early steam engine and he 
believed there was a chance that one might have survived in Queensland. 
His inquiries led him to an engineer who had done maintenance work on 
such an engine during the 1930s. Following up this lead, Sweetser located 
the engine in Lars Anderson's sawmill at Esk. The Anderson family 
donated the engine to the museum, and, through the efforts of the 
Queensland Hall of Science, Industry and Health Development 
Committee, it was collected and restored with the assistance of the 
Southern Electric Authority. The technological collection now includes 
many other important engines restored in the museum workshop by M. 
Schofield who succeeded Sweetser on his retirement in 1974. These items 
include a 1925 Republic truck; a 1919 Ransomes, Sims and Jefferies 


portable steam engine and boiler; a 1910 Tangye oil engine; a 1917 
I.H.Mogul kerosene engine; an Ericsson hot air engine; a 1911 Garrett's 
6 n.h.p. traction engine; and an Austral oil engine. 

One technological area that has benefited from many local donors 
is the weapons collection; and the historical accession register records 
similar donations in the past. L.H. Maynard, an honorary collector 
appointed by Hamlyn-Harris, began the collection in 1912 with a large 
donation of 90 weapons. In 1936 E.F. Tristrom gave 45 and over the years 
the Marks family have donated more than 64. In addition, interesting 
collections of obsolete firearms have been transferred to the museum from 
the Comptroller General of Prisons and the CIB have handed on firearms 
confiscated and surrendered during amnesties. Perhaps the most diverse 
assortment of confiscated weapons, including such things as swordsticks, 
has come from the Customs Department. 

Through the efforts of E. Wixted, the museum's librarian and a keen 
historian of aviation, the museum also acquired many items of aviation 

The Garrett traction engine transported 
to the museum bv the army, 31 Mav 

1911 Garrett steam traction engine after 
full restoration by M. Schofield and 
metals workshop staff. 


history. The most important of these were Bert Hinkler's AVRO Baby and 
the wreck of Sir Charles Kingsford Smith's and Captain Bill Lancaster's 
Southern Cross Minor, recovered from the Sahara desert by a British 
expedition co-ordinated by Wixted (see Chapter 4). Sir Charles Kingsford 
Smith memorabilia were donated by his family, now resident in North 
America, and, escorted by Director Bartholomai, were flown to Australia 

The AVRO Baby G-EACQ, like his later AVRO Avian, had been 
damaged on landing— this time on a Newcastle beach, and Hinkler left it 
behind when he returned to England by ship in 192L The aircraft had 
several owners in Australia— the last being a Mr JJ. Smith. In 1969 the 
assiduous Wixted eventually found Smith — albeit a not very distinctive 
name— through the owners of the Footscray house in which he had lived 

Bringaree Indian, a Royal Worcester 
porcelain figure of 1888, modelled by 
Hadley. From the Ben Ronalds collection, 
donated to the museum by Mrs. A.M. 
Ronalds in memory of her husband, Ben. 


in 1930. Smith had the plane stored under a relative's house. Supported by 
Bert Hinkler's brother, Jack, Wixted persuaded him to donate the aircraft 
to the Queensland Museum. The government airline (TAA) through the 
Queensland manager, Ben Cochrane, undertook to transport the plane to 
Brisbane but no road haulier would undertake the job. No DC4 aircraft, 
which had suitably wide cargo doors, were in commission either. Then one 
was brought back into service — with a recertified crew— to provide aerial 
delivery of dairy products from Atherton. It was this plane that brought 
the AVRO Baby to Queensland on 2 March 1970. It was the only flight that 
DC4 made— the aerial dairy delivery never eventuated. The Baby was 
displayed by the Royal Flying Doctor Service at Archerfield aerodrome 
soon after its arrival in Brisbane. Then, beautifully restored by the Royal 
Queensland Aero Club — of which Hinkler had been a member— to 
commemorate the 50th anniversary of his 1921 flight, Jim Smith presented 
the plane to the museum at a ceremony on 26 May 1972. It is Smith's 
monogram that adorns the tail — and it was agreed that it should remain 
there, commemorating the 39 years that he had owned the Baby. 

Among the many historical items that were acquired during the two 
decades from 1970 is the Ben Ronalds collection of over 800 pieces of 
ceramics and glassware, including nearly 250 pieces of Royal Worcester 
porcelain. This collection was donated by Mrs A.M. Ronalds in memory of 
her husband Ben whose hobby it had been over many years. 

The history and technology section is now deeply involved with a new 
venture for the museum — the setting up of branch museums at various 
centres in the state. The first, Woodworks, the Forestry and Timber 
Museum, a joint development with the Department of Forestry at the 
Gympie Forestry Centre, opened in 1984. It deals specifically with the 
history of forestry and the timber industry in Queensland and displays 
equipment and technology used in the early days. Proposals for future 
branch museums include the Cobb and Co. Museum of Animal Transport, 
at Toowoomba, which will provide a home for the extensive collection 
donated by the Bolton family; and a Printing Industry Museum in the old 
State Government Printing building in William Street, Brisbane. Under the 
Queensland Transport and Technology Centre Act 1984 administered by the 
premier, a centre was planned to collect and display recent transport, 
energy and mining technology at Coomera, south of Brisbane. Later, as a 
result of a decision to rationalise museum services, the Act was repealed 
as from October 1985 and responsibility for the future of the centre will be 
assumed by the museum. Thus, in the long term, the museum is to 
develop a specialist branch dealing with technology, at Coomera, on 
a site originally selected by another department. 

While early policies to build up historical and technological collections 
were educational, the increase in the collections over the last 20 years is 
probably a result of the recognition of the museum's function to preserve 
an archive of artefacts. There is no doubt that community interest in its 
own history has also developed in recent years. Thus, by providing study 
and display collections on the history of settlement and the technology of 
Queensland, the museum can provide a deeper understanding of the past. 

The section has an extensive range of responsibilities. For instance, 
in 1973 a temporary display on China, using articles from the museum 
collection, was followed by a display celebrating the 500th anniversary of 
the birth of Copernicus and later, a display of pottery. Public enquiries 
about routes and relics of early explorers, coins, ceramics, glass, weapons, 
shipwrecks, clocks, industrial machinery, transport, garments, uniforms, 

The Ransomes Sims and Jefferies 
Portable Steam Engine of 1919 
undergoing steam tests at the museum 
after restoration, 1978. 

D.J. Robinson, curator of history and 
technology, in his office in the eastern 
end of the storage shed that also housed 
a large part of the collection as well as 
the metal workshop at the western end. 



fabrics, musical instruments and more— often involving research— are 
daily answered. The diversity of objects, both in size and fabric in the 
history and technology section's collections — from aircraft to abacus and 
ploughshares to lace pillowslips— has always posed problems of storage 
and display. From time to time, as the collections have swelled, temporary 
relief has been found by using storage space wherever possible— in the 
technology workshop and storage building in the museum grounds in the 
late 1960s; in the former art gallery section of the main building in 1975; in 
the old New Farm power station in 1980; and from 1982 in rented storage 
in the West End area 33 . 

WoodWurks, a branch of the Queensland 
Museum, operated in conjunction with 
the Forestry Department at Gympie. 


That the history and technology section, with its remarkable spread 
of collecting interests and commensurate range of artefacts, should 
experience problems in preserving its collections in the Queensland 
climate and under primitive conditions of housing is self-evident. The 
storage of the collections— in a tin shed adjacent to the railway line in 
which summer temperatures soared and winter ones plummeted, and in 
every nook and cranny of the main museum building from the 'earth 
basement' to the galleries above the old concert hall — exacerbated the 
problems of saving old and often delicate objects. Accordingly, until the 
appointment of a conservator, N.H. Agnew, in 1980, it was the curator of 
history and technology who, perforce— to save his collections — had to 
develop expertise in conservation and methods of preservation. Indeed, 
before 1980, D.J. Robinson extended his offices in conservation to other 
sections of the museum, as well as advising the public on matters as 
diverse as saving grandmother's christening robe from decay and 
constructing a time capsule. 

Erie mill engine being removed from 
display in 1984, for full restoration, to be 
used to drive the steam sawmill under 
construction at WoodWorks, Gympie. 

Arrival at the museum of the remains of 
the Republic truck, donated by Gilltrap's 
Auto Museum, Kirra, for use as a source 
of spare parts for restoration of the 
museum's 1925 model 20 W.C. Republic - 
now on display as a working exhibit at 
WoodWorks, Gympie. 


■,.: ' 


The branch museum to be opened in 
Toowoomba will celebrate the era before 
railways when animal transport provided 
the sole means of communication. 

Cobb and Co. coach lent to the museum 
for the centenary of Queensland 
exhibition 1959, by W.R.F. Bolton of 
Toowoomba. The coach is part of the 
collection given to the museum by the 
Bolton family and will be exhibited in the 
Animal Transport Branch of the museum 
in Toowoomba, 

When it was decided that the museum would become part of 
the Cultural Centre on the South Bank of the Brisbane River it was 
acknowledged that this site would not be the permanent home of 
technology nor, for that matter, of the growing maritime archaeological 
collections. The move to the new museum building in the Queensland 
Cultural Centre in 1986 is thus only one more step in the story of the 
state's technology collections. 





Previous page: Divers descending the 34 
metres to the Pandora site. 

Ships brought the colonists and the precious personal 
belongings and supplies that they needed to start their lives 
anew in Australia. Later, it was through the use of ships that 
the earliest industries developed — whaling, sealing, pearling, 
guano mining. Ships were, and still are, the vehicles 
for trade with other countries; and, until aeroplanes became the 
principal means of travelling between and across continents, ships were 
the only line of communication between Australia and the rest of the 
world. Cultural and political links with Europe were maintained only 
through the ships that carried the mail, the government despatches, the 
goods, and the immigrants with their knowledge, skills, beliefs, traditions 
and customs as well as their household goods, machines and books. It is 
through ships that the Australia of today was born and developed— a fact 
sometimes overlooked when histories of Australia have focussed on the 
daring and tragedy of inland exploration. 

A shipwreck preserves a record, occasionally almost intact, of a 
moment in time. Shipwrecks are the result of a catastrophe in which there 
was little or no time to remove any of the objects; nor have those objects 
since been subjected to the weathering of rain and sun. A shipwreck 
contains the evidence of the history and of the lives of the shipboard 
community of people who may have made a long voyage together. Only the 
flesh and blood of those who had begun the voyage is lacking. Shipwrecks 
are the physical remains of our maritime heritage. 

Maritime archaeology, as a scientific discipline, was first developed in 
Australia at the Western Australian Museum. It came about as a result of 
the discovery, in the late 1950s, of the wrecks of 17th and 18th century 
Dutch East Indiamen on Australia's west coast. For nearly two decades 
the Western Australian Museum had the only recognised underwater 
archaeology unit in the country. Through its excellent and innovative work 
on the Dutch wrecks it firmly established Australia on the world scene in 
this developing scientific field. It was as a result of these efforts that 
recognition of the significance of Australia's rich underwater cultural 
resources became widespread and culminated in the federal government's 
enactment of the Historic Shipwrecks Act 1976. This legislation, designed to 
protect and preserve historic shipwreck sites, is framed in such a way that 
the implementation of the legislation to each individual state's territorial 
waters is only at that state government's request. 

Although the Aboriginal people of Australia had canoes and rafts in 
which they could reach the islands off the coast, they were not a sea-going 
people. The first ships that sailed in Queensland waters were probably 
those of fishermen from Macassar and Chinese explorers who had found 
their way down the eastern Australian coast 1 . In the 16th century, when 
Europeans developed the spice trade with the East Indies, there may have 
been ships that sailed on from the Portuguese colony in Timor. There is 
some cartographic evidence of a few of these early voyages and there may 
have been shipwrecks 1 — but no material remains have thus far been 

Through the 17th century, Dutch spice traders, sailing due east from 
the Cape of Good Hope with the westerly trade winds — so called because 
they carried them to the islands of the East Indies and their spices— were 
being wrecked on the coast of Western Australia. Sufficiently accurate 
chronometers were not available and without them longitude could not be 
well determined and mariners did not know when to turn to the north. 
However, no such winds blew toward the eastern coast of this island 


continent and the Spanish vessels, crossing the Pacific to the Philippines, 
passed to the north of Australia. Perhaps, also, there were earlier mariners 
who, like the French explorer, the Chevalier de Bougainville, were 
discouraged from venturing into these waters. In 1768 he was sailing west 
from Tahiti and turned away when he saw— 

an endless line of shoals and rocks on which the sea thundered with 
great violence. This last discovery was the voice of God and we were 
obedient to it 2 . 

The only known shipwrecks on the eastern Australian coast are those 
that happened after 1770 when Captain James Cook sailed northwards 
inside that 'endless line of shoals'. Indeed, his ship the Endeavour, was 
nearly lost on the reef that now bears its name 2 . Endeavour Reef is only 
one of about 2000 in the Great Barrier Reef —a barrier of extreme hazard 
to navigators, and even today not thoroughly charted in some areas away 
from regular shipping routes. 

Navigation in eastern Australian waters increased in 1788 with the 
first settlement, Port Jackson. It increased again after 1839 when the 
Moreton Bay settlement became a free town and when port facilities 
developed in provincial towns, such as Gladstone, Rockhampton, 
Townsville and Cooktown, to serve the growing populations and industries 
such as agriculture, grazing, timber and gold mining and a developing 
trade with countries to the north. Matthew Flinders and other Royal Navy 
surveyors worked off the north-eastern Australian coast and in the Great 
Barrier Reef area in the last decade of the 18th century and the first half 

Divers working on the Pandora site 
(photograph Pat Baker). 


of the 19th century. However, the hydrographic data gathered were very 
incomplete. Inadequate charts and the coral reefs with strong tidal 
currents resulted in the many shipwrecks that occurred and still do occur 
in these waters. Indeed, every year sees the addition to the long list of 
vessels — now more than 2000— that have come to grief off the 
Queensland coast. 

It was the mutiny on the vessel HMS Bounty under Lieutenant 
William Bligh which, in due course, led to one of Australia's most 
historically important shipwrecks in Queensland waters— resulting, nearly 
200 years later, in the involvement of the Queensland Museum in 
maritime archaeology. On 29 August 1791 HMS Pandora, a 24-gun frigate 
built in 1779, was wrecked on a small reef at the northern end of the Great 
Barrier Reef at the eastern entrance to Torres Strait. Sailing under the 
command of Captain Edward Edwards — an inhuman martinet— Pan dora 
was returning 14 of the Bounty mutineers to England for trial. The 
mutineers had been captured in Tahiti where they had remained while 
their erstwhile collaborators sailed on in the Bounty. On their capture the 
prisoners were locked into an 11 x 18 foot (3.4 x 5.2 metres) box not more 
than 175 metres high on the deck of the Pandora where, starving and 
vermin infested, their hands and legs in irons, they sweltered for five 
months while Edwards unsuccessfully searched the tropical Pacific for the 
other mutineers, who were now safe on Pitcairn Island. When the Pandora 
struck, Edwards had been trying to find a way through the reef. In 
desperate straits he let three of the prisoners out of their box to help with 
the pumping. The other 11 remained imprisoned until, a moment before 
the ship sank, seven saved themselves when the master-at-arms threw 
them the keys of the irons, and a brave boatswains mate opened the hatch 
through which they escaped 3 . 

In November 1977 the wreck of what was believed to be HMS 
Pandora was discovered. The Commonwealth and Queensland 
governments shortly afterwards declared the Historic Shipwrecks Act to 
apply to Queensland and gazetted the wrecksite as protected against 
disturbance or vandalism. In April 1979 the federal government 

Divers working with the water dredge 
under the survey grid near the stern of 
the Pandora site (photograph Pat Baker). 

<* ^ 


commissioned two maritime archaeologists from the Western Australian 
Museum, G. Henderson and P. Baker, to examine the site to confirm its 
identity and to evaluate its archaeological significance. The results were 
conclusive. The wreck was, indeed, that of Pandora and the archaeological 
potential, because of conditions on the site which appeared to be likely to 
favour preservation of much material, was enormous. Unlike many ships 
wrecked on coral reefs, the Pandora did not break up before she sank, and 
she settled onto coral sand in deep waters— 34 metres— out of the reach 
of breaking surf that would have pounded and scattered her remains. 
Objects that were on the ship at the time she sank are likely to be in place, 
contained within the apparently almost entire hull, protected by the 
sediments that have been settling over the site for nearly 200 years. These 
sediments have excluded the oxygenated water that would have hastened 
the deterioration of many of the artefacts. Further, she was an up-to-date 
naval vessel, and historical information gained from the study of the 
equipment on board was thought likely to be significant. 

The Queensland Museum Board of Trustees, as early as 1972, noting 
the successful work being done in Western Australia, had given serious 
consideration to the future entry of the museum into the field of maritime 
archaeology. The discovery of Pandora and the declaration of the federal 
historic shipwrecks legislation to apply in Queensland waters brought the 
museum closer to a commitment to the establishment and development of 
a maritime archaeology section. There was also a pending application to 
have gazetted another Queensland wreck — that of SS Yongala, which in 
1911 had disappeared without trace off Townsville. 

On 1 August 1980, under the terms of the Act, the premier nominated 
the museum as the competent authority to administer the legislation in 
Queensland and the director of the museum as the Queensland delegate 
to the federal minister of Home Affairs — now Arts, Heritage and 
Environment. The museum was now fully committed to a responsibility 
for maritime archaeology, a responsibility officially assumed in January 
198L In June of the same year Ronald Coleman was appointed maritime 
archaeologist, becoming curator in 1982. He had had many years 
involvement with investigations on shipwrecks in other parts of the world 
and, while employed as the display designer on the museum staff, had 
done the preliminary work associated with the establishment of maritime 
archaeology in the institution. 

Among Coleman's first activities, was a preliminary inspection and 
photographic survey of the Yongala, which had been declared a protected 
site on 5 June 198L In this survey he was associated with film-makers Ron 
and Valerie Taylor who were producing a documentary television film on 
the Yongala wreck. Work on a register of the shipwrecks off the 
Queensland coast also began and by May 1982, after archival research, 
the list of some 2000 wrecks had been compiled. 

The next problem to be tackled was that of personnel. Work on 
submerged wrecks requires teams of people— many more than could 
ever be maintained on the permanent staff of the museum. A source of 
man-power and skills presented itself in the growing number of amateurs 
in the field. Thus, in July 1982, Coleman formed the Maritime 
Archaeological Association of Queensland Inc. to bring these amateurs 
together. This association gives members an opportunity to participate in 
the museum's work and, at the same time, to gain practical experience in 
the field. It also provides the experienced volunteer staff that the museum 
regularly needs to pursue its maritime archaeological programme. It 

The Pandora in Matavai Bay, Tahiti 
(painting by courtesy of the National 


enables the museum to conduct training courses and provides the back-up 
organisation that contributes to the co-ordination of field parties. The 
membership of the association quickly grew to more than 100, and, with 
the experience gained as a result of participation in museum programmes, 
the association is now able to initiate some of its own. In addition to the 
assistance in the field provided by this association, the employment of staff 
on National Estate grants helped to alleviate the serious shortage of 

Now, with strong back-up personnel it was possible to undertake a 
variety of field projects. In December 1982 a site inspection of a wreck that 
had been found 75 nautical miles northeast of Townsville was conducted. 
The wreck was subsequently identified as the Foam, a 'blackbirder' 
wrecked in 1893 while en route to the Solomon Islands with Kanakas being 
returned from the Queensland sugar-cane fields. The wreck was 
particularly interesting because of the quantity and variety of trade goods 
it contained. The study and description of the trade goods was of interest 
to anthropologists and ethno-archaeologists studying the influence of 
European penetration on the indigenous peoples. Both the Foam and the 

Preparing to lift recovered artefacts to 
the surface from the Pandora site 
(photograph Pat Baker). 


Some of the artefacts recovered from (he 
fiandom silt. 

Yongala were inspected again at later dates to monitor their condition and 
ensure that the sites were not being vandalised. 

Another project was the investigation of a mysterious wreck site at 
Happy Bay on Long Island in the Whitsunday Group. The wreck had been 
romanticised as a Spanish galleon— yet another one of several such fabled 
wrecksites reputed to exist around the Australian coast— because it's 
timbers were thought to be mahogany. The wrecksite was investigated and 
recorded and the remains were shown to be those of the Valetta dating 
from 1825. The ship had been built in Calcutta in 1821 and the main 
structural timbers were, not surprisingly for an Indian-built vessel, teak 
and not mahogany. Early in 1985 the maritime archaeology section 
conducted surveys off Lady Elliot Island to identify shipwreck sites and 
remains in that part of the Capricornia section of the Marine Park at the 
southern end of the Great Barrier Reef. 

Meanwhile, in late October 1983, by now with some experience of 
working in Great Barrier Reef waters, with confidence in the capacity 
of the team and with support and encouragement from maritime 
archaeologists and historians both in Australia and overseas, the first 
expedition to HMS Pandora was organised. The excavation of the Pandora 
is possibly the most ambitious project in maritime archaeology ever 
undertaken in Australia in terms of difficulty of access, depth of the 
wrecksite, and the number of artefacts that probably will be recovered and 
that will require extensive and sophisticated conservation treatment. A 
team of 20 professional underwater archaeologists gathered from around 
Australia and overseas. The museum conservator joined the party to 
supervise treatment of the excavated material. The wreck lies 100 
kilometres off the mainland coast in a remote area east of Cape York. The 
team of SCUBA 4 divers and support personnel had to be maintained on- 
site over a period of eight weeks and the logistics were complex. The 
diving programme was strictly supervised to ensure the divers' safety at 
34 metres— and this, of course, restricted the time that each person could 
work on the site. The weather was a critical but uncontrollable factor. 
October was chosen as a time before the cyclone season when the 
prevailing south-easterly winds would not be a problem. However this 
choice was not altogether vindicated and fine weather did not persist 


throughout the eight weeks. Nevertheless, the site was surveyed, mapped, 
transects were laid down and, in a preliminary excavation, the remains of 
the doctors shipboard surgery were found with unguents and medicines 
still stoppered and in place in their jars. The expedition was documented 
by David Flatman Productions in the film 'HMS Pandora: In Pursuit of the 
Bounty', subsequently televised nationally in Australia and sold overseas. 
The second Pandora season in November 1984 was equally successful 4 . A 
larger expedition is planned for October 198ft 

Maritime archaeology is costly. It involves large teams in the field for 
long periods, ship charter, tenders, computer data compilation, acquisition 
and use of survey equipment, conservation facilities for immediate 
treatment of materials recovered, and the complex logistical organisation 
necessary to move personnel, equipment and supplies; as well as 
provisions to deal with contingencies such as bad weather, loss of 
equipment and injuries to team members. The more remote the site from 
land and the deeper the wreck the more expensive an expedition becomes- 
The Pandora site ranks high on both counts. The financial resources 
required are of the order thai generally would be beyond those of a state 
museum. Federal government funding through the Department of Arts, 
Heritage and the Environment complemented a state subsidy for the 
Pandora and other projects and to some extent this alleviated the 
problem. However, contributions from private persons and commercial 
organisations have been generous and without them the programme could 
not have proceeded at the level maintained since it began in 1981 Captain 
Philip Gibson, a consultant appointed by the board of trustees, advises on 
aspects of the Pandora project to ensure that the funds received are used 
in the best possible way. 

Donations from the corporate sector in excess of $10,000 came from 
Arcom Pacific Pty Ltd and Entercomp Pty Ltd for computer software and 
hardware; NEC Information Systems supplied, maintained and updated 
computer hardware; Grace Brothers transported equipment to and from 
points of departure and gave additional funding. The Inflatable Boat 
Centre supplied a number of Zodiac inflatable boats for work on-site and 
site access; Bendcez Pty Ltd contributed the all-important complex 
oxygen safety systems for the divers; David Flatman Productions supplied 
funds and, in filming the operations at the Pandora site, made it possible 
for the world to share in these excitements, as did the National 
Geographic Society which, in addition to a generous cash donation, 
published a richly illustrated account, of the Pandora saga. The 
Queensland-based brewer, Castlemaine Tooheys, commissioned the 
construction of a valuable model of the vessel and, by provisioning the first 
expedition with a generous supply of its product, averted a serious 
freshwater shortage when the desalinator on the work vessel broke down. 
A large cash donation came from John Walker and Sons Ltd, and Flamingo 
Bay Charters provided services including the use of the vessel, Flamingo 
Bay. These contributions together with many 
more from individuals and other 
commercial firms have made 
it possible for the 
programme to 


proceed effectively and for those taking part to have confidence in the 
equipment that ensures their safety". 

Not the least part of the cost of establishing a maritime archaeological 
section is that associated with the provision of conservation staff, facilities 
and equipment to preserve, for study and future display, the myriad 
artefacts of many materials — bone, leather, wood, metal and even textiles 
and paper — that can be raised from a wrecksite. Some objects recovered 
are huge, such as cannon; while others, such as needles or tiny glass trade 
beads, are minute. On being raised, all require conservation treatment to 
prevent accelerated deterioration owing to the combined effects of salt and 
exposure to fresh air, Treatment of a cannon may need upwards of a year 
to stabilise it against further corrosion. In 1980 the museum had 
established a conservation section to start to address the long neglected 
problem of deterioration in the collections— notably the anthropological 
collections. However, the conservation section inevitably became deeply 
involved in the preservation of objects, particularly Pandora artefacts, 
presented to it by the maritime archaeologist. 

Meanwhile, linking the new maritime archaeology section with the 
long history of the museum, the section considered one of the earliest 
maritime artefacts acquired by the museum. In the board of trustees 
minutes of 3 June 1906 there appears the following report; 

a small bronze cannon which had been purchased was found on a 

northern reef by the black, supposed to belong to a wrecked Spanish 

It came to the museum from the Office of the Chief Protector of 
Aboriginals and the purchase price was £2.0.0 It was picked up on the 
northern point of Ashmore Reef in Torres Strait and the natives who 
found it said there w r ere two other larger cannon near it, as well as the 
large timbers of a vessel' 6 . 

Now, some 80 years later, it has been established that this early 
acquisition to the museum's collection of maritime artefacts is of French 
origin, one of a type manufactured in the early 19th century. It was made 
specifically for the French navy for shipboard use and it would have been 
effective against hostile natives in dugout canoes— it was light, easily used 
and portable and would fire rounds of grape shot with enough force to 
penetrate skin and bone. 

When the mystery of how it got to Ashmore Reef is solved, one more 
piece of the history of navigation and exploration in Australian waters will 
be known. 

To a maritime archaeologist it is not surprising that others should 
find shipwrecks fascinating. Much of history is mysterious and history 
preserved in the seas is particularly so. In the museum the maritime 
archaeology section will continue its exploration of these mysteries. From 
the study of the sites and the objects recovered from the sea, it will add to 
the knowledge and understanding of the events and the people that have 
made Australia 

Flint-lock Espingole— model ANIX. 
Made in Ruelle, France, in Lhe first hal! 
of the 19th century, tor the French Navy. 
In 1906 it was purchased for £2 by the 
museum, from Torres Strait Islanders 
who had recovered it from Ashmore 


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The Library 

It was the need for reference books as working tools that 
resulted in the creation of the museum library. At the age of 40, 
Karl Theodor Staiger, the newly appointed custodian of the 
fledgling museum, was faced with the prospect of identifying a 
variety of natural history items without the staff or research 
resources necessary for such a task. In a letter dated 2 June 1873 
addressed to the Minister for Mines, Staiger observed that — 

all the scientific books in my office are my own property, but as they 
deal with specimens of natural history found principally in Europe 
they are of not much use to me here; it will be therefore highly 
desirable to take early steps to procure the necessary scientific 
works that classifications of any specimen of natural history can be 
done K 

In a further letter on 2 August 1873 he reinforced his remarks: 

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Previous page: The museum library, 1933. 
Longman and Nora Holdsworth, librarian 
(on right) (photograph from the Brisbane 
Courier 24 May 1933). 


I beg also to mention that there is an utter want of proper books for 
the Museum. Many Zoological specimens and fossils can not be 
properly named and classified without the aid of such. I sincerely 
hope you will take this matter in to your consideration 2 . 

Staiger's working office at this time was the old Post Office building in 
Queen Street and even if the minister had responded to his request there 
would have been little space to house more than a very small library. Even 
six years later, in 1879, Bailey, the keeper of the herbarium — a 
department of the museum from 1874 —reported that he did most of his 
work at his private residence — 

there being no room at my disposal at the present museum and all 
the requisite books of references, being my own library*. 

Apparently in 1873 parliament had approved £50 for a botanical 
library although it was never spent. 

For three years from liJ57 the Austrian 
frigate Novara, sailed on a voyage of 
discovery across the Atlantic, Indian and 
Pacific Oceans. The reports of that 
voyage, contained in the 16 volume Reise 
de Novara, were donated by the Imperial 
Academy of Science, Vienna. This was 
the first substantial international work 
acquired by the museum library. Here 
reproduced is the meteorological data for 
part of its passage and the chart of the 
vessel's course in the western Pacific. 

'"9 r'M 


«/**.*# r»r 







The Formative Period, 1876-1881 

Charles Coxen, the honorary curator of the museum also had his 
own small library that he probably used to help him work on his own 
collections as well as those he had given to the museum. Soon after his 
death in 1876, the board of trustees, appointed earlier that year, received 
an offer from his widow to dispose of his collection to the museum and 
this offer was recorded in the minutes of the board meeting of 20 June 
1876. It was some time before all the negotiations were Finalised, payment 
not being authorised until 24 January 1877. The acquisition of the Coxen 
collection of books can be said to be the beginning of the museum library. 

On the same date that payment was authorised to Mrs Coxen the 
board decided that quotes should be obtained for an insurance policy 
'for Museum collection and books'— an independent confirmation of the 
existence of an embryonic library. The board's interest was further 
demonstrated when, at its meeting on 20 June 1877, one year after 
receiving the offer of the Coxen collection, it authorised payment of the 
sum of £4.10.6d to Otto Hagen, a bookbinder who conducted a business 
in nearby Roma Street. Unfortunately no record exists of what Hagen's 
account covered but the sum expended suggests that more than twenty 
volumes had been bound, unless the publications were of an extra large 
size. One of the important publications that was acquired with Coxen's 
library and specifically mentioned in the annual report for 1876 was Mr 
Gould's Australian Birds*. Another important acquisition took place in the 
latter half of 1877. Silvester Diggles, a leader on the Brisbane scene in 
both music and the natural sciences, offered his 21-part Ornithology of 
Australia to the trustees for £20, and the offer was accepted immediately 5 . 
The board had had some dealings with Diggles earlier in 1877, paying him 
an amount of £12.19.6, but it is not known if the items supplied on that 
occasion included books''. To the end of 1877 the sources of library supply 
appear to have been valuable second-hand publications previously owned 
by leading citizens, or local work such as that by Diggles. 

January 1878 marked a new phase in the development of the library 
when the board received an offer of the 16-volumes of the Novara 
Expedition 7 . The Novara was a frigate which carried out a voyage in the 

«*, l[ , , . 


years 1857-1859 collecting natural history specimens, and the publications, 
which were offered through the agent-general in London by the Imperial 
Academy of Science in Vienna, were the scientific reports on the material 
collected. Reise der Novara was the first substantial international work 
offered to the museum library. Administrative arrangements for the 
forwarding and deliver)' of international donations were of such a nature 
that it was to be August 1879 before these volumes were obtained from 
the colonial secretary's office in Brisbane 14 . 

Staiger was fully occupied as an analytical chemist and the function of 
custodian was an additional duty. There was little work involved in the 
administration of the small library collection and from 1878 it was probably 
done by the temporary clerk Charles Chester. The history of the museum 
library is, in part, the history of those who controlled the institution and 
of their attitudes, for it was to be 25 years before a member of staff was 
officially designated librarian. The documents of the period give a clear 

indication that the board of trustees saw the importance of developing 
adequate library resources. Explaining its estimates for 1878-9, the board's 
view was that provision had been made 'for moderate additions to the 
scientific literature of the Museum library, a feature the importance of 
which cannot be ignored' 9 . In this short reference there is also the 
recognition that a library with its own identity existed within the museum. 

Modest indeed was the sum spent on the library during the financial 
year 1878-1879 for the amount outlaid was £8.16.0 w . The previous year 
£47.116 had been spent on the library in an 11-month period, so there had 
been a considerable drop, probably reflecting a lack of awareness as to 
suitable sources of supply of appropriate publications' 1 . There were a few 
donations, so the library was growing. However, without expertise in 
relevant areas and without adequate reference works, specimens usually 
had to be referred to outside specialists for identification K \ 

In 1880 the museum was installed in its new building in William , 
Street. It had basement, ground floor and upper floor with a mezzanine 
gallery. On 2 April 1879 the board of trustees inspected the structure and 
held a scheduled meeting there. They advised the architect that a 'room 
under the first floor would do for a board room and that space need not be 

Gould'S Bird:, ul Australia was one <>i the 
lit St sets of volumes acquired by the 
museum. It was pari of Coxen's library 
which, with his collections of shells and 
birds, the museum trustees purchased 
for Ihe sum of £239.2.0 from his widow, 
Elizabeth. It is now probably the most 
valuable set or volumes in the museum 
library— the plates being oblta 
items. Here reproduced are two of the 
plates from Gould's great work. OppOSiit 
page: Chlamdydera nuclwlis—ihn Great 
Bower Bird; tkii page: CMamdydera 
maculata— the Spotted Bower Bird. 



Leatherjackets, plate 227 from volume 5 
of the Atlas Ichthyotogique des Indes 
Orientates Neerlandaises by Peter 
Bleeker, published by the Netherlands 
Colonial Government, Amsterdam, 1876- 

screened off the main floors'. In later years the room where the board held 
its meetings was identified as the library in the basement 12 . 

William A. Haswell, the new curator, brought with him invaluable 
knowledge of how things were done elsewhere. It was to institutions and 
learned societies in Britain that the museum would have to look for 
reference works suitable to its purposes. Haswell's stay in Brisbane was 
fruitful in respect of the library. That he was active immediately is evident 
from a letter from Williams & Norgate, booksellers of Covent Garden and, 
later, Oxford. Dated 28 May 1880, and addressed to Haswell, it reports that 
all the publications required had been obtained 'with 2 exceptions' 13 . The 
annual report of the board for the year 1879-1880 contained the following: 

The necessity for the efficient working of a Museum of a library 
containing at least a fair assortment of standard works in the various 
departments of science, has induced the Trustees to sanction a larger 
expenditure than usual on the library, so that at least a nucleus has 
been formed round which, in future years, by donation and purchase, 
it is hoped a useful scientific library will be formed. With this end in 
view, orders have been given to Messrs. Williams and Norgate, 
London, for a few standard works, including the Zoological Record, 
Gould's Mammals of Australia, Owen's Fossil Mammals of Australia, 
Carus and Engelmann's Bibliotheca Zoologica, etc. etc., which are 
expected to arrive very shortly. From the Trustees of the British 
Museum a very valuable addition has been made to this department 
in the form of a set of the British Museum Catalogues in 164 
volumes. A series of statistical works have been presented to the 
Museum by the Department of Public Instruction, Paris, as an 
overture in the direction of exchanges to be carried on with the 
French Museums; and the Peabody Institute of Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, has presented a series of the valuable scientific 
reports issued annually by that institution 14 . 

The catalogues from the British Museum were not the result of action 
taken by Haswell but had resulted from a board initiative. In 1856 a library 
open to the public on a subscription basis had been opened in Brisbane. 
This was the School of Arts library in Ann Street. In its collections there 
was The Catalogue of the Fishes in the British Museum and this was made 
available on loan to Staiger at the museum. Early in 1879 the School of 
Arts required the Catalogue to be returned, and on complying the 
museum board wrote to the British Museum asking for a copy for its own 
use 15 . Almost immediately it realised that the British Museum might be 
happy to supply its full range of catalogues and the board decided to ask 
on 19 February 1879. Publications of this type are exceptionally useful 
working tools and the British Museum Catalogues were invaluable for 
many years. 

Zoological Record, ordered by Haswell, was and still is a fundamental 
research tool in the natural sciences. The Zoological Society of London 
began this publication in 1864. In annual issues it indexes the world-wide 
literature on zoological subjects. Divided into classified sections, with 
author and subject lists, Zoological Record permits a researcher to 
establish and identify literature published on any particular topic. 
Naturally, it cannot provide the literature itself and eventually other tools 
were evolved that would. Haswell's action ensured that the museum 
library was equipped with a complete set of Zoological Record from 1864 

The publications from Paris had a somewhat different significance. On 
4 December 1879 the board of trustees received a communication from the 
Service des Echanges Internationaux, Ministere de Tlnstruction Publique 
des Beaux Arts, Paris. It offered an exchange of publications issued in 


France for material published by the museum. The system of exchanging 
publications was later to be a valuable source of acquisitions by the 
museum library but in 1879 the Paris overture was a little premature 
for the museum had nothing to exchange. 

Generally in Queensland at this time libraries were in their infancy. 
The parliamentary library was well established and for that reason tended 
to receive reference works that would have been better suited to other 
libraries, had such special libraries existed. On 7 September 1880, the 
librarian of the parliament advised that he had been empowered by his 
library committee to pass a selected publication to the museum 16 . While 
functions and collecting policies of such libraries as existed remained 
undefined this type of interchange and co-operation would be essential. It 
was to continue for many years and important accessions to the museum 
library resulted. On 25 September 1880 board approval was given to the 

. j .-. „- -,:..- ; ^.- ■ ' is y - / ' / 

Reef Cod, plate 283 from volume 6 of the 
Atlas Ichthyologique. Peter Bleeker was a 
surgeon of the Dutch East Indian army. 
During his service in Batavia, 1842-60, 
he wrote 432 articles on the fish fauna of 
the Indo- Australian archipelago. 
However, the Atlas was his chief work. 
As well as providing descriptions of a 
comprehensive range of species from the 
region, many were illustrated for the first 
time in the nine volumes of the Atlas, 
which were purchased by the 
Queensland Museum in 1884 — one of 
the few original sets in Australia to this 
day. As in so many zoological works of 
this period, the plates are 
chromolithographs, each individually 
hand painted. 


Queensland Philosophical Society to store its books on museum premises 
and no doubt this expanded the library resources then available to the 
museum staff. 

After Haswell vacated the curatorship towards the end of 1880 to 
accept a higher paid appointment in Sydney, and had been replaced 
temporarily by F.M. Bailey, the library collection continued to grow. On 18 
May 1881, in the minutes of the board meeting, there is the first mention 
of any person being given a specific library responsibility. There were 
some unusual features: 

It was also agreed that Mrs Fenwick purchase a stamp suitable for 
stamping the books of the Library. Also that a list of the books be 
prepared. Also if duplicates were in the Museum two native catskins 
were to be given to Mrs Fenwick. 

It would seem that the catskins were to be Mrs Fenwick's reward for 
the labour involved. John Fenwick was a member of the board of trustees. 

At first much of the basement portion of the William Street museum 
building had been almost useless and the board of trustees, in its annual 
report for 1879-1880, drew attention to the fact that this area could 'by 
but a very moderate expenditure' be used for preserving and storing of 
specimens and materials 14 . Such use would, of course, have a direct impact 
on the library environment. Towards the end of 1881 the improvements 
were effected to the basement 17 . The carpenter on the staff was also 
authorised to prepare shelving in the basement though this was not 
necessarily for the use of the library 1 *. 

This was the state of affairs on 24 January 1882 when the board 
selected Charles Walter de Vis for appointment to the vacant curatorship 
of the institution. Initially appointed for six months, he was a major 
influence on the development of the museum. It is also with the 
appointment of de Vis that the second significant period of library 
development began. 

A Period of Consolidation, 1882-1890 

The year 1882 saw the issue of two annual reports by the board, the 
first relating to the financial year 1881-1882 and the second to the calendar 
year 1882. These reports assist in tracing the development of the library. 
In the first it was said: 

During the last year the extensive botanical library, previously kept 
in the Curator's cottage at the Botanic Gardens, has been transferred 
to the large room in the basement floor of the museum building, 
where Mr Bailey now works as government botanist. In this room 
are also contained the few works of reference belonging to the 
museum and the varied library of the Philosophical Society 19 . 

At this time, in addition to the library where the botanist also worked, 
there was a laboratory used by de Vis for examining and classifying 
specimens and there was working space for the taxidermist and museum 
carpenter 19 . Just before June 1882 the additional working areas were laid 
with asphalt and lighted with additional windows 19 . Until October 1882 
natural light provided the only form of lighting anywhere in the museum 
building. In that month a gas connection was made to the basement 20 . 
Internal stairs provided access to the basement from the ground floor. 
These were closed off with a small gate at the head of the steps when it 
was found that members of the public were mistakenly descending the 
stairs in search of further exhibits 21 . 

The main source of material for the library in 1882 appears to have 
been donations. There was one that was remarkable, the first of its kind. It 


came from an anonymous source and was a £10 cash donation for the 
purchase of books : 

The annual report for 1882 showed the enthusiasm of the board far 
the library to be undiminished: 

The very scanty resources of the museum library, when brought 
under the notice of the late minister, received from him the 
consideration which was desired, and the works of reference most 
immediately required for research were at once ordered. The board 
respectfully recommend that this, the only collection of scientific 
literature freely open to the student, should be rendered as complete 
as possible in every department of inquirj 

The importance ol the museum library to the community is thus 
recorded. Its only competitors in Brisbane were the schools of arts' 
libraries which were not free but available only on payment of a 
subscription. No such thing as a free public library existed in Queensland 
at that time. 

The attitude of the minister responsible for the museum was also an 
important factor in determining the course and rate of development of the 
museum library. In 1882 the requests of the board did not fall on deaf ears. 
This is evident in the comments of the trustees in the annual report for 

In attaining that measure of success we have been chiefly aided by 
the liberality with which our requirements have been met by the 
Government. We refer more especially to an ample grant of th«_ 
furniture needful for the display of specimens, and for that increase 
of our small library which is now providing partially for the 
necessities of research. The importance we attach to the formation of 
an efficient collection of books oj reference will, we hope, excuse us 
in cherishing the expectation that the favour we have obtained in 
this work will he still further extended. 

By the help of the library — imperfect as it yet is— and by that of our 
collections, our officers have been enabled to supply the 
nomenclature of, and other information respecting, natural objects to 
many inquirers " 

This happy conjunction of a board and a minister, who both 
recognised that an adequate library was not a luxury but a necessity, was 
responsible throughout the 1880s for consolidating the efforts of the 
museum administrators of earlier years — Staiger, the board of trustees and 

On 5 June 1883, payment was authorized to the booksellers Williams 
and Norgate of an amount of £223.7.0d. The list of acquisitions shows that 
the library got more than full value for the money for there were some 
outstanding and far-sighred purchases^ 1 . These included Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History 1838-1883 (90 volumes); Quarterly Journal of 
the Geological Society 1845-1883 (39 volumes); Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society 1830-1883 (56 volumes); Transactions of the Zoological Society 
1835-1853 (9 volumes); Transactions of the Palaeontographical Society (36 
volumes); Zoology ofHM.S. Erebus and Terror (2 volumes); Histoire 
Naturelle des Poissons, a series by Cuvier and Valenciennes (22 volumes of 
text and 19 of plates). These and similar purchases of inestimable value 
created the basis of the museum library, and gave it an importance as a 
reference source for the natural sciences that was disproportionate to its 
size, This has continued throughout its existence. Nor were the donations 
for the year 1883 without significance M : The Hon. Captain Hope gave the 
16 volumes of Cuvier's Animal Kingdom. The museum's former curator, 


Haswell, was the author of one publication— Catalogue of Australian stalk- 
and sessile-eyed Crustacea, de Vis and the board acknowledged that — 

many valuable additions, both by gift and purchase, have been made 
to the Library. The Trustees of the British Museum and those of the 
Australian Museum Sydney, and most of the scientific Societies and 
establishments of Australia and New Zealand have enriched it with 
their several publications; but the most numerous examples of this 
liberality have, as usual, been received from the United States 
through the Smithsonian Institution 24 . 

Towards the end of 1883 the Philosophical Society gave way to a 
newly-formed organisation, the Royal Society of Queensland and it applied 
to the board for the use of the museum premises for its inaugural 


meeting 25 . The new society had already enrolled some 67 members 26 . 
There was an external entrance to the library through a gate from the 
William Street footpath, at the south-eastern end of the building. It was 
almost certainly down the pathway from this gate that many of the leading 
men of science made their way to the gaslit library on the evening of 8 
January 1884. It is appropriate that this meeting should have taken place 
in the only scientific institution that then existed in Queensland— the 

Already by the end of 1883 space for the museum's collections was a 
pressing need, and at the meeting of the board held in the library on 12 
November 1883 Douglas gave notice that at the next meeting 'he would 
move that the government be addressed in reference to the establishment 
of a free library in the present museum building, and the construction of 
another building better adapted to the purpose of a museum'. 

Although furnishings for the library were purchased in 1884— six 
chairs and a clock 27 — difficulties were growing in that department, de Vis 
reporting that the library apartment was inconveniently small and its 
shelves already filled. What was called the library was now, in fact, a study 
occupied in common by three and frequently four officers engaged on 
different subjects — to their mutual hindrance. It was also a reception room 
for visitors 28 . The upper floor of the museum was used for the display of 
molluscs, anatomy and botany, and one end was filled by the herbarium. 












V9L I 




Some of the important acquisitions to the 
museum library before 1883 (L to R): 
Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 
volume 1, series 1, 1838. The first of an 
uninterrupted run of this much-used 
journal that continues to the present day. 
The Zoology ofHMS Erebus and Terror. 
The scientific reports of a journey of 
exploration that circumnavigated the 
Southern Ocean, 1839-43. 
Reise de Novara, 1862-5. One of the 1 6 
volume set of the scientific reports from 
the voyage of the Austrian frigate 1857-9. 
Corals, by Milne Edwards and Haime, 
published by the Palaeontographical 
Society. 1850-54. 

Histoire Naturelle des Poissons by Cuvier 
and Valenciennes, 1828-50. One of 22 
volumes, purchased in 1883. 
Bibliotheca Zoologica, Carus and 
Englemann, 1846-60. A natural history 
bibliography purchased in 1880. 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 
London. The museum continues to 
subscribe to this classic journal, first 
published in 1830. It is now known as the 
Journal of Zoology. 

Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Harvard College vol. 2, 1870-1. 
Acquisition continues today through 

Smithsonian Reports 1880, a gift from the 
great American Institution — one of the 
many publications it donated to the 
Queensland Museum. Acquisition of the 
Reports as The Smithsonian Year 
continues through exchange. 


On the ground floor were displayed minerals, fossils and anthropological 
items. Zoology was in the mezzanine gallery. 

In the basement the crowding was compounded by the arrival of an 
important donation to the library in 1884. This, the Specifications of Patent* 
from 1617 to 1881 inclusive, came from Britain. The board of trustees had 
always intended that the museum should be concerned with technology as 
well as natural sciences, and patent specifications were a first priority for d 
technological section. Space was somehow found and the Patents volumes 
were arranged in a special apartment fitted up for the purposed Late in 
1884 the government announced that a new museum would be built, but 
year? would pass before the prospect of additional space became a reality. 

The inward flow of serials and monographs continued unabated, each 
year bringing acquisitions of scientific value. Ten years after the library's 
modes! beginnings in 1876 it was receiving further publications oi lasting 
value Such as Archiv fur Naturgeschichfe (101) volumes), American Journal 
of Science (131 volumes), Zoology of the voyage ofH.M.S. Beagle (5 volumes) 
as well as many scientific catalogues, guides and serial parts from 
interstate and worldwide sources, such as the British Museum, the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University, and the Indian 
Museum at Calcutta, to mention but a few 1 ". Volumes of the reports of the 
important Scientific Results of the Challenger Expedition arrived regularly 
ftoil) 1884 onwards Jj . In 1887 and 1888 purchases were not so numerous, 
but donations maintained a steady level. The Brisbane School of Arts 
made a donation erf the report on the Crustacea : : • -ke-nonlhave 

Expedition 1876-1878", and Brisbane and Sydney booksellers were being 
approached for publications — though the supply from the latter source 
was Small**. In 1889 an important source of publications appears in the 
donation lists for the first time; Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London M . 
In the initial donation several hundred official publications covering a wide 
range of subject areas of interest to the museum were received. Perhaps, 
in view of the shortage of space, it was fortunate that, in 1888, the museum 
was instructed to transfer the Patents to the Registrar General's Office 

Conditions in the basement library could not have been pleasant in 
1889 for William Street was being lowered and explosions and dust were 
daily nuisances '*. Maintenance of the library had also become a problem. 
Apart from space difficulties there was the question of binding. Otto 
Hagen bound hundreds of volumes and supplied other items but it appear- 
that, about 1889, his business closed, at least at its Roma Street address*. 
The need for binding was urgent. In 1890 the museum requisitioned for 
200 volumes to be bound by the Government Printing Office, apparently 
unaware that funding would have to be arranged despite the fact that a 
government department was being called on to provide the service 81 
Binding by the Government Printing Office was thus not to provide 
the solution. 

The supervision of the library collection was now probably the 
responsibility of the clencal assistant, Henry Tryon, who came to the 
museum in September 1883' w . Tryon became assistant curator in 1885, 
though there appears to have been no change in his duties. Tryon, 'a young 
and distinguished student', was also secretary of the newly formed RoyaJ 
Society* On 1 April 1887 the curator sought approval of the trustees for a 
jPOtlth, H. Hurst, 'to perform on trial without salary the duties of clerk and 
librarian for as long as may be convenient to the board*. Hurst came on the 
staff, but his unpaid status —which seemed to place him even lower on the 
reimbursement scale than Mrs Fenwick with her two catskins — was not to 


remain long. In September he became the geological collector and si 
after was referred to as the 'Keeper of Minerals and Fossils', although (he 
library remained his responsibility for some years 40 . 

In November 1890 the contents of the library Were catalogued, 
presumably by Hurst- 1 . This was the first time the items, which had been 
accumulating for 14 years, had been brought to account in a central listing. 
The form of the catalogue appears to have been a handwritten list, for the 
museum did not acquire a typewriter until October 1892 11 , and de Vis 
spoke of the catalogue being 'kept posted to date' 12 , almost as though it 
was written up like a ledger account. In this period, and fur many j i 
afterwards, it was the custom Tor many libraries to issue published 
catalogues of their holdings as a working tool for those who wished to use 
it Although it W3s intended that the catalogue of the museum library be so 
published' 7 this proved to be too COStly. By this time the library had taken 
on that character which it bears today, with a preponderance of scientific 
periodicals and fewer books. 

The Exchange Programme, 1891-1910 

It had been the practice until 1H89 for the Royal Society of 
Queensland to publish scientific work submitted by de Vis, | he curator 
of the museum 43 . However, de Vis was prolific and this was not entirely 
practical, so the museum began publication of it s own journal (see Chapto 
7). Issue No. 1 of the Annuls of the Queensland Museum was published in 
1S9L By the time that No. 2 was presented for approval on 6 May 1892 
material sufficient for No. 3 was ready. Continuity of publication seemed 
assured. The museum now T had something to exchange for the publications 
of other institutions and learned societies. The earliest records show that, 
by 1895, the Annals was being sent to exchange partners in many 
countries— Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Germany, Brazil, Chile, Costa 
Rica, Denmark, France, Ireland, Scotland, England. South Africa, Ceylon, 
Nova Scotia, Canada, Newfoundland, India, Mauritius) New Zealand, 
Straits Settlements, Guatemala, Holland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Norway, 
PfirU, Philippines, Portugal, Finland, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, 
U.S.A. and the West Indies. A number of copies were also addressed to 
private persons some of whom had sent copies of their own published 
works to the museum 44 . 

Not so happy was the situation in respect of staffing of the library. 
Because 'the work of the office and library at present performed by the 
Keeper of the Minerals and Fossils was to the neglect of his duties as an 
expert' the board decided, on 5 June 189X that 'a youth should be engaged 
for clerical and other subordinate duty at a salary of about 6 shilling 
week*. At least the youth was to be paid for his services which must be 
considered some sort of improvement on the terms of Hurst's original 
appointment. Hurst did not remain in employment with the museum for 
very long thereafter, leaving in November of the same year. The youth, 
appointed in September 1891 to look after the library and clerical work, 
was A. Preston. In the course of time, after one or two upwards 
adjustments in his w T ages, the board decided there would be no further 
increases for him because, there being no opportunity for promotion, i hey 
ielt it unfair to induce him to stay 4 -'. It seems that Preston went to Ballarat 
School of Mines 16 . When he left the museum he was replaced by A ) 
Norris and subsequently, from 1898, by G.H. Hawkins (see Chapter 3). 

The year 1893 was something of a disaster for the institution. This 
was the beginning of the great economic depression and the year of the 
great flood. Funding was slashed and many staff were retrenched ; '. The 


museum library was destined not to be restored to its former position for 
several years. Nevertheless, it remained open to students and learned 
societies. The curator had been left with 'barely sufficient means to keep 
the museum open to the public' 48 . The reduction of staff meant that some 
space in the basement was unoccupied and certain other organisations 
were given permission to use it. They included the Royal Society, the 
newly formed Natural History Society and the Queensland branch of the 
Royal Geographical Society of Australasia 48 - 49 . The office clerk was the only 
staff member available to handle the library's affairs. A reduction of £150 
in the library estimates 50 was partly offset by the sale of £38 worth of 
duplicate material to the British booksellers Williams and Norgate 51 . Other 
duplicates were exchanged for publications needed by the library and 
some were given to the Department of Agriculture library 52 . 

The collection continued to expand through donations from other 
institutions and societies, and as a result of the exchange of the Annals. 
Some purchases, mainly books, had been made and additional book cases 
obtained 53 . Lack of binding was becoming a problem of great magnitude. 
Hundreds of volumes lodged with the Government Printing Office were 
eventually returned unbound on the minister's authority 54 . Binding was 
a major problem for a library collection in which scientific periodicals 
predominated. When, in 1899, preparations were being made for the move 
Kathleen Thomas (nee Watson). to tne Exhibition building a library stocktake revealed 7,342 volumes. 

librarian 1933-42. TT . ... & . J . .,....,- 

However there was still no card catalogue and no furniture m which it 

could have been kept 55 . 

Among the temporary staff recruited to assist with the move was 

Ernest Albert Lower 56 . In seeking a position Lower wrote that he had 

'been in the employ of Dr. Jas. C. Cox of Sydney as Conchologist & 

Travelling Naturalist for a number of years; have also a very fair 

knowledge of Botany '. Lower was given a job in October 1899 as 

'packer' 57 . On 3 March 1900 he became 'printer'. He wrote a very fair hand 

and appears to have been engaged on the preparation of the countless 

labels needed for exhibits in the new accommodation. On 18 February 

1901, some six weeks after the museum re-opened to the public— the 

opening took place on 1 January, Federation Day— Lower was appointed 

'Librarian and Label Writer' by the minister for Public Instruction 58 . His 

appointment was backdated to 1 July 1900. The library seemed assured of 

continuing supervision for the first time, but on 27 June 1902, de Vis was 

notified that the services of Lower and three other museum staff were to 

be dispensed with three days later. The period was eventually extended 

to 30 July 59 . The state was still in a period of economic depression and the 

new free public library —the Public Library of Queensland— opened, at 

the end of April 1902, in the old museum building in William Street 60 . The 

staffing required at that new library seems to have been compensated for 

by retrenchments at the museum. Lower was the first appointee to be 

designated 'librarian'. In later years he developed a very fine collection of 

shells, numbering 3000, and resided in Sydney. At this time he recalled his 

duties at the museum as including librarian, writer, printer, keeper of 

aquariums and clerical duties 61 . A classified card catalogue of the library 

was completed in July 1901 and Lower probably made a contribution 

towards its preparation 62 . Presumably the catalogue card cabinet, on the 

need for which the trustees had deferred a decision in September 1899, 

was later obtained 55 . In April de Vis reported that he had acquired, from 

the parliamentary library, the 46 volumes of the Scientific Reports of the 

Challenger Expedition. This is one of the mysteries of the museum library 


that has not been resolved, for the museum was purchasing these volumes 
from 1884. It indicates very clearly that proper registration procedures for 
the library were needed 63 . 

Director de Vis was now more than 70 years of age. Museum library 
holdings had passed 10,000 items in June 1904, about 90% being volumes 
and the remainder fugitive material 64 . Control of the institution passed 
from the Department of Public Instruction to the Department of 
Agriculture and then to the Chief Secretary's Department. The board of 
trustees held its last meeting about September 1907 65 . The Annals of the 
Queensland Museum had continued as a medium of exchange but its 
publication rate slowed. One improvement did take place before the board 
was disbanded — more than 300 volumes were being bound, in April 1907, 
by bookbinder George Hooper of Elizabeth Street 66 . There remained a vast 
backlog— one that has never been overcome. 

Kylie Whitehead, library assistant, 
watches as her colleague, Victoria Coops, 
uses one of the near vertical ladders 
supported on the horizontal fixed rails 
that were installed in 1934 — after 
librarian Nora Holdsworth had sustained 
an injury while 'standing insecurely on a 


The library outgrew its accommodation 
and wound its way through the 
building— along both sides of the 
passages, through the basement, and into 
curators offices and the lecture theatre. 


A Re-awakening, 1910-1917 

The appointment of Hamlyn-Harris as director in October 1910 
re-awakened a sense uf direction and opened the nexl phase of library 
history, Before taking up the position officially he visited museums 
in other Australian states and referred back to the museum lists of 
publications he considered vital for its library to possess". The lists were 
checked against holdings and approval was obtained from the Chief 
Secretary 's Department for the purchase of those not already held. Vere 
Chambers, rumoured to be the grandson of de Vis, had been appointed 
a short time previously to carry out library and Clerical (hilled 1 **. Robert 
Etheridge jnr, in his 1910 report to the premier, describes Chambers as 
'a young man of eighteen years and about two years service' whose 'books 
are neatly kept He has only an elementary' knowledge of library work' 711 . 

Although attempts to catalogue the library had been made previously, 
there were no proper accession or registration procedures and it was 
impossible to check holdings and record loans adequately, Hamlyn-Harris 
arranged for two registers to be opened, one for books and the other for 
journals. The first entries were made in 1911 and included the existing 
collection. Museum staff who later recalled this period said that it was 
Hamlyn-Harris who gathered together the publications previously 
scattered throughout the building and housed them in one very large 'light 
and airy' room in the basement. From that time forth this room became 
the library. The new director, imbued with a sense of purpose, was also 
energetic in his endeavours to develop the exchange programme. For this 
purpose a new publication with a larger format— the Memoirs of the 
Queensland Museum —replaced the Annuls, A number of publications were 
found to have been lent to private persons and never returned so Hamlyn- 
Harris bent his energies to their retrieval *'. He laboured under irksome 
restrictions, requiring approval for even small expenditure on important 
items. A letter, dated 31 January 191L sought the authority of the chief 
secretary to have Roth's Bulletins on Queensland Aborigines bouno 1 

Vere Chambers resigned in 1911 and his place was taken by Clarice 
Sinnamon, a member of a well-known Brisbane family v \ Douglas Rannie 
continued what would prove to be a line of librarians. He was appointed 
in June 1913 on a salary much less than half of what he had previously 
received as a classified officer 74 At one time he had been Inspector of 
Factories and Shops and Superintendent of Labour at Charters Towers. 
His testimonials included one from Sir Samuel Wiilker Griffith at that time 
Chief Justice of Australia 74 . Cuthbert Butler— later to be a memt. 
parliament 75 — was the next librarian (1915-1917). World War 1 had begun 
and there was a consequent breakdown in many exchange arrangements, 
particularly those in continental Europe. 

Hamlyn-Harris had consolidated the library and given it an identity. 
A man of cultivated background, he understood the need and relevance of 
a properly functioning library. In other Queensland institutions at this 
time and for many years thereafter there was, apparently, a view that 
libraries, however neglected and lacking in continuous control they might 
be, could somehow instantly deliver services to an expected standard on 
demand. In this respect Hamlyn-Harris was ahead of his time on the 
local scene. 

A Period of Financial Strigency, 1917-1945 

Heber Longman, who succeeded Hamlyn-Harris, became the longest- 
serving museum director. Joining the staff in 1911 he became director in 
1917 and remained in charge until after World War II. It was a stagnant 


Librarian E.P. Wixted {right), and E. 
Crome — collector Of aeronautical 
memorabilia-— with Mrs Mary Tully, Sir 
Charles Kingsford Smith's widow. 
examine part of the Kingsford Smith 
collection of memorabilia presented to 
the museum aviation collection by Mrs 
Tully on behalf of the Kingsford Smith 

period for the library, with neither expansion nor contraction in a long 
period of financial stringency. Museum staff were fewer at the end of 
Longman's tenure than at the beginning. The survival of the institution in 
the face of the economic depression between the two world wars was an 
achievement in itself. Librarians in Longman's time were Alec Fenwick 
(1917-1930), Nora Holdsworth (1931-1933) and Kathleen Watson (1933- 
1942). Fenwick had been president of the Waterside Workers' Federation™. 
The attributes he brought to the job were not those which aroused 
Longman s enthusiasm but they were probably those most needed for 
the library at that time: 

A Librarian in a State Museum should be an educated person with a 
definite interest in science, and with ability to arouse interest in the 
work of the institution. Mr Fenwick lacks both the temperament and 
the training for this work, and at times his manners and his methods 
are not in keeping with his position. As a technical custodian of 
books, however, he has done excellent work, and he keeps the 
library in good order. He does the work to the best of his ability and 
is regular and methodical 77 . 

Nora Holdsworth was a graduate in science and Kathleen Watson 
a graduate in arts. In 1934 an injury was sustained in the library and 
the record of the event reflects the shortcomings of the library 


Owing to the height of our Library, and the fact that there are no less 
than thirteen shelves, one above the other, in most of the series, 
there is an element of danger in removing books from the upper 
shelves, when standing insecurely on a ladder, I should be extremely 
obliged if the Department of Public Works could assist us by placing 
some kind of rod or rail on the shelf lines where the long ladder 
rests, on which it would securely remain, without slipping, whilst in 
use in any one section n . 

The rails were put in place and they were there until the museum 
moved in 1986— more than fifty years after the incident 


The Modern Period, 1946-1986 

George Mack became director in 1946 and inherited an institution in 
a depressed condition following World War II. In the disturbed post-war 
period there was a rapid succession of librarians and assistants (see 
Appendix2). Claire Forde, who stayed longer than most— from 1957 
to 1962 — and made a substantial contribution, was the daughter ot 
F.M. Forde who had been prime minister of Australia for a few days in 
1945. Shirley Gunn, a zoological assistant, also helped in the library and 
later became a well known University of Queensland librarian. 

A major part of the library's periodical collection was not bound, 
George Mack set himself the task of rectifying this situation, channelling 
funds into its accomplishment. He took pride in having secured approval 
for a contract with a private firm of bookbinders instead of the 
Government Printing Office 78 . Smith and Paterson, the firm engaged, 
did much to reduce the massive backlog until the business closed in the 
early 1970s, 

The publishing practices of the many hundreds of organisations from 
whom the museum received publications showed endless variation. They 
varied within each publication, from period to period over a spread of 
more than fifty years, and from one series to another. Preparation of 
complete volumes for binding was laborious and tedious with unending 
searching and checking. 

A fixed location system had been instituted by Hamlyn-Harris in 1911 
and was still in use at that time in many other libraries. It designated l he- 
position of a publication by panel, number of shelf and position on shelf, 
The location 11/1/2 meant panel 11, shelf X book 2. After fifty years of this 
system periodicals in the same series were scattered in a variety of places 
on the library's 700 shelves— space at the original location having run out. 
Shelves were crammed and the topmost holdings much in need of 

An illuminated address to Kingsford 
Smith from the Municipality of Lane 
Cove — from the collection of 
memorabilia presented by the Kingsford 
Smith family. 


Wixted (left) with pioneer aviators Harry 
Purvis and Norman Lennon in the room 
housing the Thomas* Macleod 
Queensland Aviation Collection. This 

tad pre iously been the museum's 
spirit collection store— until a more 
appropriate external building was 
constructed for the purpose in the early 

cleaning. It was Mack's particular desire that all the periodicals and other 
publications emanating from one institution or organisation should be 
found in one place on the shelves and this was an instruction given to 
E.P Wixted when he was appointed librarian in April 196L A new system 
was developed and the holdings re-sorted. The new system identified 
the publisher as Mack insisted it should. The principle was similar to 
that used by the U.SA Public Documents Library. 

By this time the library had outgrown its accommodation and had 
begun wending its way through the building. The process continued and 
eventually library material was located in more than thirty rooms and 
corridors. The space difficulty was compounded in the late 1960s with the 
development of a history and technology section. Subject areas and librar} 
suppliers proliferated accordingly. Publications on clocks, porcelain, 
silverware, pottery, costumes, medals, period uniforms, engines, coins and 
so on, were now acquired in addition to those on natural history. Some 
sections, such as art, needed to be strengthened and others, such as 
conservation and maritime archaeology beginning in the early 1980s, 
had to be developed from scratch. 

Special collections, usually including material other than books 
and periodicals, relating to a specific subject area or object, are also an 
innovation in the library. At this stage the special collections are a 
newspaper collection (1900-1933), Australian patent specifications covering 
some seventy years, and a collection of aviation memorabilia and papers. 

The aviation collection was named in 1973 for Queensland aviation 
pioneer Thomas Macleod. It is interesting that much of Macleod s 
pioneering effort took place in 1911 on a hillside at Oxley on a property 
now owned by the Sinnamon family. It was also in 1911 that a member of 
that family, Clarice Sinnamon, became museum librarian. There is also a 
link between the Queensland museum and aviation history in Sir Charles 
Kingsford Smith's, aircraft Southern Cross. The original owner of that 
aircraft was G.H. — later Sir Hubert— Wilkins, who had bought it for his 


1926 Arctic expedition partly with savings from his 1923-1925 exploring 
expedition to Queensland and the Northern Territory. Those savings 
resulted largely from the free rail travel provided by the Queensland 
government and the use of the museum as a base for the expedition (see 
Chapter 7). 

The patents collection also recalls early years of the museum, for 
the library lost its original British Patents in 1888 and gained another, 
more relevant, Australian collection ninety years later. 

Since 1965 there has been a marked extra workload in the library 
that has been generated by a growing and increasingly diverse collection, 
a larger professional staff and by the problems associated with the 
administration of a resource that was scattered throughout the building. 
The excellence of the library holdings, especially in the area of natural 
history, effected by the efforts of the first board of trustees, and Haswell, 
de Vis and Hamlyn-Harris, has also now resulted in its frequent use by 
other scientists, either directly or through interlibrary loan. Fortunately, 
with the exception of the years 1965 and 1966 when he had to do without 
help, Wixted had one, and from 1976, two library assistants. 

The museum library is now installed in its new building at South 
Brisbane with its computer print-outs and visual display units that resolve, 
in seconds, profound bibliographic problems that formerly would have 
kept library staff occupied on literature searches for very long periods. 
The library has come a long way since 1879 when it moved into its first 
new building with its embryonic collection in which the most important 
volumes were those acquired from Charles Coxen and Silvester Diggles 
and the Reports of the Novara—a gift from the Imperial Academy of 
Vienna. Those who, like Wixted, studied in the basement of the 
Queensland State Library in the early 1950s will be able to imagine what it 
may have been like before 1900 — before gaslight, telephone or typewriter 
were installed and with the museum botanist, the carpenter and the 
curator working nearby. 

Charles Kingsford-Smith, with his 
family, visited the museum's aviation 
collection in July, 1978. while he was in 
Brisbane to celebrate the 50th 
anniversary of his father's epic trans- 
pacific flight from Oakland, California. 



The Boards 
of Trustees 

Previous page: Mrs Charles C 
donated this portrait of her husband — 
'Charles Coxen Esq tc CMZS. First 
honorary Curator, one of the earliest 
Trustees and Contributor's to the 
Museum' (board of trustees minutes, *> 
August 1887). 

In November 1863 everything seemed to be going well for the 
Philosophical Society, for the government apparently had 
accepted its museum as the Queensland Museum. Not only had 
the government provided the Windmill accommodation and 
given £100 to further the society's aims, but also the minister 
for Lands and Works had just indicated that it was prepared to provide a 
site outside the gates of Government House for a museum building. The 
society delegated three of its members to discuss this last proposal with 
the minister and to raise with him the appointment of trustees for the 
museum '. 

Those discussions of November 1863 were not fruitful. A museum 
building was not seriously discussed again until 1871 and it was to be 
even longer before the matter of trustees was raised a second time. The 
honorary curator, Charles Coxen, seeking relief from the minutiae of the 
museum's management, wrote to the secretary of Lands on 18 February 
1874, suggesting that he should be appointed, together with W.H. Miskin 
and AX. Gregory, to a board of four members in which would be vested 
'all matters connected with the management of the Queensland Museum' 2 . 
However, it was not until 26 January 1876 that Under Secretary for Mines 
G.L. Lukin recommended the appointment of trustees: 

the work that would devolve upon Trustees is performed entirely by 
Chas. Coxen Ksq. By appointing several trustees Mr Coxen would be 
relieved from some of the duties and responsibilities which are now 
becoming very onerous. The following gentlemen— C. Coxen Esq., 
F.O. Darvall Esq., J. Fenwick Esq., WJL Miskin Esq. and A.C. Gregory 
Esq.— who would consent to accept the Trust would as Trustees give 
material aid in advancing the objects of the Institution. 

Secretary for Mines H.E. King MLA, accepted the recommendation in 
principle but deleted Darvall from the list and added George Raff, Gresley 
Lukin and John Douglas MLA 3 . The trustees that Secretary King 
recommended to cabinet on 17 February 1876 were Coxen, Douglas, 
Gregory, Raff, Lukin, Fenwick and Miskin. The governor— W.W. Cairns 
CMG— approved the appointments on 25 February 1876 '. Karl Staiger, the 
custodian of the museum and government chemical analyst, was the 
secretary' to the board. The next day, the under secretary (Lukin) writing 
to the appointees, referred to the notification of their appointments in that 
day's issue of the Government Gazette and went on to say — 

The Honourable the Secretary for Works and Mines desires me to 
request that among the firsi matters that call the attention of the 
Trustees you will be so good as to take into consideration the 
eligibility of either of the following sites at present available for the 
erections of a New Museum, viz. 

1 At the corner of Queen and William Streets, at present occupied 
by the Audit and Harbours and Rivers Offices. 

2 In the Botanical Gardens. 

Subsequently the Trustees will be called upon to consider what 
dese ription of building will be most suitable for the purpose. 

A sketch plan of a Museum building proposed to be erected on the 
first named site is now in this office for inspection by the Trustees 5 . 

Now and for some years to come the museum was referred to 
interchangeably as either the Queensland Museum or the Brisbane 
Museum in official circles. The trustees, at a meeting on 7 March 1876, 
decided that it should be called the Queensland Museum and by 1880 
this w T as the name invariably used officially. 


/^ /&7*&vf£-/ <_^3* "fe^Jf**? /^£*e*<-H<** £a*uz*<x4} 
<Ls6*- 1^&> *&*i f &*^ZZ. <^£ JU*&*&& epSaZ^f 

s^oz^h.**^ ^~^9U /tZ4,s**+£s /gjtgx 


Charles Coxen to the Hon. the Secretary 
of Lands. 18 July 1874 (QSA G149/3) 
recommends 'that a Board be appointed' 
and draws the minister's attention to the 
revenue earned through Staiger's assay 


A Beginning, 1876-1882 

At their first meeting, on 29 February 1876, the trustees decided on 
the Queen and William Streets site for the new museum. They asked the 
government to inform them what operating funds would be available and 
the government's views regarding their use. By 7 March 1876 there is an 
indication of some hedging by the government when it informed the 
trustees that they were not confined to the two sites previously advised, 
but could put forward others for consideration. The trustees resolved to 
adhere to their previous decision. 

At the same meeting they considered some further instructions they 
had received. They had been asked to examine and report on the present 
state of the museum and accordingly a sub-committee consisting of 
Gregory, Coxen and Miskin was delegated to prepare an inventory of the 
collections. The trustees were also asked to advise on the proposed plans 
of the new museum building and to make suggestions as to its regulation 
and management. The trustees invited colonial architect Stanley, then 

Augustus Charles Gregory KCMG, 
scientist, explorer and surveyor general 
of Queensland and the first chairman of 
the museum board of trustees 
(photograph by courtesy Oxley Library). 


absent, to meet them on his return and they decided to obtain copies of 
management regulations in force in Sydney and Melbourne. Stanley 
submitted his plans on 21 March and they were broadly approved. He 
agreed to complete and resubmit them to the board. Gregory and Miskin 
were deputed to draw up a set of by-laws for consideration by the board. 

The board was launched. Coxen, the only person associated with the 
museum who had any practical experience of museology, died on 17 May 
1876. However, both Gregory and Miskin understood the role of a museum 
and appreciated the importance of the collections. Gregory was a scientist 
and explorer of some renown who was establishing a noteworthy career as 
the colony's surveyor-general, and Miskin was a public servant whose 
hobby was entomology. With the exception of Lukin who was a public 
servant turned newspaper editor, the other trustees had pastoral 
affiliations— Douglas, although now a parliamentarian, had been a 
squatter, as had Coxen in his earlier days; Fenwick was a stock and station 
agent and well-known woolbroker; and Raff was a merchant, woolbroker 
and sugar grower 6 . Actually, many of the affluent and influential men in 
the community were associated with the pastoral industry at this time and, 
further, many were members of the Acclimatisation Society and had some 
knowledge of natural history. On 4 July 1876 the governor-in-council 
approved the appointment of Joseph Bancroft MD 7 , a medical practitioner 
of considerable repute who was also interested in natural history, to take 
Coxen's vacant place on the board 8 . Attached to the file is a memorandum 
stating These are trustees of management only'. Thus no property was 
vested in them. 

In the meantime, realising the wait they would have before a new 
building became a reality, the trustees had sought increased storage space 
in the existing Queen Street premises— the old Post Office building. In 
June 1876 Gregory, Miskin and Raff were delegated by the board to see 
the premier (George Thorn MLA— who was vice-president of the 
executive council, minister for Public Works, Mines and postmaster- 
general) to seek the rooms then occupied by the detective force in the 
same building. At the next meeting Dr Bancroft agreed to discuss with the 
hospital board the removal of the hospital dispensary, but it was not until 
July 1877 that the museum acquired that extra space (see Chapter 2). 

In September 1876 the trustees heard that the government was 
intending to select an alternative site for the new museum. The minister 
hastened to reassure them promising, on 20 October 1876, that the 
museum would be erected on the site of their choice, namely the Queen 
and William Streets corner. He further promised that £3000 to fund the 
building would be put on the supplementary estimates. 

Although it seemed that the building plans were now secure, this was 
not the case. It was almost a year before the trustees could confidently 
anticipate the move to the new building. On 19 December 1876 they 
learned from their colleague Douglas— then secretary of Public Lands— 
that the Treasury claimed a prior right to the Queen and William Streets 
corner. Further, noxious gases said to emanate from the museum would 
preclude choice of a main thoroughfare site 9 . The trustees objected 
strenously, as the site was a 'twice chosen one', and decided to wait for 
further advice from the government. Then, on 3 January 1877, they 
accepted a site extending from the Colonial Stores to Queen Street, 
between William Street and the road to the old ferry (now called Queens 
Wharf Road) and on 24 January they were informed that the government 
had called tenders. The board of trustees approved the amended plans on 

> «. j 

W.H. Miskin, amateur lepidopterist, 
public servant and lawyer (photograph by 
courtesy Oxley Library). 

Joseph Bancroft MD, (photograph by 
courtesy Oxley Library). 


juhn Fetntfck, stock and station agent 
and a outbroke: (photograph iromJubiU'*; 
H yiu.vmrv w Qtiv-LHsland. 
i -i.d Whitbj Brisbane; 19f)9). 

6 February, but indicated that the laboratory and chemical department 
should be in a separate building. One further setback occurred on 1 
March— they were informed that the government wanted part of the site 
returned. The trustees, now thoroughly fed-up, declined this request. 
Nothing further was heard of it and they now anticipated that the new 
building would be ready for occupation by September 1878. Eventually, ii 
was not to be ready until the end of 1879, and even then there was some 
difficulty about the government handing it over. On 12 November 1879 
Miskin threatened to resign: 

he had heard the government had offered the new museum building 
to the National Association for their January show. As he thought 
this showed that the wishes of the Trustees, who desired to move 

the collections as soon as possible, were to receive no 

consideration from the government he intended to resign. 

Fenwick explained that approval of the trustees was a condition of 
the government's arrangement with the National Association and 
Miskin 'allowed his resignation to remain in abeyance for the present'. On 
21 November the Queensland Insurance Company objected to the 
collections being left m the old building — a low premium having been 
offered on the understanding that they would be in the new building. 
Then, although the government was prepared to hand the building over on 
1 December, the trustees decided to wait until Haswell, the new director, 
arrived. He was handed the keys and told to engage labour to convey the 
collections from the old to the new building on 7 January 1880. Extra 
labour for the move cost £1L6.5. itnd a drayman £4,5.0. By 15 March 1880 
the museum was installed and open to the public. 

Insurance of the collections, arranged early in 1877 in preparation for 
the move, was for £4.000, a big sum for those days, showing that they were 
by no means insignificant even then. 

During its first six years, despite an almost overwhelming 
preoccupation with the acquisition of a building, the board had concerned 
itself with many other aspects of the museum's operation. The colonial 
government was sympathetic to the concept of a museum as a repository 
[or the flora, fauna and geology collections of Queensland. Indeed, it had 
Set up the board and provided the museum with a building for just that 
purpose. Thus, the definition of the primary function of the institution was 
not a problem. The trustees proceeded to develop the collections. Between 
1876 and 1879 the minutes reveal that a great part of the board's business 

oncerned with additions to the collections— by purchase, donation 
and exchange — and the museum's responsibilities for those collections. 
In fact the trustees did much of the work that, today, would be done by 
a curator, actually inspecting specimen lots offered for purchase and 
refusing material with which they were dissatisfied. They established the 
conditions under which specimens could be loaned — and these were 
usually stringent— they agreed to Joans for scientific research, but loans 
for other purposes w r ere not so readily agreed to; nor would they lend 
unique specimens. On 20 October 1876 the secretary 7 was directed to 
inform the curator of the Australian Museum — 

That however willing the Trustees were in forwarding the curator's 
scientific work, they could not allow that the Museum part with its 
unique specimens even for a short time. 

Of course, not all the trustees were intransigent about loans— but 
Miskin was. His convictions are reflected in the minutes of the board 
meeting of 16 April 1877, where he referred to a special meeting of the 


board, called by Fenwick, that he— Miskin — had not attended. It had been 
convened to reconsider and to rescind, a previous decision not to send 
specimens to the Sydney agricultural exhibition. Although there was not 
a quorum at the special meeting, many of the trustees had signed a 
minute authorising the despatch of mineral specimens. 

Mr Miskin protested against, in the first place, the singular manner 
in which the meeting had been convened, the notices only having 
been issued upon the same day as that for which the meeting was 

called at noon ; next a re-opening of a matter which he contended 

had already been decided by resolution at a previous and properly 
convened meeting (20th March) that nothing should be exhibited at 
the Sydney exhibition except the colour photographs; further against 
the adoption of the practice of the Board coming to a decision upon 
matters affecting the management of the institution by written 
memorandums signed singly by the members instead of discussing 
them in open meeting— and again most strongly against the principle 
of allowing any of the specimens forming part of the Museum 
collections to leave the Museum premises and custody of the 

Later in the meeting Miskin 'objected to the accounts for expenses 
incurred in sending specimens to the Sydney Exhibition being paid from 
Museum funds'. Following this incident the board unanimously resolved, 
on 18 July 1877, presumably in regard to type or unique specimens for 
exhibition — 

that it was now time to absolutely set the matter at rest 

and decided that for the future it is inexpedient to make any 

exception to the rule of strict refusal to allow any portion of the 
museum collections to leave the museum premises for any purpose 

There was general agreement that 'spare duplicate' specimens could 
be loaned provided there was no expense to the board. At this same 
meeting another important decision was made— the 'sale of museum 
materials to any person was beyond the scope of the board'. 

A few years later the trustees received a request from the National 
Association to send a collection for an international exhibition, again in 
Sydney. At the meeting of 7 August 1879, Miskin was persuaded that it 
was desirable for the museum to be represented and undertook to select 
the items to be sent. He selected so few that the colonial secretary 
protested that surely the Queensland Museum could do better in view of 
the importance of national representation. The board appointed two others 
of their number on 18 August to help Miskin make a further selection of 
material. Miskin may have been right in his reluctance to lend material. 
Following the international exhibition in Sydney the items were sent on to 
the Melbourne international exhibition. By June 1881 they had arrived 
back in Brisbane severely damaged 'the contents of all the larger packages 
being a perfect wreck' owing to 'gross negligence displayed in their 
packing' 10 . The museum had received a medal for their display (see 
Chapter 4). 

Meanwhile, as the new building was nearing completion, the trustees 
had decided that a curator should be appointed. As early as 21 March 1876 
Coxen had pointed out that Staiger was doing the work of a curator. No 
doubt this continued after Coxen died, even though his dual role as 
museum custodian and analytical chemist probably made it difficult. 
Nevertheless, Staiger never became curator— he appears to have lost the 
trustee's confidence and they looked elsewhere (see Chapter 3). The board 
minutes 6 March 1979 record that it was thought that — 

John Douglas MLA, squatter and 
politician, later magistrate at Thursday 
Island (photograph by courtesy of Oxley 


ley Lukilt public servant and 
newspaper editor (photograph b> 

. Oxley Lit i:. 

a good mail might be procured at £400 a yeai and that when the 
collections were removed t<> the new building a man of suitable 
attainments and Lhe requisite business capacity for carrying on 
unremitting correspondence with scientific bodies in all parts of 
the world was, at present, the most urgent need of the institution. 

In the annual report of 1878-9> recommending the urgent appointment 
of a suitable officer to superintend the detailed management and 
supervision of the museum, the trustees nominated a higher salary: 

liie Board (members) are strongly of the opinion that a first class 
man should be secured from the old country' and they think that 
1*600 per annum is the least that could be offered (particularly as 
there are no quarters provided for residence) likely to attract the 
attention of a man of such attainments as would raise the institution 
to the position it is hoped it will command. 

The salary, eventually offered was a mere £200 per annum. So 
William Haswell BSc, MA (Edinburgh) came, and went within the year 
(see Chapter 3). 

One of the applicants for the position of curator was Gerard Krefft, 
formerly the curator of the Australian Museum in Sydney. Krefft had been 
relieved of his position in that museum on what appear now to have been 
contrived charges made by the Sydney trustees. He never had been 
reinstated nor had he been able to find another position. Friction between 
Krefft and his board had developed over some of its members's unilateral 
manipulation and use of both museum staff and collections. Naturally 
Krefft had objected. Ultimately, in September 1874, without power to 
dismiss him and being unsuccessful in obtaining his resignation, the 
trustees had had him evicted from the curator's quarters in the museum 11 . 
Two of the most reliable trustees had resigned over the incident, one of 
them observing that — 

ii would be difficult to find a Curator to work like Krefft; he has 
made our Museum the admiration of the scientific visitors 12 . 

Krefft is now regarded as the best Australian vertebrate zoologist 
of his day. He had been the first to recognise the significance of the 
Queensland lungfish, Neoeeratodus forsteri Krefft. He published 
monographic works on snakes and mammals of Australia and his authority 
in the field of vertebrate palaeontology at that time was challenging Sir 
Richard Owen's in the British Museum: 

Krefft was one of the first to raise the banner of colonial independent 
expertise backed by the rising importance and stature of the 

colonial museum D . 

He had written, on 11 March 1879, to let the Queensland trustees 
know that he was an applicant for the 'position of curator at the 
Queensland Museum', enclosing testimonials, offering his library and 
collection to the museum at nominal cost if he should be appointed, 
and offering— 

to begin work without payment for a month or two just to become 

acquainted with the nch stores which your museum undoubtedly 

possesses w . 

Krefft died, destitute, in 1881, at the age of 5L 

Hasweli's application for the Queensland position, received by the 
board on 19 February 1879 was supported by a recommendation from 
Krefft's successor in the Australian Museum, E.P. Ramsay. Hasweli's 
academic record was good — but that on its own does not explain why the 
museum board choose the untried and inexperienced man from 


Edinburgh in preference to Krefft, except that perhaps the choice reflects 
the influence of the Sydney trustees. Certainly Krefft had had the support 
of at least one eminent naturalist in Queensland — Silvester Diggles— who 
wrote to the Brisbane Courier suggesting Krefft as a suitable curator for 
the new museum B . 

In any case, Haswell's scientific stature, as the board had hoped, did 
confer a new prestige on the museum that was probably enhanced by its 
new building. The collections continued to expand. On 20 August 1880 
the minutes record that during June and July the museum had received: 

214 bird skins, many of them rare, besides mammals fishes etc. from 
collector Broadbent (then on contract to the board) at Cardwell; also 
a good many from other sources; a collection of corals from a dealer 
at Bowen; 2 cases of fossil bones from Clifton, Darling Downs; 
specimens of Fiji products from the Fijian government; 2 dugongs 

A taxidermist had been appointed and the Queenslander of 13 March 
1880 concludes a glowing account of the displays in the new building with 
the remark that — 

one of the many advantages of a competent scientific gentlemen as 
curator is that opportunities of judicious purchase are not likely to be 

The trustees proudly refer to the museum — the only scientific 
institution in the colony at that time— as the scientific centre of the 'great 
and varied territory of the colony' in their report of 1879-80. In the same 
report they express their embarrassment about Haswell's low salary: 

provision made for the remuneration of this officer— viz., £200 per 
annum — being, as is obvious, of but a mere temporary character to 
meet the occasion, requires now to be placed on a more satisfactory 
footing, and it is hoped that the Government will recognise the 
necessity of remedying this palpable incongruity by providing a 
salary consistent with the importance of the office and adequate to 
the acquirements of the holder thereof. 

The government was not convinced. Haswell's resignation came after a 
disappointing parliamentary debate from which it was apparent that his 
salary would not be increased. At least the move to the William Street 
building was achieved during his tenure. 

It was March 1882 before Haswell's replacement, Charles Walter de 
Vis BA (Cantab.), was appointed. All through 1881, F.M. Bailey, the keeper 
of the herbarium then in the museum, was temporary curator and the 
business of the museum proceeded as usual. At their regular meetings the 
trustees discussed the collections — more exchanges, loans, purchases; the 
educational role of the museum; and the library— then the only collection 
of scientific literature in the colony freely open to students. They wanted 
the library to be as complete as possible. It was an ambitious project but 
one that they did have some success with. Today the library is one of the 
most important repositories of early zoological and geological works in the 
state and this is due to the efforts of the first board of trustees in the 1880s 
(see Chapter 13). 

They also recommended that the museum be open on Sunday 
afternoons and, despite opposition from the churches, the minister for 
Mines decided, on 13 October 1881, that this would be done. It was a 
decision that the public welcomed and one that has continued to this day. 

Despite its successes during its first six years, board meetings were 
not well attended. Miskin relates one of the inconveniences resulting from 
this in a letter tabled at meeting on 25 September 1877. Apparently Under 

George Raff, merchant, woolbroker and 
sugar grower (photograph by courtesy 
Oxley Library). 


Louis A. Bernays FLS, clerk of the 
Legislative Assembly (photograph from 
Queensland 1900, Alcazar Press, 

John M. Macrossan MLA, miner and 
politician — secretary for Mines 
(photograph by courtesy Oxley Library). 


K.I. ODoherty MD, pardoned political 
deportee (photograph by courtesy Oxley 

Secretary Lukin detected what he regarded as an irregularity in the way 
the board dealt with the vouchers presented for payment. Miskin and 
Custodian Staiger had pointed out to Lukin that there was no permanent 
chairman— the chairman was elected at each meeting— and no number 
was set down for a quorum. Miskin continued: 

it has been the practice not to entertain other business than the 
passing of vouchers with a less number than three; and the members 

present if less than three sign the vouchers (even if only one) 

there having been a difficulty in obtaining a regular attendance of 
three members of the board at ordinary meetings. Mr Lukin still 

persisting in refusing to receive the vouchers I have, to satisfy his 

scruples, signed the vouchers as Chairman, notwithstanding the 
seeming incongruity of making myself Chairman of a meeting at 
which I was the only member present. It is necessary that the 
vouchers should be passed in order that the claimants may receive 
their money, otherwise I would have declined to commit so absurd 
an inconsistency. 

The board's existence was also marred by constant change in its 
membership. It seemed that no sooner was a vacancy filled than another 
arose. Before the move into the new building, the minister for Mines 
nominated extra members— Kevin Izod O'Doherty, Irish nationalist and 
medical practitioner who had originally been transported to Australia and 
subsequently was unconditionally pardoned; and Lewis Adolphus Bernays 
FLS, the clerk of the Legislative Assembly 16 . They were appointed on 
7 February 1878 17 . Bernays became honorary secretary to the board from 
30 August 1878 to relieve Staiger, but relinquished the position three 
months later when he visited New Zealand. He took specimens to New 
Zealand with him 'with a view to the initiation of friendly intercourse 

between the museum and kindred institutions which might prove 

mutually advantageous' 18 . Indeed it was — the board entered into 
correspondence with his contacts in that country and donations and 
exchange of material resulted. Bernays also was particularly anxious to 
develop the herbarium. He resigned from the board on 9 May 1879 1$ \ 
apparently frustrated by governmental interference, the board's 
impotence, and perhaps some dissatisfaction with Staiger: 

I have felt that it would be impossible to secure for the museum a 
high character among kindred Institutions in other parts of the 
world, or its proper sphere of usefulness within the colony unless 
the policy of management could be entrusted for carrying out to 
an officer in whose capacity for the work of the curatorship the 
managing body had implicit trust, and over whom they had entire 

This indispensible condition of successful management of the 
Institution being absent, and the credit of the Trustees being thereby 
seriously compromised, I did not see any other course open to me 
than to resign 20 . 

The appointment of Bernays' replacement, John Murtagh Macrossan 
MLA, former miner 21 , was gazetted on 18 October. He formally accepted 
the position only on 3 March 1880, possibly because of a slip-up in 
paperwork. As Macrossan was the minister the oversight hardly mattered. 
Gresley Lukin also resigned in March 1880. Charles Hardie Buzacott 
MLC 22 , newspaper proprietor and editor of many years standing, was 
appointed on 28 July 1880 23 and resigned after only 15 months— on 
28 October 188L Reading his letter of resignation one wonders why he 
had accepted nomination: 


My time is already over-taxed and I am opposed to the management 
of public institutions by nominee, honorary and irresponsible boards. 
I suggest the cost of the Museum be defrayed by rates or 
contributions and the Board could then be elected by the ratepayers 
or contributors. Where the entire cost is met by the State, 
administration would be much more advantageously conducted by a 
responsible Minister of the Crown 24 . 

It was almost a year later— 23 October 1882— that the premier wrote 
to the minister for Public Works and Mines advising that he wished Sir 
Arthur Palmer KCMG to be appointed a trustee of the museum. This was 
gazetted on 5 November 25 . Palmer was a pastoralist of substance. He had 
been a member of the Legislative Assembly and premier and, at the end 
of 1881, had been appointed to the Legislative Council as president 26 . He 
eventually became chairman of the museum board of trustees and some 
stability in the membership ensued. 

Charles H. Buzacott MLC, newspaper 
proprietor, editor and politician 
(photograph by courtesy Oxley Library). 

Arthur H. Palmer KCMG MLA, 
pastoralist and politician— premier and 
president of Legislative Council 
(photograph by courtesy Oxley Library). 


Richard Gailey, architect (photograph by 
courtesy Oxley Library). 


The Hon. Berkley B. Moreton MLA, 
secretary for Public Instruction 
(photograph by courtesy Oxley Library). 

A Period of Growth, 1883-1892 

In 1880, after the move to the new building, rumours were spread 
about the disappearance of specimens during the move (see Chapter 8). 
The trustees rejected these rumours but the government did not. A select 
committee was set up to enquire into and report on the working of the 
museum 27 . This enquiry is not referred to in the board minutes. 
Nevertheless it may have been the recommendations from that enquiry 
that resulted in the more liberal treatment the museum received from the 
government after Haswell resigned. 

de Vis' appointment, on a salary of £400 per annum, heralded a 
decade of respite from the ever present museum staff problems that 
otherwise plagued this board for the whole of its existence. In its annual 
report for 1882 the board thanked the government for the liberal manner 
in which its needs had been met. At this time, as well as the curator and 
the taxidermist there were two collectors, and another scientist, Henry 
Tryon, was appointed as clerical assistant the following year. The museum 
was able to get on with its jobs of collecting specimens of the state's fauna 
and geology and providing an interpretive and educational centre for 
the community. 

The trustees were proud of the collections and were anxious to 
improve them. Fearful that a refusal would prejudice further gifts from 
donors they tended to accept all material offered. The two collectors were 
also busy in the field amassing specimens for a museum that, before very 
long, was to overflow. Every month the curator's report to the board 
contained long lists of specimens donated, exchanged and purchased. 
Between 1879 and 1893, the board's proceedings, including the director's 
report complete with its list of donors and specimens, were published in 
the Brisbane Courier— no doubt encouraging others to donate material to 
the museum. 

In its 1883 annual report the board warned the government that the 
new building was too small. In 1885 the board expressed its regret that 
there were no preparations for a new building despite the government 
having invited its recommendation on this topic. In 1887, again in its 
annual report, the board expressed its regret that although the sum of 
£40,000 had been voted nearly five years previously for the erection of a 
new museum and library no steps had yet been taken — 'The present 
(William Street) building (as has frequently been brought to your notice) 
though capable of conversion to a public library is totally unfit for a 

The board must have been feeling frustrated for at its meeting of 
3 October 1890 it raised, again, a matter that was referred to many 
times during its history: 

The derogatory position of the Board as Trustees in name only 
without any legal faculties became a subject of animated expression 
of opinion and the Curator was instructed to draft a letter to the 
Chief Secretary conveying to him the pronounced feeling entertained 
on the matter and requesting him to create them or others a Trust 
by legislative enactment. 

Then, in 1890 plans of a proposed new museum building in Albert 
Park — on the northwest side of the central city area — were examined by 
the trustees and approved. The government called tenders, but in 1891 the 
trustees lamented that no tender had been accepted. There must have 
been indications even then of the dark clouds of the depression looming 
on the financial horizon. 


However, before the storm broke, an event of significance in the 
history of the museum occurred. Miskin was an amateur entomologist, his 
hobby being Lepidoptera (butterflies). He had published numerous 
taxonomic papers on this subject between 1874 and 1892 and had been 
awarded fellowship of both the Linnean and Entomological Societies. In 
1890 he wrote A Synonymical Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Rhopalocera 
(Butterflies) of Australia. The work represented over twenty years study of 
the subject in Queensland and he offered it to the board. It was accepted 
and published in 1891 as the first issue of the Annals of the Queensland 
Museum. The creation of the Annals certainly pleased the curator, de Vis, 
whose research output was prolific and who sometimes had to resort to 
publication in the daily press (see Chapter 7). Thus began the publication 
of the museum's own journal — now the Memoirs of the Queensland 
Museum — reporting the results of its researches to scientists around 
the world. 

Meanwhile there had been further board changes. In 1885 
responsibility for the museum and its board was transferred from the 
Department of Works and Mines to the Department of Public Instruction. 
On 1 May 1885 Dr O'Doherty, writing from Sydney, resigned from both the 

FA Blackman, grazier (photograph from 
Clarke, C.G.Drury, 1985, in /J?. Hist. Soc. 
Qd 12 no. 2). 

Albert Norton MLC, formerly speaker of 
the Legislative Assembly (photograph 
from Queensland 1900, Alcazar Press, 


James Chataway MLA, newspa 
praprieler and politician— secretary fur 
Public Lands and Agricul 
(photograph from Queensland 1900, 
Alcazar Press, Brisb 

Central Board of Health and the Queensland Museum board 28 . The 
museum board could not have been informed for on 8 August 1885, de Vis 
by direction of the trustees, wrote to the minister pointing out the poor 
attendances at board meetings of certain trustees (namely O'Doherty and 
Douglas) whose absence from Brisbane on official duties precludes their 
attendance at meetings'. O'Doherty was often absent on intercolonial 
visits, while Douglas by this time was resident magistrate at Thursday 
Island. The letter concluded by nominating Albert Norton, speaker of the 
Legislative Assembly, for appointment to the board. The secretary for 
Public Instruction, Berkely Basil Moreton MLA, whilst approving the 
letter on 14 August never had it acted upon. Instead, on 28 August, 
Moreton himself was appointed a trustee™ Moreton, a younger son of the 
Eari of Ducie and both pastoralist and politician 3 ' was another example of 
a minister of the crown being appointed to the board — others being 
Macrossan and Douglas. In late October 1888 Norton was again 
nominated to the board and on this occasion was appointed'* 1 . Raff died in 
1889, to be followed by Macrossan in 189L Then, on 30 September 1891 
Miskin resigned from the board*. To replace Miskin, Raff and Macrossan 
the board nominated the under secretary of the Department of Public 
Instruction — on an ex officio basis, Richard Gailey —a well-known 
architect, and Frederick Archibald Blackman — a semi-retired grazier 
resident in Brisbane n . On 12 March the under secretary advised the board 
he considered it desirable from the official viewpoint that he should not be 
a trustee so, on 22 March, the board asked the minister, W.O. Hodgkinson 
MLA— formerly explorer, journal ist, civil servant 13 , to accept nomination, 
which he did. Thus on 21 April 1S92 all three — Gailey, Blackman and 
Hodgkinson— were appointed iJ 

Shortly after his appointment Blackman developed a hearing 
disability. He became so deaf that he tendered his resignation a little over 
a year later :i \ a real loss to the board. He was a friend of Norton's and was 
interested in natural history and museums, being the donor not only of 
reptile species subsequently described by de Vis* but also of the model 
stockyard (see Chapter 11). Hodgkinson lost not only office but his seat in 
the Legislative Assembly on 13 May 1893. He went at once to Western 
Australia where he won wide respect as an expert on mining. He resigned 
his seat on the museum board towards the end of 1893 J7 _ In June 1894 
Bancroft died. It was to be the end of the century before steps would be 
taken to fill these vacancies, 

A Period of Regression, 1893-1907 

The economic collapse of 1893 was disastrous for the museum. Not 
only were the plans to have a new building abandoned but also there was 
little joy for the trustees at all as can be seen from the general history of 
the museum from this year. They saw themselves as conducting a holding 
operation and the various regressive moves upset them deeply. Many of 
the staff were retrenched, leaving tht director— de Vis, two attendants 
and a young clerical assistant to run the museum. It was not possible to 
take any initiatives to make the museum more useful and attractive to the 
community, They had to stop supplying educational collections to state 
schools and schools of arts; the library vote was cut off with consequential 
loss of serials and it was not then always possible to answer inquiries 
about new scientific discoveries; and after only two issues (1891 and 1892), 
publication of iheAnmls ceased until 1897. 

In 1896 the gloom began to lessen. The government opened 
discussion with the trustees about the adaptation, for the museum, of the 


financially troubled National Associations Exhibition building on Gv 
Terrace. The trustees found the proposal acceptable. The building was to 
became available in June 1399, but without the section known as the 
concert hall. Alterations to the exhibition hall and basement to adapt it for 
the museum's use took some months to complete, The museum in its 
William Street building closed its doors to the public on 2 November 1899 
on 2 October it had begun to pack, and all materials and collections had 
been moved from William Street to Gregory Terrace by 18 December 1899. 
The museum was in a suitable state to reopen to the public in its new 
domicile on 1 January 1901 There had been only two hitches. In his diary 
de Vis records that the only injury during the move was to a large dugong 
which had slipped from its sling and was much damaged in its fall. And on 
31 December 1899 troops ol the second Queensland contingent, on their 
way to the Boer War, had been quartered in the building— rank and file in 
the concert hall, NCOs and the doctor in the exhibition hall and officers 
in seven of the ten rooms in the basement. They had been installed by 
order of the premier.having been flooded out of camp ai Pinkenba. de 
Vis, in reporting it to the board on 6 January 1900, complained that it was 
making it very difficult to unpack. It was 29 January before the troops 
were reported to have vacated the building. 

Right through the bad years from 1893 until the board's dissolution 
in 1907, Norton and Gailey were zealous in their attendance at board 
meetings. The minutes reveal that these two, usually on their own, 
continued with the usual business of the board — negotiating specimen 
and library acquisitions, approving vouchers and generally supporting the 
hard-pressed curator who, without this support, might well have despaired 
utterly. Their efforts certainly kept the board going and very likely the 
museum too. Other board members showed their lack of interest by not 
attending. Perhaps they felt there was nothing much to do with the 
fortunes of the institution at a nadir. Perhaps they had troubles of their 
own. Palmer had died, whilst still a trustee, on 19 March 1898. Ill health 
had dogged him in the last years of his life and a reasonably good 
attendance record at board meetings had fallen to virtually nothing. 
Gregory, scientist, foundation member of the board and effectively its 
spokesman and its leader in its formative years, was another of those who 
no longer attended meetings. 

The government decided to do something about this board of 
absentee members. At the end of July 1899 the minutes note a letter from 
the minister of Public Instruction thanking Norton and Gailey for their 
attention to the affairs of the board and asking if they thought it ought to 
be strengthened in the event that resignation of some of its present 
members should occur. In August Norton and Gailey, the only trustees 
now attending meetings, nominated Cameron, Marks and Sutton, and 
reminded the minister of the board's 'desire to be constituted a corporate 
body'. On 30 September it was noted that, although the names submitted 
were acceptable to the minister, the board had no power to procure 
resignations from the inactive trustees as the minister had suggested 
it should. 

Eventually, on 17 November 1899, the government did dissolve the 
old board. On the same day Norton and Gailey were reappointed, while _. , ta _ _ . " 71 ' , . . _ 

, * '. rr Lharles F. Marks MD MLC (photograph 

new appointments were John Cameron, pastoralist, company director and from Queensland Men and Industries. 

politician, James Vincent Chataway MLA, newspaper proprietor and Brisbane 18881. 

politician (secretary for Public Lands and Agriculture); Charles Ferdinand 
Marks MD MLC and J.W. Sutton, iron master with an interest in physical 


Alderman JW. Sutton, iron-mastei 
(photograph from Greenwood, G. and 
Laverty, J, 1959, Brisbane 1859 1959, 
Weld Zeider Publications, Brisbane). 

science**. The members not reappointed were Gregory, Douglas, Fen wick 
and Moreton Early in 1901 Chataway's health failed and he died in April 
1901, but was not replaced immediately. 

The annual report for 1899, signed by Norton, concluded with yet 
another appeal to the minister to establish the board's— 

administration of the Museum on a more satisfactory basis by giving 
us Statutory powers as we have before suggested. 

On 26 April 1902 there were further retrenchments— the staff was 
reduced to four again and the budget was halved. The trustees observed 
that the museum could carry on if its activities were reduced to the 
cleaning and the preserving of specimens— and indeed that was what 
happened. In the same year the control of the institution passed from the 
secretary for Public Instruction to the secretary for Agriculture and Stock. 
The board's annual reports became short sectional articles in the reports 
of the Department of Agriculture and Stock. On 14 November 1905 Alfred 
Jefferis Turner, paediatrician and entomologist, and Ernest George 
Edward Scriven, under secretary, Department of Agriculture and Stock 
were appointed trustees^. On 10 November 1905, shortly before Scnven 
was appointed to the board, Gailey sought to resign on the ground that the 
reduced appropriation left little for trustees to do. By direction of Minister 
Digby F. Denham MLA, Scriven wrote to Gailey on 15 November 
requesting him to withdraw his resignation. Gailey replied the next day 
stating that as it was the desire of the minister he would do so. He set 
forth the whole of the reasons for his resignation: 

1st There is very little to do for so many trustees. 




1 am coming up to 70 years of aye, which is beyond the Limit 
prescribed for the Civil Service, and thought that, that limit 
might be applicable to Trustees alsu, 

That your appointment to the Trust indicates a desire on the 
part of the Minister to manage the Institution directly through 
his Department and was really Tantamount to a want of 

Confidence in the existing Trustees. 

I had no desire to stand in the way of any Contemplated 
reform by the Minister and hence left him free to make fresh 
appointments if he so desired. 

But now that your Letter assures me on Ml these matters, 1 will gladly 
Continue the IVust -is heretofore* 1 . 

These seem quite reasonable grounds for resignation Gailey, who 
had conscientiously attended board meetings for six years, probably 
understood how badly the museum needed a change and even may 
have hoped for one. Politically Denham may not have wanted Gailey's 
resignation, possibly thinking it would draw unwelcome attention to 
the museum. 

Then in April 1906. while Denham was still secretary for Agriculture, 
the Brisbane Observer published an article entitled 'The Queensland 
Museum— Its Success and Failure— A Critical Sketch* In brief the article 
praised the quality of the collections, but criticized strongly the taxidermy 
of natural history specimens and their arrangement — or rather lack of it. 
The presence of many pictures was criticised and there was a suggestion 
that they should be in an art gallery rather than a museum. Some genera 
and artefacts were said to be poorly represented while others were over- 
emphasised. The article conceded that the trustees were handicapped 
by the building itself 'and possibly by shortage of funds' but the author 
considered they had 'evidently a good deal to learn'. The article was 


directed by Scriven to be placed with the department's museum papers 
on 17 April 1906 41 . This article may have caught the attention of William 
Kidston, premier, chief secretary and treasurer In any rase, his attention 
was certainly drawn to the museum later in the year when W.E. Roth, 
formerly chief protector of Aborigines, sold, to the Australian Museum, 
the valuable collection of artefacts that belonged to the Queensland 
government and should have been lodged in the museum (see Chapter 10). 
On 20 September 1907 Kidston tools over control of the museum from the 
minister oil Agriculture and Stock and the next day the chairman of the 
board was advised of Hie change. Four days later Scriven, under secretary 
in the Department of Agriculture and Stock, tendered his resignation as 
a trustee of the museum, but stated that if it should be desired thai 
he continue to act in that capacity he would be pleased to do so. His 
resignation was accepted 4 '. The last recorded meeting of the board was on 
28 September 1907— apparently it was a meeting convened to wind up its 
affairs, and it is a sketchy set of minutes that records it. Confirmation of 
the disbanding of the board of trustees is to be found in the Annals of the 
Queensland Museum — number 7 of June 1907 was published by the 
authority of the board, number 8 of March 1908 was published by the 
authority of the premier, W. Kidston MLA. 

However, disbanding the board was not the whole solution. Three 
years later Kidston, who was still in office, decided that he needed advice. 
He wrote to the premier of New South Wales: 

It being my intention to endeavour to place the Queensland Museum 
on a more satisfactory footing than at present it has occurred bi 
that as a preliminary step it would be advisable to secure a full 
report on the present condition of the Institution from a competent 
authority, and 1 am anxious to know whether you would allow Mr 
Robert Etheridge. Curator of the Sydney Museum, to undertake 
the duly ^. 

Kidston wanted Etheridge to come urgently, within the next two 
weeks. The New South Wales premier was agreeable and so was 
Etheridge Thus, on the 14 June, having obtained his own board's 
approval he left for Brisbane on 'Wednesday evening's train'* 4 . 

To the beleaguered and forgotten staff Kidston's interest and 
Etheridge's arrival must both have been momentous events. There was 
CJ. Wild, formerly entomological collector, and now acting director since 
de Vis' retirement in 1905. Kendall Broadbent, once the museum's most 
able collector but, since 1893, one of only two attendants, was 73. The 
other attendant was 70, The attendants also did the cleaning. Two young 
men— J. Lamb in the industrial department and W.E. Weatherill assistant 
to the taxidermist— were both doing a wide variety of jobs, Then there 
was the taxidermist, A. Alder aged 61 and a librarian-clerk. 

Kidston asked Etheridge to report on the purpose and functions of 
museums in general and whether the Queensland Museum fulfilled them; 
on the condition and appropriateness of the items in the museum; on the 
competence of the staff; and on any other items worth noting. He also 
asked him to produce a general report on the best means of making the 
institution what it should be. 

Etheridge's handwritten, preliminary report was handed to Kidston 
before he left Brisbane about 27 June 1910 and the general report was 
posted on 1 July 1910— less than one month after Kidston had written his 
initial request to the premier of New South Wales. 

Etheridge's report was not complimentary to either the staff or 
the museum tf , The quality of some of the material in the collections 

John Cameron JP, pastoralist, company 
director and politician (photograph from 
Queensland 1900. Alcazar Press, 

W.O. Hodgkinwn MLA, cxplti 

journalist, public servant and polilican 
(photograph by oourteey Oxley Library). 


impressed him — especially the fossils and the New Guinea collections. 
Weatherill and Lamb he thought were bright and promising young men. 
He found little else to praise, and, concluding his preliminary report, he 
said that 'the Queensland Museum leaves on my mind a feeling of gloom, 
absence of taste and disjointed elements' 4 *. He emphasised the need for a 
professionally qualified director. 

On 19 July 1910 Kidston sent his thanks— 

for the care and trouble you have taken in connection with our 
museum. To quote Mr Wild's words, which he used on the morning 
of our visit to the institution but which you may have either not 
noticed or forgotten "I am sure good will come of your visit", for 
your very illuminative and exhaustive report makes the path of 
reform one very easy to travel 4 *. 

Robert Etheridge jnr, director of the 
Australian Museum, Sydney. 


Kidston did not table Etheridge's report in parliament — in reply tu a 
question in the house asking if he would, he gave the unequivocal reply 
'No M7 . His solutions to the museum problem were simple, direct and his 
own. He did not replace the board and he did appoint a well qualified 
director, K. Hamtyn-Harris. The museum was revitalised. 

During the period from February 1876 to September 1907, 24 people 
had served as trustees of the museum. Of these 11 were politicians at 
the tune of their appointment, five were public servants, one was an 
ex-politician, one an ex-public servant, and only srx came from what would 
now be called the private sector. They all were influential members of the 
community, five even held ministerial office at the time they wen. 
museum trustees. Although, with the exception of Bancroft, Douglas and 
O'Doherty, they lacked evidence of formal education in the twentieth 
century sense — that is degrees and professional qualifications — they were 
products of th ! v of the 19th century liberal education. 

However, the board was handicapped by lack of foresight and political 
neglect, of its own inexperience and of the economic depression. The lack 
.sight lay in creating an ad hoc body with no legislative backing nor 
even a corporate entity. Although the trustees tried to persuade their 
political masters that the board needed these statutory* powers, these 
efforts were to no avail. Politically the museum, including its board, was an 
orphan, tossed from department to department — first Works and Mines. 
then Public Instruction and finally Agriculture and Stock— and had not 
prospered with any one. While in the Department of Agriculture and Stock 
it had even had the under secretary— Scriven— as a trustee but no benefit 
to the museum had accrued. Primarily as a result of the depression, the 
institution the board was to manage had virtually no staff infra-structure, 
The trustees' own inexperience resulted in their approval of the plans for 
a building that was inadequate from the day it was occupied. Jt was 
Premier Kidston's interest in the institution, as a result of the mauling the 
museum had received in the press, and his view that all was not well that 
finally determined the fate of the board. 

Nevertheless, the board had achieved a new building for the museum 
and, having watched and abetted the institution as it overflowed that 
building, had found it another home that sheltered it for the next 86 years. 
Most importantly, however, the board had preserved the scientific status 
of the institution by the appointment of qualified curators; by the 
publication of the Annals of the Queensland Museum and the establishment 
of a library; and, recognising the fundamental role of a museum, it had 
worked tirelessly to build up the collections and protect them from 
alienation and thus had formed the basis for a museum of stature. The 
museum benefits from its efforts to this day, 

A Rebirth 

During its first years without a board the museum went through a 
period of development promoted by Kidston. Later, government interest 
flagged once more and, without a board of trustees and without legislation 
or political influence, the effort? of successive directors were not 
successful in advancing the museum's cause. In 1929 there was a Public 
Service Commissioner's enquiry into the museum conducted by Inspectors 
Irwin and Page H unify. Their report was faintly critical, and its 
recommendations, while largely devoted to administrative procedures, did 
include one that an advisory committee of interested scientists be set up 46 . 
Longman's response was defensive, drawing attention to the very real 
improvements that had been effected in the 18 years since Erheridge 

Emtwl George Edward Scriven, puJ 
servant — under secretary lor Agriculturr 
and Slock (photograph bj courtesj 

A. Jeiferis Turner MD paediatrician and 
entomologist (pholoi^raph by court*! 

Oxley Library) 


had reported. He was cautious about the appointment of an advisory 
committee, but he did ask that 'serious consideration be given to the 
appointment of a board of trustees — as in most National Museums' 49 . 
The government set up another enquiry into the museum in 1933, asking 
Professor Richards of the University of Queensland, and G. W. Watson, 
under secretary, Chief Secretary's Department, to report. Their 
recommendations, delayed by Richard's involvement with Markham's 
investigation for the Carnegie Corporation (see Chapter 2), also included 
one that trustees be appointed 50 . Nevertheless the institution remained 
a sub-department of the Chief Secretary's Department for 45 years — 
through Hamlyn-Harris' and Longman's tenures — until 1947, when it was 
transferred back to the Department of Public Instruction— later to become 
the Department of Education. 

In 1969, when Bartholomai had been director less than a year, 
the Queensland Hall of Science, Industry' and Health Development 
Committee, which had been working for the development of a technology 
section in the museum, discovered that Queensland was the only state in 
Australia without appropriate legislation for its museum (see Chapter 11). 
The committee's representations received sympathic consideration from 
the minister for Education, A.R. Fletcher MLA, the minister responsible 
for the museum. Fletcher realised that the first board, despite its success 
in re-siting the museum, had been hampered by lack of legislation to cover 
its powers and administrative functions. The council of the Hall of Science, 
Industry and Health Development Committee drafted museum legislation 
and this was subsequently introduced, It had the approbation of all 
political parties and passed through parliament smoothly. It was assented 
to on 13 April 1970. In its promulgation on 20 August 1970 the governor-in- 
council declared that the Queensland Museum Ad 1970 should come into 
force on 1 September 1970 M . 

Perhaps the most important aspects of the legislation were the 
provisions for a board of trustees to control and manage the museum; 
and the powers, given to the board, to open branches either alone or in 
conjunction with another body. In the latter case an agreement had to be 
entered into and approved by the governor-in-council 53 . Eight persons 
were to constitute the board, including the director-general of Education 

The Queensland Museum Board of 

Trustees, 1978-84. 

Back Row. D.J. Nicklin; chairman. J.C.H. 

Gill; R.I. Harrison; vice-chairman, I.G. 

Morris, J.M. Thomson. 

Front Row: A. Bartholomai; D.M. Traves; 

J.T. Maher. 


or his nominee and the director of the museum (ex officio and non-voting). 
The remaining six would be members of the public. Provision was made 
for the board to administer two separate funds: a general fund for moneys 
appropriated by parliament for the running of the museum and a trust 
fund for moneys received from donations and bequests or generated by 
activities promoted by use of funds from the trust fund source. The board 
would be accountable to the minister in money matters. 

The members of the 1970 board were J.C.H. Gill (lawyer and 
historian, chairman), I.G. Morris (company director, vice-chairman), and 
S.A. Prentice (professor of electrical engineering), each for a period of four 
years; and J.M. Thomson (professor of biology), R.I. Harrison (chartered 
accountant) and D.M. Traves (petroleum geologist and company director) 
each for a period of two years. The nominee of the director-general of 
Education was William Wood. The order-in-council was made on 
17 September 1970 and gazetted two days later 53 . Subsequent changes in 
the membership of the board are recorded in the annual reports of 
the museum from 1971 There have been few changes — mostly they have 
resulted from changes in the department under which the museum 

operates. In 1978 the museum yet again was transferred to another 
department — from the Education Department to the Department of 
Culture, National Parks and Recreation— known since 1981 as the 
Department of The Arts, National Parks and Sport. 

Administratively the Queensland Museum of 1970 presented, of 
course, a quite different operation from that which had confronted the first 
board of trustees which took office in February 1876. For one thing the 
staff establishment hardly bore comparison with that of 1876. Apart from 
the director and senior curator there were ten curators, four preparators, 
three art staff, one librarian, one artificer, ten assistants and cadets, four 
office staff and nine attendants— a total of 44. The total vote for 1970-1971 
was $175,000. The director, Alan Bartholomai, the non-voting ex officio 
member of the board, was a fit young man of 31 years of age. 

The director of the museum and the chairman of the new board 
jointly drew up the agenda for its first meeting on 24 September 1970. 
After this meeting, the chairman was asked by media representatives what 
the board's first objective would be. 'A new building* was the immediate 

The table in the director's office where, 
from 1970, the Queensland Museum 
Board of Trustees met at 11.00am on the 
first Tuesday in each month. 


response. It was a case of history repeating itself— the preoccupation of 
the 1876 board had been a new building; in fact the government of the day 
had directed that board to make it so. The chairman went on to say that 
the board would be deeply disappointed if within 10 years a new building, 
if not by then accomplished, was not on the way. Actually it was only four 
years before a new building was approved. 

By November 1970 the board had approved a submission by the 
chairman for a new museum on a block of land at South Brisbane between 
Stanley, Glenelg, Grey, and Russell Streets. It was surrounded by parkland 
and had adequate off-street parking on the Grey Street side. This was 
envisaged as part of an overall development which would see a new state 
library in a similar setting and matching the proposed new art gallery in 
the same general area. The minister, Fletcher, supported the concept but 
Treasurer Gordon Chalk was of the opinion that the land acquisitions 
would be too costly and a decision was deferred. 

It was clear from the outset that a new building would occupy a deal 
of the board's attention. Thus, in order to deal efficiently with Other 
aspects of the museum's operation specialist committees were set up, eacli 
chaired by a board member, to deal with finance, site and buildings, staff 
planning and appointments and publications and services. 

A Museum Building for the Next Half Century 

The board's site and building committee co-opted Deputy Co- 
ordinator General S.S. Schubert, and State Librarian S.L. Ryan in 1971 
and examined other possible sites for a new museum. The vice-chairman, 
I.G. Morris, convened a meeting with Premier j. Bjelke-Peterson and 
Treasurer Gordon Chalk which the chairman of the board and the director 
also attended. The premier agreed to fund a feasibility study to the extent 
oi $6,000 to determine the type of huilding that could be accommodated on 
the best of the sites examined and which would serve the museum for at 
least the next half century. Architect Stephen Trotter, of the firm Fulton, 
Collin, Boys, Gilmour, Trotter and Partners, was engaged as consultant 
and he prepared a comprehensive planning brief for a building either in 
Albert Park, or on an area in South Brisbane, or at the foot of Mt Coot-tha. 
A submission was made to the government in 1973, but there was no 
immediate response, The reason for this became obvious when, in October 
1974, the treasurer produced a cabinet-approved scheme for a cultural 
centre at South Brisbane to accommodate the art gallery, a performing 
arts complex, the museum and the state library. The floor area of the new 
museum was to be 11,152 square metres. The board considered this was 
inadequate and representations by the chairman to the Cultural Centre 
Planning and Establishment Committee, of which he had been made a 
member, succeeded in having the area increased to a nominal 13,940 
square metres. 

These developments would have delighted Director Longman, who, in 
1934, had greeted a government proposal for a new art gallery and state 
library building with the hope that— 

The museum eventually would be included in a comprehensive 
cultural scheme for the housing of its contents^ 

The board experienced some disappointment as the completion 
date for the building gradually receded from 1982 to 1985. However, 
construction finally had started in November 1982 and the building 
contract was completed in November 1985. The museum, in its 
old Exhibition building on Gregory Terrace, closed to the public on 


3 November 1985 to enable the staff to prepare for the move— to pack 
and start the physical transfer of the more than two million collection 
items to South Brisbane as well as the prepared displays that had been 
stored at Montague Road, West End. The Department of Works, after 
some hesitation, decided to oversee the move with guidance from the 
museum— at an estimated cost of $0.5M to the board. In 1899 four drays, 
costing 13 shillings each per day, had made 210 trips in 15 working days 
to move the museum from William Street to Gregory Terrace after the 
William Street building had closed to the public on 2 November. Packing 
had begun on 2 October and was completed by 18 December. Eighty-six 
years later, the quantity surveyor's estimate for the move from Gregory 
Terrace to South Brisbane was for 700 truck loads — three to eight tonne 
trucks and pantechnicons and 40 tonne low loaders, cranes and fork lifts — 
to shift 3000 cubic metres of material and furniture in bubble wrap plastic 
sheeting, polystyrene, wood and cotton wool, tissue paper and timber 
crates, cardboard cartons, pallets and other containers, over a period of 
eight months 55 . 

The public's initial perception of the museum redevelopment in 
the Queensland Cultural Centre will depend on the new displays and 
exhibitions. Dame Margaret Weston, director of the Science Museum, 
London, was appointed consultant on planning aspects of the building and 
display programme. The board made representations to the government 
in support of the necessary new staff appointments and equipment 
(see Chapter 4). Despite staff freezes in many areas at this time these 
representations were successful and government funding was forthcoming. 

Museum Services for Queensland 

The building, new displays and the move were priority items for the 
board's attention from 1970. Nevertheless, recognition of the fact that the 
museum needed to be the Queensland Museum in fact as well as in name 
had led it, at an early stage, to consider ways of taking advantage of the 
powers given it in the legislation in regard to the establishment of branch 
museums. A decision was made that if opportunities arose to establish 
branches there would be no hesitation in seizing them. 

The first such opportunity arose when the National Trust of 
Queensland decided it was unable to accept an offer of the Cobb and Co. 
collection of horse drawn vehicles of W.R.F. Bolton. The museum 
expressed its interest in the collection and subsequently the Bolton family 
and the Queensland government agreed to the proposal that the collection 
should form the basis of a specialised transport museum at Toowoomba on 
the eastern Darling Downs— an appropriate site for a collection with rural 
associations. After negotiations the Bolton collection was donated to the 
museum in July 1982. The government provided storage for the collection, 
which had become an urgent necessity following a fire at the Cobb & Co. 
museum in Toowoomba, and it is anticipated that the Floriculture building 
on the former Toowoomba showground will be converted into a suitable 
building to exhibit the collection. 

Another opportunity for a branch museum arose as a result of the 
government's 1982 decision that all proposals for departmental museums 
should be considered by the museum with a view to the development of 
branches. The first proposal was one from the Forestry Department. 
Following discussions, an agreement was entered into whereby the 
department would provide a building at its complex just north of Gympie. 
Thus, the museum, in conjunction with the Forestry Department, opened 
its first branch, Woodworks, in March 1984. 


Meanwhile, there was pressure mounting for a branch of the museum 
in north Queensland and the government agreed to fund a feasibility study 
on its siting. The report, prepared by consultants Gutteridge, Haskins and 
Davey, became available in 1983, and it recommended Townsville as the 
preferred location. That city had also been selected as the site for the 
Great Barrier Reef Wonderland Project — a joint project of the state and 
federal governments to celebrate the bicentennial year 1988. The board 
indicated interest in participating in this project and in Townsville the 
Great Barrier Reef Wonderland Association Incorporated also favoured the 
idea of a branch of the museum in the Wonderland. The state government 
approved the museum's application to participate. The Wonderland 
association agreed that the first stage could be funded to the extent of $1M 
from the joint federal/state grant of $6M while the government indicated 
that funding for staff and operation would be provided. The branch 
museum, built on crown land, is an integral part of the Wonderland 
project. The second stage of the Branch will be undertaken in the 1990s. 

An opportunity for another branch, at Coomera in south-eastern 
Queensland, arose in September 1985, when the Queensland Transport and 
Technology Centre Act 1984 was repealed and responsibility for this project 
was vested in the museum board (see Chapter 11). 

In addition to branch museums other initiatives to provide support for 
Queensland-wide museum services were formulated in a plan prepared in 
1978. These include the provision of advice and assistance to small local 
and regional museums, a museum education extension service for schools 
outside Brisbane, and a travelling exhibition programme. The last awaits 
development following the move to South Brisbane. The museum's 
education extension service became a fact in September 1978 when the 
Education Department seconded a teacher to the museum to carry it out 
(see Chapter 5). 

The societies that operate local and regional museums always have 
sought advice from the museum on the care and display of articles in their 
collections— the state museum regarding this service as an extension of 
its statutory responsibility for historically significant items. In May 1978, 
responding to a suggestion made by its ornithologist, D.P. Vernon, the 
museum extended its advisory role by holding its first formal workshop 
for small museums. It was attended by 70 representatives of museum 
societies in south-east Queensland who participated in the two-day 
programme of lectures and demonstrations on every aspect of museum 
operation from registration and conservation of collections to display 
planning and production 56 . Lecture room and common room facilities in 
the museum were stretched to the limit. Nevertheless, at the time it was 

Participants in the seminar for smalt 
museums held in May 1978. 


intended to repeat the programme for museum societies from more 
distant parts of the state. However, although the board could allocate trust 
fund monies for the operation of the workshops, the museum was not 
successful in raising funds for delegates' fares to Brisbane. As a temporary 
alternative several members of the staff travelled to Cairns and held a 
small workshop there. Plans for regular workshops were deferred until 
the museum had moved into its new building. 

The museum's capacity to help small museum's throughout the state 
was given a boost by the government's decision to introduce a grants 
scheme. Funds are available, not only for collection maintenance and 
display projects, but also for attendance at workshops. The museum 
administers the scheme. The sum disbursed was $50,000 in 1982-83 rising 
to $100,000 in 1984-85. Seventy-one local historical and museum societies 
throughout the state have so far benefited from the scheme. 

A Measure of Success 

When it was first set up in 1970 the board's capacity to contribute to 
museum activities was restricted by the lack of funds in the trust account. 
An initial contribution of $1,000 from the board, the proceeds of a musical 
event held at the home of the chairman, was a beginning. Through careful 
management the account has grown and has conferred flexibility and 
expanded the range of activities available to the institution. The fund has 
particularly benefited the museum's publication programme, book shop 
and field programme. 

As regards government funding, the down-turn of the economy in 
recent years has inevitably been felt by the museum. However, the board 
has successfully sought sponsorship funding from the private sector, 
receiving generous support from Queensland and other enterprises such 
as Castlemaine Tooheys and Kelloggs (Australia) Pty Ltd. The public in 
general has also maintained a steady flow of donations in cash and in kind 
and the government has granted a subsidy of dollar-for-dollar on 
donations received from non-government sources to a limit of $100,000 in 
any one year. An increasingly well qualified staff, measured by individual 
successes in applications for grants for field work and equipment from 
both government and non-government sources, has also taken some of the 
pressures off the board's funds. Further appreciable income has resulted 
from the museum's registration as a consultant for the provision of 
environmental impact studies and has produced reports on major projects 
including the Brisbane Airport redevelopment 57-9 , and the National Estate 
in south-eastern Queensland 60 . 

The board has achieved much of what it set out to do in 1970 and 
subsequent years. Unlike its predecessor of the period 1876-1907 it has 
had the advantage of a statutory base for its operations, a more affluent 
economy, a well qualified and experienced museum staff, and a growing 
measure of community support. Guided by an institutional corporate plan 
covering all aspects of the museum's operation, the board's major policy 
objectives are now defined. The most important of these are the 
policies that will be developed to enhance the authority of the museum, 
provide support for a range of services appropriate to the institution's 
resources and role, and ensure the most effective and efficient use of 
public funds. The various ministers of government charged with the 
responsibility for the museum have been receptive to representations 
from the board. The result has been a resurgence in the growth of the 
museum and the improvement of its services to the general public both 
in Brisbane and throughout the state. 



The Museum's 



From the days of King Solomon history has recorded great 
collections of objects— strange and unfamiliar as well as 
familiar ones, beautiful and useful objects, objects made by man 
and those of the natural world such as animals, plants, rocks 
and precious stones. These collections have reflected the taste, 
the wealth and power, or the skill and knowledge of those who have made 
them; and they have conveyed information to the studious and have 
stimulated the imagination of the idly curious. In all those periods of man's 
history marked by rapid advances in understanding there have been 
collections 1 . Philip of Macedonia and Alexander the Great had collections 
that Aristotle used for his researches, as the great Swedish naturalist, 
Linnaeus, used the collections of the Kings and Queens of Sweden in 
the 18th century 1 . Throughout the scientific revolution that followed the 
Renaissance in Western Europe, as ships sailed to new continents and 
as new instruments such as microscopes and telescopes revealed new 
structures and new dimensions, men turned to the study of collections 
of objects in order to satisfy their curiosity and to understand. 

Great private collections were made by individuals and societies 
and these grew into museums accessible to others 1 - 2 . The Royal Society 
established its museum in London in 1681, and two years later the 
Ashmolean was founded by private bequest in Oxford University 1 . Then, 
in his will of 1753, Sir Hans Sloane, a London physician, offered his 
collection of nearly 80,000 objects to George II for the nation. The nation 
responded, the collection being purchased for £80,000, the sum raised by 
a lottery 3 . This was the collection that became the British Museum. The 
Prince of Wales had said of it 'how much it must conduce to the benefit of 
learning' 3 . It was probably with that end in view that one of the principles 
from which Sloane's trustees could not 'in honor or conscience depart* 
was — 

that the collection be kept for the use and benefit of the publick, who 
may have free access to view and peruse the same 3 . 

Previous page: The Aboriginal Life 
diorama, created by Anthony Alder in 
1914 and visited by generations of 
Queenslanders since then. 

Thus, the British Museum was— 

the first public museum of any size which had the temerity to aim 

at universality, belonged to the nation and, at least in theory, granted 
admission to all studious and curious persons 3 . 

It was the first time that a museum's collections had been so 
readily accessible to the people and this policy profoundly affected the 
development of museums in the future. 

When Queensland became a separate colony in 1859 the British 
Museum had been open to the public for just 100 years, for it was on 
15 January 1759 that it had 'opened its doors to those "studious and 
curious persons" it was directed by act of parliament to admit' 3 . In the 
British Museum there were the objects and artefacts that were evidence of 
history as well as all manner of large and small animals and the remains of 
prehistoric ones. Although Sir Horace Walpole had made the caustic 
observation that 'Sir Hans Sloane valued his museum at four score 
thousand (pounds), and so would any body who loves hippopotamuses, 
sharks with one ear, and spiders as big as geese' 3 , clearly there were many 
who did not agree with him— nor, indeed, was his comment either fair or 
accurate. From the time the museum opened there was a clamour for 
admission 4 . It was said to be— 

a palace full of all good things, the wonders of nature; and things 

of great value, both by reason of their being singular, there being no 


other like them, by reason of the costliness and beauty, or by artists, 
whose fame has gone forth through the world. There are they 
deposited and there are they to be met with in thousands and ten 
thousands, where they will be for ever a sign and wonder and 
spacious rooms full of books, both modern and ancient, printed and 
manuscripts, in innumerable languages the like was not seen, in all 
the earth since the foundation thereof, till now that the men of 
government expended abundance of money to purchase them, and to 
gather them within the great treasury, that it might be for the good 
of mankind, both the stranger, and for him that is born in the 
land 5 . 

The British Museum afforded the nation a rich and tangible heritage 
and an archive of information wherein mysteries could be investigated 
and solved. This was the model that the settlers had known before they 
migrated to Australia. Far away in the colonies many immigrants were 
aware of the sense of identity, of continuity and of the knowledge of the 
new land that could be derived from a museum. 

In 1845, just 17 years before the Queensland Philosophical Society had 
opened its museum, a group of like-minded men across the Pacific sought 
to persuade the American Congress that the establishment of a museum 
would fulfil the terms of James Smithson's bequest. Smithson was an 
Englishman, the illegitimate son of the Duke of Northumberland and man 
of the Enlightenment. His bequest to the United States of America was for 
'an establishment for the increase and diffusion of Knowledge among 
men' 6 . In 1846 the ten year debate on what to do with the bequest 
concluded with legislation for, amongst other things, a museum, a study 
collection and a library in the Smithsonian Institution to be founded in 
Washington. It was not long before those who had interpreted Smithson's 
words in this way were vindicated. The institution flourished, executing 
the terms of the bequest right from the beginning when the research role 
of a museum was formalised by the pronouncement that 'the increase of 
knowledge by original research' was one of its essential functions 6 . It was 
to become, in due course, the great complex of U.S. national museums. 
In the early 1890s, one of the few men to have made a penetrating study 

The museum collects, preserves and 
studies the material evidence of history 
and diversity (drawing reproduced with 
the permission of the artist, Clifford J. 
Morrow Jr, Carnegie Museum of Natural 
History, U.S.A., from Banks, R.C., ed., 
1979, Museums Studies and Widlife 
Management Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington D.C.)- 


of museums — George Brown Goode — had become director of the 
Smithsonian's first U.S. National Museum. He declared that the museum 
of the future must be 'a nursery of living thought and not a cemetery of 
"bric-a-brac"' 6 ; and, while 'recognizing that a museum could be a powerful 
tool of scholarly research', he drew attention to its educational potential — 
'he was alert to the new democratic age and sought to tap "the 
possibilities of public enlightenment" implicit in his museum' 6 . In other 
words, the role of a museum in diffusing knowledge was being explored 
and developed. 

At about the same time, there was also a growing recognition of their 
educational role in the older museums in England. As the industrial 
revolution progressed and scientific discoveries accelerated, people had 
begun to look to the museums for explanations— to understand the new 
science and technology that were changing their lives and their concepts 
of the universe so profoundly. Now almost universally state-supported, 
the magnitude of their operation being beyond the capacity of even the 
wealthiest individuals, the museums responded and they began to 
promote their education programmes to justify their increasing cost to 
the community 7 . 

Thus did museums evolve in response to the needs of communities in 
the Age of Enlightment. Their three functions— to hold safely collections 
of objects, to increase knowledge, and to educate and entertain the 
people— who shall have free access to them — are now embodied in the 
definition of the International Council of Museums (ICOM) — 

A museum is a non-profit making, permanent institution, in the 
services of society and of its development, and open to the public, 
which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits 
for the purposes of study, education and enjoyment, material 
evidence of man and his environment 8 . 

In 1975 the Australian Committee of Inquiry on Museums and 
National Collections adopted the ICOM definition and explained it in 
the following words: 

A nation gains in a variety of ways from the efficient preservation of 
objects in museums The collections are the heart of a museum. 

A museum cannot live without scholarship any museum worth the 

name is engaged in the difficult search for new knowledge ... without 
scholarship to guide every stage from collecting to indexing, the 
museum collections could not have served as the foundations for the 
enormous platform of knowledge they now support. 

As places of education museums have unusual advantages they 

are capable of instructing and entertaining people from every 

educational group and age group in the same gallery Secondly 

their collections of objects stimulate a sense of wonder and instil 

an understanding which makes the same message (communicated by 

other means) seem remote and second hand (and) a museum can 

often dispense with those layers of interpretation which 

separate an object or evidence from the audience 8 . 

The Australian committee then proceeded to report on the restraints 
operating in Australian museums that prejudice their ability to fulfil 
their roles adequately 8 . In many cases conditions did not appear to have 
improved very much from those that existed in 1907 when Premier 
Kidston had assumed control of the Queensland Museum. Clearly puzzled 
as to the museum's function, Kidston had asked Robert Etheridge to 
report on the role of a museum; whether the Queensland Museum was 
fulfilling that role; and if not, why not— what was needed to enable it to 


do so. Etheridge had replied in the wordy from George Brown Goode's 
Principles of Museum Administ ration: 

1 A museum is an institution for the preservation of those objects 
which best illustrate the phenomena of nature and the works of 
man and the utilization of them for the increase of knowledge and 
for the culture and enlightenment of the people. 

2 The Public museum is a necessity in every highly civilized 

3 The Community should provide adequate means for the support 
of the museum, 

4 A museum cannot be established and creditably maintained 
without adequate provision in five directions: 

A A stable organisation and adequate means of support 

B A definite plan, wisely framed in accordance with the 
opportunities of the institution and the needs of the 
community for whose benefit it is to be maintained. 

C Material to work upon — good collections or facilities for 

creating them. 
1) Men to do the work — a staff of competent curators. 
E A place to work in — a suitable building. 

F Appliances to work with — proper accessories, installation 
materials, tools and mechanical assistance. 

5 A finished museum is a dead museum and a dead museum is a 
useless resource 9 . 

Kidston used these recommendations as the basis of the reforms he 
sponsored in the museum 75 years ago, but it has taken a long time to 
realise the basic, needs that Goode had defined. Only in 1986, for the 
first time in its history, and through a lineage of influences that can be 
traced to the great museum institutions of Britain and America, has the 
Queensland Museum had adequate accommodation and fine equipment in 
all its departments. It has a stable organisation, it is mature and confident, 
it has the support of a community which is increasingly using it services, 
and it has the support of the government. The Queensland parliament, in 
enacting the Queensland Museum Ad 1970-1985, has acknowledged the 
museum's role. The Act recognises that the museum board holds the 
official collections of the state, and confers statutory protection on them 
for people and for scholarship. There has been a world-wide resurgence of 
interest in museums, for today, as never before, there is a concern for the 
natural environment and man's place in it; and a searching for expressions 
of national and individual identity. The Queensland Museum has its place 
in this world movement. 

To ensure the institution's continuing ability to fulfil its role and its 
responsibilities under the Act, as well as satisfying the community's needs 
and earning its increasing support, the board has embodied the three 
functions of a museum in its major policy objectives; 

to maintain the existing collections in such manner as to ensure their 
preservation in perpetuity, extend the systematic coverage of the 
Museum's collections by positive action to document the State's 
history and resources and ensure that storage systems and access to 
relevant information meet all existing and projected usages; 

to ensure that the materials conservation programme of the Museum 
is fully supported and directed to identify and repair the existing 
damage or deterioration in the collections, monitor and advise on 
storage and display conditions which will safeguard the collections 
and provide the necessary research into particular problems; 


to plan programmes of research which make realistic and economic 
use of the Museum's available expertize and facilities, towards the 
maintenance of a major source of authoritative knowledge in the 
State, available to all; 

to prepare regularly changing exhibitions for the public which are 
object based but which incorporate the most appropriate techniques 
and display technology, supporting these with a temporary exhibition 
programme and other facilities which ensure full public satisfaction 
with the Museum and, at the same, provide travelling exhibitions to 
other parts of the State; 

to communicate knowledge to the public generally and to develop an 
interest within the community in the Museum's fields of interest, 
using the full range of techniques and approaches available, ensuring 
that the Museum's educational activities are integrated with the 
requirements of the State Education Department and other 
organisations 10 . 

Thus stated, the objectives of the museum are dynamic ones, flexible 
enough to accommodate the rapid change that is symptomatic of today's 
world— change in the needs and expectations of communities, change in 
social customs and values, and change in work patterns and leisure habits, 
as well as new technologies and an ever expanding body of knowledge. 

The museum will record these changes and is ready to respond to 
them. It will preserve, in perpetuity, the authentic objects— the evidence 
of history that represent the truth— and, basing its studies on those 
objects, will contribute to the increase of knowledge and communicate it to 
the people. New materials and new techniques and philosophies of display 

In 1985 the museum was looking forward 
to its move to South Brisbane. 


and design are making it possible for museums to communicate 
information more readily than ever before— to entertain while they 
inform. In other words, to be more and more attractive and to be enjoyed. 
Thus the members of the community can aspire to understand and 
participate in decisions that affect them, and that will affect their children 
and their childrens' children in the future 11 . 



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Appendix 1 

Previous page: From Longman's garden 
on the Brisbane River at Chelmer. Here 
he spent the last 14 years of his life, 
writing his natural history articles, 
tending his garden and cultivating its 

Charles Coxen 

Coxen was one of those responsible for the interest that the early 
settlers took in natural history. He was one of the founders of the 
Philosophical Society, the principal founder of its museum and the man 
primarily responsible for persuading the Queensland government to take 
over the responsibility for the museum. 

His interest in science and particularly in natural history may have 
been partly due to the influence of his sister Elizabeth's husband, the 
distinguished ornithologist, John Gould, who was curator of the Zoological 
Society, London. Coxen arrived in Australia in 1833 with a commission 
from the society to collect local fauna 12 . Some of the first Australian birds 
Gould described before he visited Australia himself, in 1839, had been sent 
to him by Charles and his brother, Stephen Coxen. In 1839 the Goulds 
stayed for three months with Charles and Stephen at the latter s property, 
Yarrundi, on the Hunter River near Scone 3 . In 1851 Coxen was still 
collecting birds for his brother-in-law for the supplement to Goulds great 
work Birds of Australia*. 

Charles Coxen came to Queensland, from Tamworth NSW in 1841, 
when he formed the third party to take sheep overland from the Hunter 
River to the Darling Downs 5 . He appears to have lived at Jondaryan 
Station near Dalby, although it was then registered in the name of Henry 
Dennis and was transferred to Coxen's name only in 185 L His other 
properties were Myall Creek (1841-4), Karugu (1846-7), Bimbian (1851) 
and Daandine (1855-61) 6 . In 1851, at Ryde NSW, he married Miss 
Elizabeth Isaac of Gloucestershire and took her to 'what were then the 
boundaries of civilisation, Bimbian, the furthermost station on the Darling 
Downs' 5 . They later moved to Daandine, again near Dalby 5 . 

Coxen was by no means isolated on the Darling Downs and there 
were others with whom he came into contact who shared and undoubtedly 
stimulated his interest in natural history. Possibly one of the most 
distinguished was explorer Leichhardt— who was 'interested in Nature 
as a whole, from the rocks on which we stand, to what we have made of 
ourselves in our environment' 7 . Leichhardt came to the Downs twice in 
1844. The first time when he journeyed there from Newcastle and, on 
30 March, collected fossil bones from Charles Coxen's property. Then, in 
October 1844 Leichhardt's party, including John Gilbert, collector for John 
Gould, set out from the Darling Downs on a 3000 mile journey that took 
them to Port Essendon, during which Gilbert was killed 8 . In 1846 
Leichhardt was again on the Darling Downs preparing for his aborted 
east-west crossing; and yet again in 1848— departing on the ill-fated 
expedition that did not return. Leichhardt named a plant Myal coxeni 
after Coxen. 

When Queensland became a separate colony there was a nucleus of 
people in Brisbane who shared Coxen's interest in natural history and who 
helped him found the Queensland Philosophical Society 9 . As chairman of 
the society, in 1861-2, he was instrumental in persuading the government 
to allocate accommodation in the Windmill for the museum. From 
December 1862, when the society first elected office-bearers, he was the 
first vice-president— the governor, Sir George Bowen being president 9 . 
In September 1871 it was Coxen who was delegated to discuss, with the 
minister, the geological collections that the society held in trust pending 
the setting up of a public museum. As a result of those discussions Coxen 
was made honorary curator of a museum that included the government's 
geological museum that C. D'Oyly Aplin, the former government geologist, 


had set up in the Parliamentary building 3 as well as the Philosophical 
Society's museum founded in the Windmill and now relocated id the 
Parliamentary building (see Chapters 2, 4). Coxen was now honorary- 
curator of the Queensland Museum and he persistently urged the 
government to provide a building for it ll) . Coxen continued as honorary 
curator until he had persuaded the government to set up a board of 
trustees in 1876 (see Chapter 14). 

Coxen represented the district of Northern Downs in the Queensland 
parliament and was subsequently chairman of committees (1863-67). He 
was also a vnce-president and honorary secretary to the Acclimatisation 
Society (1862-73) r '. However, his pastoral ventures did not prosper and he 
failed financially in 1850 and again in 18(56, In 1867 he went to the Gympie 
Goldfields. 'On March, 1868. he began his career in connection with the 
Crown Lands Office, where his strict integrity and unremitting desire to 
assist and further the interests of settlers won for him the respect and 
esteem of all with whom, in his official capacity, he was brought in 
contact' I lie subsequently held the posts of Crown Lands commissioner, 
Moreton Bay, then East Moreton (1870-75); inspecting commissioner 
Settled Districts (1872); acting Crown Land commissioner, Darling Downs 
(1874-75); member of the Commission of Inquiry into condition of 
Aboriginals in Queensland (1874) s . Coxen 'was known for his sympathetic 
and trusting treatment' of the Aborigines when he had been on the Downs 
and his 'understanding and compassion' for them is reflected in his paper 
to the Philosophical Society on 'The Komillaroy Tribe'. 

Charles Coxen 'found time to pursue his favourite study of natural 
history, as well as to promote a knowledge of other branches of science 
beneficial to the colony' 5 '. He contributed papers to meetings of the 
Philosophical Society on a range of subjects. He supplied John Gould with 
a wealth of reliable information and specimens, including observations on 
the behaviour of the Bower Bird which he made at Stephen's property, 
Yurrundr- He had a wide interest in developing technology and sent Gould 
a photograph of the Little Egret-. Coxen wrote a section on dugong in 
Gould's Mammals of Australia and a long and authoritative article entitled 
'The Yellow-winged Satin Bird' in the Sydney Mail and New South Wales 
Advertiser of 4 April 1874 He was a corresponding member of the 
Zoological Society. 

We can be grateful to him for his untiring work for the Queensland 
Museum and for those collections of fossils, birds and shells he made 
with his wife Elizabeth, and which became the nucleus of the museum. 
However, one of his greatest achievements may have been the style of 
his leadership of a group of men who believed in and worked fur the 
establishment of the museum— who, by 1871 had persuaded the 
government to assume responsibility for it so that by 1875 a staff and a 
board of trustees had been appointed and funds for a building wei 
committed. As Mack remarked 'from the records available the impression 
is gained that at no time had the authorities been difficult in this matter; 
indeed they had been consistently helpful' 11 . This may be a measure of the 
quality of the man, Charles Coxen. 

Karl Theodor Staiger 

Staiger was the first professional appointment to the museum. On 
19 November 1872 lie was appointed government analytical chemist and 
custodian. Staiger applied himself conscientiously to his dual role 
Although his responsibilities for mineral assays were probably more 


pressing at I he time, he did not ignore the natural history and accepted 
the universal nature of the museum's responsibilities. 

Staiger was born in 1833 at Kun^elsaw, Wurtemburg. Germany, the 
son of Professor John James Staler and Caroline Koch. He attended the 
polytechmcal school in Stuttgart, and spent 3 years studying chemistry 1:: . 

He came to Australia and worked on various mining fields, In July 
1812 he was in Stanthorpe, then the centre of the mining in Queensland, 
when he applied for the job with the government as analytical chemist and 
custodian of the museum at an annual salary of £200, soon rising to £350. 

He took up duties in January 1873. In his first reports to the minister, 
W.H. Walsh, on 2 June 1873 he indicated that in spite of lack of adequate 
facilities he had undertaken 64 assays, and 'I have been moreover ly daily 
visited since the office has been established by a number of strangers 
making voluminous inquiries on various topics of Mineralogy, Chemistry, 
Manufactures etc all of which 1 have endeavoured to answer to the best of 
my judgement' I:) . He had secured one of the largest rooms in the old Post 
Office and arranged the named minerals according to the district found, 
Lack of a scientific library prevented work on the small zoological 
collection and he urged that this be remedied (see Chapter 13). 
Optimistically, he commented that he was waiting 'till decisive steps are 
en as regards the new museum' 11 He waited in vain. 

The board of trustees was formed in 1876 and Staiger became its 
secretary. He kept meticulous and detailed minutes that reveal much of 
the museum s early operations. The minutes of the meeting of March 1976 
relate that Staiger was doing the work of a curator in all but name and the 
trustees suggested that he should become the curator. However, the title 
was not given to him — it was kept for his successor. William Haswell, who 
took over responsibility for the museum from Staiger at the end of 1879. 

Meanwhile, Staiger was attending to a range of activities in the 
museum. He was a commissioner for the Queensland government 
organising displays for the Vienna, London and Sydney Exhibitions in 
1873, and in 1877 he selected items for prize winning displays in Sydney. 
He was working with F.M. Bailey, the keeper of the herbarium in the 
museum, on a monograph of Queensland grasses 14 . 

In March 1878 the trustees acknowledged their regard for Staiger by 
asking the minister for Mines to place a sum of £100 on the estimates 'as 
special remuneration' for his services as chemist and museum custodian 
up to 31 December 1878; and in August 1878 they appointed a temporary 
secretary to relieve him of his secretarial duties to the board. He 
continued as custodian until Haswell's appointment in November 1879. 
Staiger's good relationship with at least one of the trustees is reflected 
in the fact that he named his son 'MiskirV after trustee W.H- Miskin. 
Eventually, toward the end of 1879, he fell out with Miskin when the 
board appointed Haswell rather than Staiger as curator (see Chapter 3). 
However, Dr Bancroft, another of the trustees, was to be his physician 
until his death 15 . 

After he left the museum, Staiger is listed as analytical chemist in the 
government chemical laboratory until June 1880 lft and it was during this 
period that he made one further contribution to international science. 
In May 1880 the celebrated Russian zoologist, humanitarian and 
anthropologist Nicolai Miklouho-Maclay came to Brisbane from New 
Guinea, and stayed with A.C. Gregory, then chairman of the museum 
board of trustees !7 . While in Brisbane, Miklouho-Maclay, an articulate 
opponent of the labour-trade and other racist policies and practices, 


availed himself of an opportunity to further his own investigations on 
racial characteristics by taking measurements of the cranium and brain of 
executed criminals— a Malay, a Chinese, a Melanesian and an Aborigine. 
The Queensland government made laboratory accommodation available in 
the building just vacated by the museum— the old Post office building; 
supplied the services of its analytical chemist— Staiger— to assist in the 
investigations; and lent photographic equipment from the Survey Office. 
It is probable that Staiger's assistance was relevant to the development of 
the new preserving fluids that Maclay tested and used at this time 1748 . 

Staiger's involvement with Miklouho-Maclay ended in August 1880 
and he appears to have left the government service. He advertised as 
analytical chemist from his home 'Staigersleigh' in Edmonstone Street, 
South Brisbane, both before and after an appointment to the Municipality 
of Brisbane as public analyst under the Food and Drugs Act®. Through 
these years he continued to donate specimens to the museum 20 . 

In 1874 he had married Henrietta Pearce the 20 year old daughter 
of an English gentleman 21 . They had two sons, Rudolph Edward and 
Augustus William Miskin 15 . 

The museum's first staff member died at the age of 55 at his home on 
5 October 1888 after a two year battle with tuberculosis. In a brief obituary 
the Brisbane Courier stated that 'Mr Karl Theodor Staiger who formerly 
occupied the position of analyst to the Queensland Government, died 
yesterday morning at his residence Staigersleigh, Edmonstone Street 
South Brisbane' 22 . The article reflects the view of the time that Karl 
Staiger's work as an analyst of mineral specimens was more important 
than his work in the museum. Today's judgment might be different. 

Charles Walter de Vis 

de Vis was born in Birmingham, England, to James and Mary Devis 
on 9 May 1829 23 . He was a distinguished scholar— an exhibitioner of Kings 
College, London, and a scholar of Magdalen College, Cambridge where 
he took his BA in 1849. He became a deacon in 1852 and was rector of 
St John's, Breane, in Somerset in 1855. He eventually gave up the church 
for 'his beloved science' 24 becoming one of the hereditary governors of 
Manchester Natural History Society, at Salford, Manchester in 1862 and 
was later curator at the Queens Park Museum. In fact de Vis had had 
considerable experience both in developing and displaying collections 
before he came to Australia. During this period of his life he became vice- 
president of the (British) Anthropological Society and was a fellow of the 
Zoological Society 25 . 

He came to Queensland in June 1870 with the aim of studying its 
natural resources, especially geology and mineralogy, and of making his 
living by sending specimens to overseas museums. In November 1870 
he arrived in Rockhampton and, with his son George, was collecting 
around Black Gin Creek, Clermont and Rockhampton. However, it was 
disappointing that the first lot of specimens he sent back to Europe 
were lost at sea. After a trip back to England for a visit he returned to 
Rockhampton where he became librarian at the School of Arts. From 
1880 until February 1882, when he became curator of the Queensland 
Museum, he had been writing articles on geology and ornithology for the 
Queenslander under the pen-name of Thickthorn'— the name of his house 
in Rockhampton 24 . de Vis was 53 when he became curator. Nevertheless 
he tackled his job with an energy and enthusiasm that never seemed to 
flag— he drove his staff but, indeed, he also drove himself— arranging 
displays, dealing with correspondence, monthly reports to the board, 


. i 

writing papers arid identifying the specimens that found their way into the 
museum. Mostly he worked on mammals, reptiles, birds and fishes'. 
However, he also worked on other groups and anthropology. The museum 
still has a lengthy key he compiled to assist with the identification of 
spiders. The insects he probably left to the entomologist Tryon. de Vis 
was forced to retire from the position of curator on 31 March 1905 
(see Chapter 3) at the age of 76. However, he remained on the staff as 
consulting scientist until 1912. 

He certainly had had the confidence of the museum board of trustees 
which had tried very hard to avoid his retirement. In the end the 
government had ordered it. He also seems to have had the respect of his 
staff, especially the collectors, Broadbent, Wild and Hurst, who spent long 
periods in the field, collecting prodigious amounts of material and formally 
and regularly reporting back to de Vis 26 . However, he did not get on well 
with his assistant curator Henry 7 Tryon and at a board meeting on 
7 December 1888 he said that he found Tryon 'insubordinate'. 
Nevertheless Tryon eventually wrote de Vis' biography w . Certainly later 
on, after Tryon had left the museum, the lives of the two men must have 
crossed very often. It is probable that they had a mutual respect for one 
another's achievements. 

As well as his work in rhe museum, de Vis took his part as a scientist 
in the community. He joined many of the budding societies, was a founder 
member and president (1888-9) ol the Royal Society of Queensland; he 
was elected corresponding member of the Linnean Society of New South 
Wales in 1882; he helped in the organisation of the International 
Exhibition at Melbourne in 1888 and the Indian and Colonial Exhibition 
in London in 1886 and in the Australian Association for the Advancement 
o) Science meetings at Sydney (first vice-president 1888) and Adelaide 
(president Biology section 1893). He was a member of the Vernacular 
Names for Australian Birds Committee, and on a committee to promote 
scientific exploration of the Great Barrier Reef. Other societies to which 
he belonged include the Royal Geographical Society of Australasia— 
Queensland Branch (hon. member 19(30), vice-president of the Australian 
Ornithologists' Union (1910) and the British Ornithologists' Union. He 
was an 'indefatigable writer' and from 1865 to his death he published 
130 scientific papers and articles- 7 . Apart from his numerous 
contributions to palaeontology and natural history he spent much time 
building up a comparative vocabulary of Aboriginal language. 

While in Rockhampton, he appears to have used the name Devis, but 
changed it to De Vis or de Vis when he came to the museum, de Vis is the 
spelling most often used 2 *. The name appears to have been Norman, his 
parents using an anglicised version, while Charles Walter preferred the 
earlier style, possibly taking a quiet pride in the fact that his family can 
be traced through 700 years of English history*'. A De Vis was one of the 
25 barons who witnessed King Johns signing of tht Magna Charta at 
Runnymede on 15 June 1215. Later King Charles II presented, to the 
De Vis of his day, a silver salver inscribed 'to Harry De Vis, the friend 
and servant of King Charles II, by his King'- 7 . It was a daughter of that 
same Sir Harry to whom Samuel Pepys referred in his diary: 

To Whitehall, where the ball was to be crammed with fine ladies, the 

greatest of the Court By-and-by comes the King and Queene, 

the Duke and Duchess, and all the great ones Of the ladies that 

danced, the Duke of Monmouth's mistress and my lady Castlemaine 
and a daughter of Sir Harry de Vis were the bestX 


Charles Walter's great-grandfather was the last Devis of Thickthorne 
estate in Warwickshire where the family had lived for 400 years. 
Thickthorn was the name Charles Walter de Vis chose for his house in 
Rockhampton and for his pen-name 29 . 

de Vis had been married before he came to Australia. His wife, Julia 
nee Holmes, and three sons— Edwin, Charles and Harry — stayed in 
England and completed their education, Charles and Harold becoming 
doctors. Edwin subsequently went to South Africa. Charles came to 
Charters Towers in 1881 where he practised medicine. Another two sons, 
George and Walter, who came to Australia with their father, never did 
complete their education. Walter is not heard of again. George became a 
merchant in Rockhampton but appears to have lost contact with his father 
after de Vis returned to England in the early 1870s 24 . In 1898, in New 
Zealand, de Vis is said to have married a widow, Katherine Elizabeth 
Luckie 23 - 2 *. The board minutes of 27 August 1898 record that he was 
granted leave for '3 to 4 weeks'. There was no board meeting in January 
1899 and he probably went to New Zealand during that December- January. 

de Vis was living at Gaythorn House. Enoggera, when he died on 
30 April 1915 at the age of 86, having devoted 30 years to the service of 
science and the Queensland Museum. He is buried in the Church of 
England section of the Toowong Cemetery, de Vis' great grand-children 
by his sons Charles and George now live in Queensland and 
Western Australia. 

Kendall Broadbent 

Broadbent was the doyen of the Queensland Museum's collectors at a 
time when natural history collectors were sought after and collecting was a 
rigorous and exacting occupation, requiring skill, ingenuity and tenacity. 
Comparatively short of stature, he was very hard working, a thorough field 
naturalist and a 'most discerning zoological collector' 30 . Despite privations 
he loved the wilderness areas where he worked assiduously in seeking 
natural history specimens. He was not well educated, but through his 
observations in the field and from the literature that was available he 
developed a particular knowledge of Australian birds and their movements 
and, assisted by Henry Tryon, a good deal of his ornithological knowledge 
was published during his life. He collected fossils extensively during many 
trips to different parts of the Darling Downs, but he also collected 
mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, molluscs, crustaceans, insects and 
other invertebrates and anthropological material. 

He was born at Horsforth, near Leeds in Yorkshire on 26 August 
1837. His father was a stone mason and his mother before marriage 
was Elizabeth Bentley. With his parents he arrived in Victoria in 1852 and 
was engaged in contracting work with his father. After a while, he began 
to collect zoological specimens. In December 1858 he collected the type 
specimen of the Rufous Bristlebird and it was named after him — 
Dasyornis broadbenti 2 . The personal achievment of having discovered a 
new species of Australian bird must have stimulated the young man for it 
was the beginning of a lifetime of natural history collecting that included 
the finding of many new species. He collected in every Australian state 
except the Northern Territory, but mainly in eastern Australia, and he 
participated in two expeditions to New Guinea. However, the great part of 
his work was done in Queensland between 1880 and 1900 while collecting 
for the museum. 

He was en route to New Guinea as a collector in 1872 when he was 
one of the survivors from the wreck of the Maria which grounded on 


a reef off Cardwell. Aboard were 64 gold prospectors, an engineer — 
Lawrence Hargrave, Broadbent and a crew, making a total complement of 
75 men. The ship sank and two of the ship's boats took 28 men including 
Broadbent to the mainland. Less than half of those aboard survived, the 
remainder drowned or were killed by Aborigines 31 . Later Broadbent met 
Hargrave and taught him to make study skins— a skill that the latter 
subsequently put to good use when he collected in New Guinea 32 . 

In 1873 he was engaged to collect for Count de Castenau in Cape York 
and around the Gulf of Carpentaria. However, while there he also collected 
for himself and in 1876 sold, for £18.17.0, 79 bird specimens from that 
region to the National Museum of Victoria. In 1875 Broadbent was 
engaged with others to collect around Port Moresby for specimens that 
were later sent to the British Museum. It was on this trip that he 
contracted malaria which recurred at intervals during the remainder of 
his life. E.P. Ramsay of the Australian Museum employed him to collect 
specimens for that museum from 1877 to 1879. During 1879 there were 
686 bird skins or eggs registered as having been collected by Broadbent 
in Tasmania and in addition he made collections in South and Western 
Australia. Ramsay's other contracts* with, and purchases from Broadbent 
had yielded 258 specimens from Port Moresby and 387 specimens from 
north Queensland between 1876 and 1878 and a collection of birds 
from the Darling Downs in 1881 

Broadbent s first contact with the Queensland Museum occurred in 
1880 when W. Haswell was director. On 28 May 1880 the board minutes 
record that collector Broadbent was in the Enoggera area and had 
sold mammals and birds to the museum. Haswell further proposed an 
arrangement with Broadbent whereby, in return for his steamer passage- 
money and £12 a month he would give the museum his entire collections. 
Trustee Miskin thought 'the arrangement would prove a very 
advantageous one for the museum'— and so it was to be. For several 
months thereafter consignments of specimens from 'collector Broadbent' 
were reported. On 20 August 1880 Haswell reports '214 bird skins, many 
of then rare, besides mammals, fishes etc. from Collector Broadbent at 
Cardwell', on 20 September 'another consignment'. On 8 April 1881 
Broadbent consigned a supply of formalin, a bundle of cotton and a jar 
of arsenical soap to the museum by steamer, probably indicating that 
his contract with it had ended. 

He used various methods for collecting his specimens. His Hollis 
double-barrel shot-gun is now in the technological collection. He was 
using traps when he obtained the carnivorous marsupial known to the 
north Queensland Aborigines as the Tarrie', as he related to de Vis on 
8 February 1889 — 

I have the honour to report. Caught the Yarrie at last, just a common 
tiger cat, after all the trouble. Caught it in a gully in the mountains 
6 miles out of Cardwell. had 7 traps (s)et the last fortnight, got some 
fine lizards caught in the traps. 

He also used snares for wallabies. Nets, and apparently on occasion, 
dynamite was used for procuring fish specimens. For instance Broadbent 
in a letter to de Vis which he wrote at 'Somerset', Cape York on 
14 February 1884: 

I could not get dynamite at Thursday Island, would you please send 
me some whay. I shall want it more on the reefs than I do here. 

Early collectors including Broadbent used many methods to transport 
material back to the museums. They used pack-horses, wagons and carts, 


especially for short distances. Ships were used as a means of transport for 
Broadbent to places in the north such as Port Douglas, Thursday Island, 
Karumba, and New Guinea. He used the Queensland railways where 
possible, as for example in the Stanthorpe district in December 1884 to 
January 1885 and, while collecting in the Charleville area later in 1885, 
boxes of specimens were railed back to Brisbane. Unfortunately, 
sometimes boxes were lost in transit; for example, Broadbent in a letter to 
de Vis from Cardwell of 8 February 1889 wrote: 

The missing box not come yet, it must have lost the address. 

Those tickets come off without being nailed. Hope you received the 
last consignment in good order, 5 boxes, altogether, Steamer Palmer 
shipped them 26th Jan 89. 

On 26 April 1893 the intrepid collector, showing a little pride, wrote 
to de Vis from the Darling Downs: 

I got a pretty good find this month, head and splendid lower jaws of 
Dipro(to)don. about 9 miles up Kings Creek from Clifton, had to 
engage a man and spring cart to fetch it home, could not get the cart 
within a half mile of it, and the fossil across the creek, had it to carry 
in a box and the(n) wade the creek with it, a bad time of it we had. 

During the course of the fieldwork there were periods when the 
collector employed Aborigines to assist him to procure specimens, 
especially mammals. For example he paid an Aborigine 15 shillings per 
week to help him in the mountains behind Cardwell to collect specimens 
of Lumholtz's Tree-kangaroo, Dendrolagus lumholtzi, known to the natives 
as 'boongarry'. Broadbent wrote in his diary for 25 September 1886 The 
natives said it was impossible to carry anything up where Boongarry lives. 
Pitched camp again and started with 3 natives up to Boongarry ground*. 
Again, in October 1887, he wrote from Springsure: 

I have got the specimens (Petrogale penicillata) of the wallaby you 
require. It is nearly impossible to get them without Blacks. We 
hunted them in true blackfellow fasion. They inhabit small stoney 
Volcanic mountains covered with scrub. They clime trees. I shot one 

on top of a fig tree There are no Blacks camped near the Station I 

engaged four from spring Creek. 

Although he used their skills to help him collect specimens he was 
fully aware of the dangers he faced in the bush alone for Aborigines were 
not always kindly disposed to white men. Tough and resolute, Broadbent 
wrote in his diary for 2 January 1886, 'I shall get to Dalrymple Gap niggers 
or no niggers'. He was worried about the possibility of their attacking him 
for, on 23 January 1886, he notes in the diary that he — 

Shifted camp a few miles down the Gap nothing to get here, not a 
safe place for a man to camp by himself. 

Two days later he wrote: 

A good job for me I did clear out of the top of the Gap a mob of 
Blacks came there Sunday to kill me for flour tobacco etc. about 40 of 
their Hinchinbrook blacks. 

It was not a new experience — on 29 July 1882 Broadbent had written to de 

Blacks are bad. I want a revolver and 100 cartridges, not safe 
anywhere now out of Cardwell. 

Broadbent paid in trade for specimens that the Aborigines brought in 
to him. From 'Somerset' in 1884 he informed de Vis 'I shall require trade 
amongst the natives, get nothing from them without paying for it'. 

Broadbent faced many other difficulties and privations, often alone, 



- J 

during his long periods in the field. In a letter from Cardwell on 27 
January 1889 he wrote: 

J have spent a good deal of time after it (yarrie or tiger cat) and 

gone over some rough country! in fact, I have walked nearly all the 
flesh off my bones, what with scrambling over stones in rough 
gullies, through scrubs, and over mountains, there is not much of me 

In another letter of 22 October 1890 from Gowrie on the Darling Downs he 


I beg permission to come down for a short spell. I require a new tent, 
mine torn all to pieces with the great winds here. 

Prior to this, in the same year on the 13 March 1890 he had said; 

Last monday we had a sort of Cyclone, with torrents of rain. The 

Condamme River is within 15 feet of the bank where I am camped. 
and still rising. We have here also a plauge of mosquitoes and 

A couple of weeks later on the same theme he wrote to de Vis about the 
Condamine River flood and particularly the mosquitoes * ...gets under the 
blankets, up the legs of your trowsers. bites night and day. 1 have to eat, 
sleep and work in smoke'. When Broadbent was collecting in the 
mountains behind Cardwell, in July 1886, he recorded in his diary that— 

travelling is a terror in this country, the grass in the open places in 
the mountain is 6 feet high broad blady grass cuts like a knife, all 
the mountain creeks are nearly a swirn and then to clime those 

mountains great masses of of lawyer palm tear flesh and cloths 

all to pieces 

A little later, on 27 September of the same year — 

The natives pointed out a great conical peak of the mountain and 

said Boongarry (tree kangaroo) walk about all right I said upp you go. 
Buch a journey I never had the first mile up the centre of the gorge 
through water and over great boulders as big as a house. I could 
carry nothing, crawling and on hands and knees, and wading until 
we got to the first spur and then straight up or nearly perpendicular 
pulling ourselves up by the trees, all dense scrub wc climed right 
to the top 

Two days later he recorded in his diary— 

used up all my trade food Was four days this last trip living on 

sugar and bread could not get any game except one white cockatoo 

the whole trip 

Money was very short at all times and shortage of funds produced 
extra problems. On 9 August 1887, from Rockhampton, Broadbent wrote 

to de Vis ' 1 have only a few shillings left of that £5 you gave me'. His 

grand-daughter, Mrs Margaret Thurgood, when discussing privations 
he had endured, remembered that he hated to see food wasted and he 
deplored the way many people ate only the centre of lamb chops and 
left the remainder. 

Some idea of Broadbent s engaging personality comes through his 
letters to de Vis. It is reflected in this account of his visit to Pilton Station 
where he met the 15 year-old Arthur Davis— later to become Australian 
author Steele Rudd: 

Mr Broadbent, a distinguished geologist from the Queensland 
museum in Brisbane, arrived at 'Pilton'- He came because of 
fossilised bones of extinct giant marsupial— the dinosaur— had 
been found on occasions along the banks of Kings Creek and his 


mission was to professionally investigate these areas. He was placed 
in Arthurs care by "the boss" with strict instructions that the visitor 
was always to be given the quietest horse on the station and he was 
to accompany Mr Broadbent everywhere he went. "The geologist's" 
ultimate departure created a void in his life, for he had enjoyed the 
company of this interesting and educated man, always so ready to 
impart to his youthful listener some of his profound knowledge on 
many subjects quite apart from the odd fossils they had dug out of 
the banks of King's Creek 33 . 

There were others who helped him in the field. Frank L. Jardine of 
Somerset, Cape York, was generous and very hospitable towards him as 
he had been to other early collectors in the region. On one occasion it took 
the squatter three days to get Broadbent across from Thursday Island to 
Somerset in his cutter, as the weather conditions made the 45 km crossing 
a hazardous trip. Jardine assisted Broadbent in field-work around the 
Cape's northern tip. On 1 May 1884, he organised five men including 
himself to help Broadbent to collect bowerbird species of the area. The 
party had the use of nine horses for the project. With long years of 
observations behind him at Somerset, Jardine discussed bird migrations 
with Broadbent. Knowledge gained from field-work and no doubt 
information from Jardine was the basis of his paper 'On the Migration of 
Birds at the Cape York Peninsula' 34 . 

Broadbent was also associated with Archibald Meston, newspaper 
editor and writer of the time. Meston was commissioned by the 
Queensland government to lead a scientific expedition to Bellenden Ker 
Range, northern Queensland during June- July 1889. Broadbent was 
collecting for the museum at Herberton at the time and he returned to 
Cairns where he joined Meston's party. He was to collect natural history 
specimens while the colonial botanist F.M. Bailey collected plants. Meston 
described Broadbent as 'a hardworking, contented companion' despite the 
very wet conditions which made it difficult for all concerned 35 . 

Broadbent also went collecting with Henry Tryon, the assistant 
curator of the museum. He also acknowledged an indebtedness to Tryon 
for his help in preparing manuscripts and communicating them to the 
Queensland Royal Society. After 1893, when he had to give up the field 
work that he loved to return to Brisbane as an attendant in the museum, 
his work with the specimens that he had collected was probably his 
one consolation. 

He married Maria Boreham at the Oval, Kelvin Grove, Brisbane on 
11 February 1880. He had met her while collecting specimens at the old 
gold diggings near Enoggera Reservoir, formerly known as the 
'waterworks' on the western side of Brisbane. The Broadbents had five 
children, four of whom survived, one son and three daughters. Broadbent 
and his family lived at Ashgrove, then Red Hill in the 1890s. In 1903 they 
moved to 128 Stonesleigh Street, Albion, where he died on 16 January 1911 
at the age of 73 years while still on the staff of the museum. 

In an obituary, probably written by Hamlyn-Harris, de Vis who with 
Broadbent had spent the past 30 years in the service of the museum, is 
quoted as having said: 

It would be difficult to find Mr Broadbent 's superior, even at 
60 years of age. He had every qualification for the work, was only 
happy exercising it, he was thoroughly honourable and intensely loyal 
to his friends. I shall miss him very much and shall always hold his 
memory in deep respect and with affection 36 . 


Ronald Hamlyn-Harris 

He is said to have been of 'irreproachable character, a man of the 
highest integrity, blameless reptuation, amiable disposition, rather 

reserved, quiet more of a theorist than a practical man. Could talk 

for two hours on the structure of the bee but could not tell you how to 
preserve the honey ...a splendid scientist with a strong leaning to natural 
history and entomology ' E . 

His achievements while director of the Queensland Museum certainly 
establish that, assessment to have been wrong in one respect only— he 
was, indeed, a practical man. After years oi neglect he established the 
museum's operations on a firm basis. 

He was borne in Eastbourne, Sussex, m 1874. His father was Hamlyn 
Huntingdon Harris of the 18th Hussars. He was educated in Germany and 
England and trained in estate management. He became an expert apiarist 
while managing his father's estate. His DSc was from Eberhard-Karls 
University, Tubingen, Germany, in 1902, for his investigations on The 
Statocysts of Capluilupoda which he had done at the Stazione Zoologica— 
the famous Naples marine laboratory. He came to Australia in 1903. 
Between 1903 and 1910 he was a science master at Toowoomba Grammar 
School where he had reorganised science teaching. He became director of 
the museum on 1 October 19 HP. 

Hamlyn-Harris was the first director to be appointed to the museum 
as a well-established zoologist, Certainly, William Haswell had been 
trained as such but his MA from Oxford was positively elementary' in 
comparison with Hamlyn-Harris' DSc, FRMS, FZS, FES, His predecessor, 
de Vis, had not had any training specifically in science— although he was a 
keen naturalist and during his life made up through experience what he 
lacked in formal training. However, it was Hamlyn-Harris who understood 
more of the back-up services needed in a museum— or indeed in any 
scientific establishment and he made a particularly significant contribution 
in that area. In the library he rearranged the volumes and introduced 
appropriate registration and cataloguing techniques and, having assessed 
its contents, he made good the obvious gaps in the holdings, He also 
introduced and rationalised specimen registers. He reorganised the staff 
and honorary associates were appointed to make up for the lack of a 
professionally qualified staff establishment. For the first time there was 
an anthropologist appointed— Douglas Rarmie — as well as appropriately 
qualified support staff— a librarian and a stenographer. Hamlyn-Harris 
was proud of his scientific qualifications, and protective of the museum's 
scientific stature. It was probably this concern that caused his 
exasperation with Wild, resulting in the insect collector's harsh dismissal 
(see Chapter 9), 

Hamlyn-Harris gave the first lectures in biology at the newly founded 
Queensland University in 191L However, although he hoped to return to 
his biological research on cephalopods, he w T as not able to do that, He 
published, instead, on anthropological subjects. He was foundation 
president of the Toowoomba Field Naturalists' Club, 1908 and president 
of the Royal Society of Queensland, 1916 and of the Queensland 
Entomological Society. 

His other contribution was the result of a personal quality — the long 
period that many of those he appointed stayed on the staff. He was, in fact, 
a compassionate man, as evidenced in his treatment of J.D. Ogilby — he 
managed his salary, bought his clothes, and paid his rent^'. 

His stay at the museum was relatively short but his contribution was 


great and lasting. He resigned after eight years— toward the end of World 
War I — disappointed that he had not been able to persuade the 
government to a greater degree of support for the museum. After his 
resignation he went to Stanthorpe to manage his brother's fruit farm for 
several years. While there he started a short-lived entomological society 
whose main function was the co-ordination of pest control in the orchards. 
From 1922 to 1924 he was in charge of the Australian Hookworm 
Campaign — doing malaria and filaria surveys throughout Queensland. 
Then he taught school at Southport. At least one student from that time 
remembers how stimulating he was as an English teacher — particularly, 
recalling his dissertation on witches and witchcraft during the class' study 
of Macbeth. These years at Southport could not have been unhappy. 
He was in the company of classically educated, scholarly and entirely 
compatible colleagues, one of whom was a Queensland Rhodes scholar 40 . 
Nevertheless, he was not teaching science and wanted to return to it. He 
was again involved with filaria when he was city entomologist, Brisbane 
City Council from 1928 to 1933— the first entomologist to be employed by 
an Australian municipality— and was one of those who were instrumental 
in finding a solution to Brisbane's endemic filariasis problem. During this 
period he had an exchange of letters in the Brisbane Courier with Tom 
Marshall over his — Hamlyn-Harris' — recommendations for introduction 
of mosquito-eating fish— Gambusia assinis and Poecilia reticulata 
(guppies). He was a lecturer in zoology at the university from 1936 to 1943. 
He died in Brisbane on 26 June 1953, survived by his wife, Bertha and 
their three sons and three daughters. 

Heber Albert Longman 

Longman was one of Australia's strongest exponents of vertebrate 
palaeontology and evolutionary theory between the wars. His scientific 
calibre was recognized in 1946 when he was awarded the Australian 
Natural History Medallion and later, in 1952, the award of the ANZAAS 
Mueller Medal for distinguished services to natural sciences in Australia 4 '. 

Born on 24 June 1880 at Heytesbury, Wiltshire, England, his father 
was a Congregational minister of liberal views who possessed a good 
library, with the help of which Longman developed an early interest in 
natural history and archaeology. He went to school at Emwell House in 
Warminster. In his early years he became much attracted to T.H. Huxley's 
tradition of rational scientific observation and he was to maintain this trait 
through life. He came to Australia in 1902, apparently for health reasons. 
Living first at Toowoomba, he revitalized a small weekly newspaper, the 
Downs Post, and worked as its journalist. This paper evolved into the Rag 
and later the Citizen with Longman as editor 41 . He met his wife, Irene, in 
1902 when he called on her father, the local Congregational minister. She 
became the first woman to be elected to the Queensland parliament. 

While in Toowoomba Longman quickly gained a reputation as a 
natural historian, developing an important plant collection which he sent to 
government botanist F.M. Bailey in 1903 (he was noted among local people 
for his field equipment which included a vasculum and a milk churn). 
Bailey stimulated his scientific pursuits and ultimately part of Longman's 
herbarium was sent to Kew. The remainder is now in the Queensland 

He joined the museum in 1911, recruited by Hamlyn-Harris who was a 
fellow member of the Toowoomba Field Naturalists' Club which Longman 
had initiated. When Hamlyn-Harris resigned in 1917 Longman became 


acting director, the position being made permanent the following year. 
During his 34 years at the museum he published over 70 scientific papers, 
notably on fossil vertebrates, contributed articles to local papers and spoke 
to many societies on a multitude of subjects from evolution to Egyptology. 
After his retirement in 1945 he continued to contribute his column 
'Nature's Way' to the Conner Mail and through it encouraged a wide 
audience to be interested in the ecology and conservation of Queensland's 
wildlife. His love and enthusiasm for every aspect of natural history was 
apparent to all who read his articles and heard him speak. His lifelong 
habit of unceasing observation led him on occasion to pursue a spider at. 
night by torchlight and to keep different animals at home to study their 
life histories. 

Longman's warmth and humanity can be seen in the diary that the 
young Ivor Filmer kept during his years at the museum. He had been on 
the staff only two days when: 

Monday 13 December 1944: Great excitement at the museum this 
morning— three eggs in one of the live lizard cages were identified 
as being the product of a male and female Striped-headed Goanna 

Varunus goukitt Mr Longman was ijuite excited, as were all 

of us... 

The 16 year-old Filmer had just left school, and was enthusiastic 
about the museum and natural history. Daily, his diary records the tasks 
he completed and the conversations Longman had with him — encouraging 
the young naturalist and discussing distribution, nomenclature, biology: 

5 February 1944: AH the staff seem to be very interested to hear of 
our hike on Saturday but of course it was Mr Longman to whom 1 
told most of it* 3 . 

Filmer recalls that Longman travelled by train from Chelmer: 

apparently there was a little clique of back carriage travellers that 
delighted in conversation of a cultural nature. A good friend and 
fellow traveller was Sydney May of the University Music 
department. (He) travelled up Brunswick St. by tram. He habitually 
wore a long white coat on tram and tram. His thinning white hair 
was long: in those days it was redolent of academia to witness a head 
of long white hair„„ 

34 December L947: It was not only my first Xmas parry, but 1 think it 
was the first time the staff of the Museum had ever celebrated Xmas. 
The latter was probably discouraged by Mr Longman because of his 
philosophical beliefs ' 

Longman liked nothing better than a good, sound, rational argument, 
but in private. He was not aggressive— he was too much a gentleman; and 
despite his good relations with, and ready access to the local press, he 
never used the newspapers to compaign for the museum (see Chapter 3). 
Commenting on a letter to the C aimer Mail, over the signature 'Disgusted 
visitor', complaining of the lack of lighting in the museum, Longman said — 

that the visitors were unfortunate that they visited the museum on 
one of those dark days, which are rare in Brisbane. He wished that 
the museum had sufficient lighting for emergency occasions, but 
adequate installation would be difficult in such a bulding The 
museum always remained open until 5 p.m., whereas other 
institutions of the same nature closed at 4 p.m. on dark days". 

In his career he was president of the Royal Society of Queensland 
twice — in 1919 and 1939. He played an important role on the Great Barrier 
Reef Committee, of which he was to be a vice-chairman. He was also a 
member of the Australian National Research Council. He was a fellow of 


the Linnean Society of London, of the Royal Anthropological Institute, and 
corresponding member of the Zoological Society and he belonged to many 
societies including the Queensland Naturalists' Club of which he was 
president, and the international Rationalist Society — being very active in 
the Queensland branch. 

He died on 16 February 1954, age 73, and was buried at Chelmer. His 
friend, naturalist Alec Chisholm presented the farewell. 

George Mack 

Mack was director of the Queensland Museum from 1946 to 1963. He 
was born at Killearn, Scotland on 2 October 1899. Mack was a museum 
man— he had assisted in the Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow 
and had come to Queensland from the National Museum of Victoria where 
he had been from 1923. He doubled the staff establishment of the museum 
and improved both the storage conditions for the collection and the 
standards of display. He was not able to do very much about the research 
role of the institution— that was a matter addressed by his successors. 
Nevertheless, Mack created a basis on which they could build— an 
institution with a commitment to curation and care of collections and 
service to the community. 

Mack had arrived in Western Australia after World War I in which he 
had served with the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders 1914-1919, seeing 
active service in France and Belgium. He joined the staff of the National 
Museum of Victoria, Melbourne in 1923. 

In 1935 he was promoted to the post of ornithologist and while in this 
position he undertook a part-time science course at the University of 
Melbourne. He graduated BSc majoring in zoology and geology. In October 
1945 he was appointed senior scientific assistant to the director of the 
museum, HA Longman, and was appointed acting director in Feburary 
1946, becoming director shortly after. In fact he had come to Queensland 
as Longman's probable successor 45 * 9 . 

Although he knew the other Australian museums, he never was able 
to travel overseas as he wanted to. In 1956 he applied to the Queensland 
government for permission to apply for a Carnegie Foundation travel grant 
in order to study museums in the USA, Canada and Europe. It was 
considered an inopportune time and he was asked to apply at a later date, 
but he never did so. 

He published a number of papers on ornithological and other 
subjects. He was a president of the Royal Society of Queensland, the 
Anthropological Society of Queensland and the Queensland Naturalists' 
Club and an executive member of the Great Barrier Reef Committee. 

He was a quiet, frugal man, living a very private life at Enoggera— in 
the house he moved into when he first came to Queensland. In the late 
1950s, after his two daughters, Margaret (McLeod) and Jean (Fearnside) 
had grown up and left home, he and his wife Mary moved to a smaller 
house at Aspley. George Mack died, at the Royal Brisbane Hospital, on 
the 24 October 1963. 

Robert Burns, the Scottish poet, whose verse Mack admired and 
whose sentiments he shared, once wrote 'something in us never dies' and 
this indeed applied to Mack's life work in the Queensland Museum, for on 
his labours others have built, and on the steps he made, others have made 
further progress. 







'■.: :. 


Appendix 2 

This list is drawn from the Blue Books in Votes and Proceedings of the 
Queensland Parliament 1873-1915, 1924-30, 1946-9, 1951, 1953; Minute 
books and annual reports of the Queensland Museum Board of Trustees in 
the Queensland Museum library; Queensland Museum Staff Attendance 
Books 1911-69; and Queensland Museum correspondence and personal 
files 1 . 

Until the first board of trustees was disbanded in 1907 some members 
of staff, such as clerical assistants and often attendants and collectors, 
were board appointees paid by the board from contingencies and were not 
listed in the Blue Book. 

The list is chronological rather than alphabetical and names are 
classified according to the person's occupation in the museum. Where 
several different positions were held the information is replicated under 
each relevant heading. 

Previous page: On 3 November 1985 the 
museum closed to the public to 
prepare for its move to the new building. 
The occasion was celebrated by a party 
attended by present and past staff and 
board members, and their families. 

Doorkeepers, Messengers, Attendants 

R. TAYLOR (1876 messenger); G. WALKER (1876-80 porter); 
P. MURPHY (1877-8 night watchman); J. CORMACK (1879-83 messenger); 
J. LANE (1880-93 assistant messenger); A. MacPHERSON (1883-91 
attendant); J.H. SPILLER (1891-3 and 1897-1902 doorkeeper); 
K. BROADBENT (zoological collector 1882-1893; 1893-1911 attendant); 
CJ. WILD (entomological collector 1889-93 and 1911, 1893-1897 messenger, 
entomologist 1897-1905, acting director 1905-10); J. DICKSON (1899-1900 
extra hand/night watchman); W. HEDGES (1899-1901 gardener 2 ); F.G. 
SMEDLEY (1901-2 night watchman); E. LOWER (1899-1900 packer/label 
writer); J. LAMB (1899-1902 packer/painter/assistant messenger); 

B. McCLELLAND (1905-6 doorkeeper); B. HARRISON (1906-11 
doorkeeper, 1911-8 senior attendant); W.E. GREENSILL (1911-14 attendant 
and carpenter); J. BAILLIE (1911-27); I. ANDERSON (1911); E. VAREY 
(1912-30); T. WILLIS (1914); R.V. SMITH (1917-25 and 1925-31); 

A. GORMAN (1919-32); M. BEIRNE (1925-59 senior attendant); 
E. TURNER (1930-2 relieving); W. MITCHELL (1932-4); A. MILLER 
(1932 relieving); C. BOONE (1933 relieving); W. SULLIVAN (1933 
relieving); W. CAMPBELL (1933 relieving); S. UPRICHARD (1934); 
A SWAN (1934-44); B. BOWEN (1934-54); V. ARKELL (1943-8); 

C. YORKE (1945-58); W. TURNBULL (1947-8); J. HAWKINS (1948-51); 
J. COTTAM (1948); J. WALKER (1948-59); E. ROWELL (1949); 

C. BOWMAN (1951-9; 1959-64 senior attendant); 

J. JONES (1953-63); A. WATSON (1954-5); L. PLATT (1955-62); E. BAIN 
(1958); L. TAYLOR (1958-64, 1964- senior attendant); J. THOMSON (1959- 
65); C. MORTON (1959-73); F. CORRIE (1959-60); R. BELL (1959-73); 
R. HARDLEY (1960-8 assistant anthropology from 1968, curator from 1975); 

D. BLACK (1960-1); L. CORT (1961-72); R. BRUCE (1963-76); 


Administrative and Secretarial 

C. CHESTER (1878 temporary clerical assistant); R. NEWTON (1878- 
80 secretary); H. TRYON (1883-4 clerical assistant, assistant curator from 
1885); H. HURST (1887 clerk/librarian, also geology collector); 
A. PRESTON (1891-6 clerk/librarian); AJ. NORRIS (1896-8 clerical 
assistant); G.H. HAWKINS (1898-1902 clerical assistant); H.B. TAYLOR 
(1906-8 office boy); V.H. CHAMBERS (1908-11 cadet clerk); E.G. MURPHY 
(1911-53 stenographer); EJ. BINGHAM (1948-51 clerk-typist); 
S. LANDY (1952-64); E. GREIG (1958-9 clerk-typist); D. CHORLEY (1959- 


66 stenographer); C. LA1NG (1960-1); R.E. JONES (1962-5); L. HEALEY 
(1964-5 clerk-typist); M STEGEMAN (1965-6 clerk- typist); C. CORRIE 
(1965-6 clerk-typist): J. MAGEE (1966-9 stenographer); C. SANDS (1966 
clerk-typist); J. UTZ (1966-76 stenographer); R, WHITBY (1966-70 clerk- 
typist); J. WRIGHT (1970 clerk-typist). 

Museum Assistants and Cadets (Scientific) 

JA SMITH (1900-2 mineralogy), J. LAMB (1902-10 industrial 
department); W.M. COLCLOUGH (1911-12 mechanical, assistant 
preparator from 3913, taxidermist from 1919); R. ILL1DGE (1919 
registration of MacGregor collection); G. JACKSON (1937-9 ethnol 
killed in action); 1. FILMLR (1944-52 general); S.B. GUNN (B5Q-S 
zoology); T. KIRKPATRICK (1953 entomology); M. GALLEY (1953 
ethnology); M. WILSON (1954-6 entomology); S. DELLER m. BILLING 
(1956-60 zoology); W. BUTT (1956-60 zoology); S. RHODES (1958-9 
zoology), E. SNOWDEN (1960-1 zoology); I. McCOSKER (1960-1 and 
1962-3 zoology); B. SMITH (1960-4 ethnology); S. KENDALL (1962 
zoology), V. WILLS (1962); L HAREN (1963-6 zoology); B. GAYDON 
(1963-5 zoology); G. GEHRMANN (1963-4 molluscs); L. HARRIS (1964-5 
zoology); P. WIPPELL (.1964-6 entomology, 1966-8 anthropology); 
L ELDER m WEDGEWOOD (1965-7 and 1980-3 ornithology); M. McEWAN 
(1966-7 zoology); J. WILSON (1966-80 entomology); B. McKEON (1967 
zoology); H, JOHNSON (1967 vertebrate zoology); K. WRIGHT (1967-8 
general); K. CAMPBELL (1967-8 history and technology); 
J. ARMSTRONG (1968-9 zoology); R. MONROE ( 1968-71' entomology, 
curator arachnology from 1972, curator crustaceans from 1974); K RABIG 
(1968 zoology); R. HARDLEY (attendant from 1960. 1968-75 anthropology, 
curator from 1975); B. DICKSON (1970 zoology); P. DAVIE (1970-77 
crustaceans, curator from 1578). 

Assistants iArti 

C. SANDERCOCK m FEARNLEY (1947-50, 1952-3 and 1972); 
V. SMEED (1950-6), J. TRACEY (1953); L. EVANS (1956-9); J. TR1VETT 
(1957); R.K. JONES (1958-62); M, GAL1.AWAY (1960-5); D.A, WILSON 
(1962-7); M.(Mary) McKENZEB (1965-70); M.(Margaret) McKENZlE 
(1970-2); R. COOK (1967-8); S. H1LEY (1968-74); E GEHRMANN (1969). 


A MacPHERSON (1881-3 geology, attendant from 1883); 
K. BROADBENT (1882-93 zoology, attendant from 1893); H.F, WALLMAN 
(1884-5 geology): E.B. LINDON (1886-7 geology); H. HURST (1887-91 
geology); H.G STOKES (1892-3 geology); C.J. WILD (1889-93 and 1911 
entomology, messenger from 1893, entomologist from 1897, acting directoi 
from 1905); D. RANNIE (1912 ethnology, librarian 1913-4); 
H.L MAYNARD (1913-5 honorary). 


R.V. OLDHAM (1955-6 temporary assistant); S. BREEDEN (1957-65); 
A. EASTON (1965-84). 

Carpenters, Artificers 

T. SKINNER (1880 and 1884-93); J. GILBERT (1880 assistant); 
J. WILSON (1881-4); A.S. RUSSELL (1899-1900), A. NORRIS (1899-1900); 
J. BERRY (1899-1902 and 1902-10 pan-time); W.E. GREENSILL (1911-14 
attendant and carpenter); T.C. MARSHALL (cadet from 1912, assistant 
preparator from 1914, 1925-42 artificer and modeller, seconded to 
Department of Harbours and Marine from 1942); W. BALAAM (1966-74 


Librarians and Assistants (see also clerical assistants 1878-1910). 

E. LOWER (1900-2 librarian/label writer); C.G.F. SINNAMON (1911- 
16 assistant); D, RANNIE (ethnology collector 1912, 1913-14); 
R.J. CUTHBERT BUTLER (1915-17); A. FENWICK (1918-30); 
N. HOLDSWORTH (1931-3); K. WATSON (1933-42); D. TABRETT (1940-2 
assistant), I. GRICHTING (1943-6 assistant); B. BAIRD (1946-7 assistant); 
V. MacDONALD (1948-50 assistant); N. TURNBULL (1950-5 assistant); 
J. USCINSKI (1955 assistant); K. CARTER m BREEDEN (1955-62 
assistant); W. WELLS (1956-7 assistant); C FORDE (1957-62); E, WIXTED 
(1961- ); F. MATHERS (1967-8 assistant); D. CRONIN (1969-70 assistant). 

Education Officers 

N NOWLAND (1939 temporary— to write a handbook); J. HODGE 

Taxidermists, Preparators 

E CURTIS (1876-8 assistant); E SPALDING (1880-93 taxidermist); 
A. ALDER (1907-15 taxidermist); W.E. WEATHERILL (1907-11 assistant); 
MJ, COLCLOUGH (1913-9 assistant, 1919-31 1933-47 taxidermist); 
T.C. MARSHALL (1912-13 cadet, 1914-25 assistant, 1925-42 artificer and 
modeUer, 1942-3 seconded to Department Harbours and Marine as 
ichthyologist); D.P. VERNON (1946-60 preparatory 1960-71 senior 
preparator, 1971-81 ornithologist); M.E. McANNA (1947-71 preparator); 
K. KEITH (1948-54 assistant); G. AYRE (1954-5 temporary cadet); 
T. TEBBLE (1960-71 preparator, 1971* senior preparator); V. KEIGHT 
(1962-5 assistant); W. FREELAND (1966 assistant); A J. HILLER (1969-73 

Curators and Other Technical and Scientific Staff 

C. D'OYLY APLIN (1871 honorary —cataloguing and arranging 
mineral and fossil collections); F.M. BAILEY (1874-80 keeper of the 
herbarium); E. COXEN (1876-82 part time conchologist); H. TRYON 
(clerical assistant from 1883, 1885-93 assistant curator invertebrates); 
C. HEDLEY (1888-9 'supernumerary' assistant curator molluscs); C.J. WILD 
(entomological collector 1889-93 and 1911 messenger 1893-7, 1897-1905 
entomologist, acting director 1905-10); C de VIS (curator from 1882. 
director from 1902, 1905-10 consulting scientist); HA LONGMAN (1911-8, 
assistant curator); H HACKER (1911-29 entomologist. 1929-43 part-time); 
T.H. JOHNSTON (1912-5 honorary zoologist); J.D. OGILBY (1901 assistant 
curator, 1912-20 part-time ichthyologist); J. SHIRLEY (1912-5 honorary 
conchologist. 1920-1 conchologist); D.R. BUCKLEY (1913-4 part-time 
osteologist); A.B. WALKOM (1915-7 honorary palaeontologist); 
H.C. RICHARDS (1917 honorary petrologist and mineralogist); 
F.W. WHITEHOUSE {1927-37 honorary palaeontologist); A J. TURNER 
(1931 honorary entomologist); H. JARVIS (1944-8 entomologist seconded 
from Department of Agriculture and Stock for one day per fortnight); 
G. MACK (1945 senior scientific assistant, director from 1946); J.T. WOODS 
(1948-51 assistant geologist, 1952-59 curator geology, director from 1963); 
A. BARTHOLOMAI (1960-8 curator geology, director from 1969); 
E.C. DAHMS (1962- curator entomology); E. CROSBY (1965 curator 
anthropology); B. CAMPBELL (1964-70 curator zoology, 1970-76 curator 
crustaceans, 1977- deputy director); HA SWEETSER (1966-74 
technologist); J. COVACEVICH (1966- curator reptiles); P. JELL (1969 
curator geology). M. QUINNELL (1968- curator anthropology); S. HOARE 
(1968-70 curator ichthyology); H. KING (1969-73 curator molluscs); 


C. WALLACE (1970-7 curator lower invertebrates); D. VERNON (1946-71 
preparator, 1971-81 ornithologist). 

Directors and Others in Charge 

C. COXEN (1862-73 honorary curator); K STAIGER (1873-80 
custodian and government analyst); WA HASWELL (1880 curator), 
F.M. BAILEY (keeper of the herbarium from 1874, 1880-2 temporary 
curator); C. de MS (1882-1901 curator, 1902-5 director, consulting scientist 
1905-10); C.J. WILD (entomological collector 1889-93 and 1911, messenger 
1893-7, entomologist 1897-1904, 1905-10 acting director); 
R. HAMLYN-HARRIS (1910-17 director); HA LONGMAN (assistant 
curator from 1911, 1918-45 director); G. MACK (senior scientific assistant 
1945, 1946-63 director); J.T. WOODS (assistant geologist from 1948, 
curator geology 1952-9, 1963-8 director); A. BARTHOLOMAI (curator 
geology from 1960, 1969- director). 

Trustees 1876-1907 

C. COXEN— squatter, public servant, politician, naturalist (1876); 
J. BANCROFT— medical practitioner, natural scientist (1876-94); 
J. DOUGLAS-squatter, public servant, politician (1876-99); J. FENW1CK- 
stock and station agent (1876-99); A.C. GREGORY— explorer, public 
servant, politician (1876-99); G, (GRESLEY) LUKIN- public servant, 
newspaper editor (1876-80); J.M. MACROSSAN— miner, politician (1879- 
91); W.H. M1SKIN — public servant, politician, lawyer, naturalist (1S76-9D; 
G. ROFF-sugar grower, merchant, politician (1876-89); LA BERNAYS— 
public servant (1878-79); K.I. O'DOHERTY- medical practitioner, 
politican (1878-85); C.H. BUZACOTT — newspaper editor and proprietor, 
politician (1880-1); A.H. PALMER— pastoralist, politician (1882-98); 
BM. MORETON- pastoralist, politician (1885-99); A. NORTON- 
pastorahst, politician (1888-1907); FA. BLACKMAN- grazier (1892-3); 
R. GA1LEY- architect (1892-07); W,0. HODGKINSON- explorer, 
journalist, public servant, politican (1892-3); J. CAMERON — pastoralist 
company director, politician (1899-1907); J.V, CHATAWAY — newspaper 
proprietor, politician (1899-1901); C.F. MARKS — medical practitioner, 
politician (1899-1907); J.W. SUTTON — ironmaster, local government 
alderman (1899-1907); E.G.E. SCRIVEN - public servant (L905-7); 
AJ. TURNER— medical practitioner, entomologist (1905-7). 



"3 ' 

> jfc. 




Appendix 3 

Abbreviations; ADB, Australian Dictionary of Biography; QMA, 
Queensland Museum Archives, QSA, Queensland State Archives; UQA, 
University of Queensland Archives; VP, Votes and Proceedings of the 
Queensland Parliament (Queensland Government Printer, Brisbane); 
others as in the World List of Scientific Penodicuts. 

The Queensland Museum Board Minutes for 1876-1907 are held in the 
Queensland Museum library. A bound volume of the Annual Reports of the 
Queensland Museum held in the museum library (Cat. No. 14/1841) 
contains the reports for the years 1877-8 and 1882-19(17. For reports for 
the year JS78-9 see VP 1879 vol. 2: p. 1293; for 1879-80 see VP 1880 vol. 
, for 1881-82 see VP 1882 voL 2: p. 1199. There is no report for 
1880-81, although that for 1881-82 reports on the whole calendar year of 
1881. Annual Reports 1902-1907 are in the Queensland Parliamentary 
Papers as part of the Reports of the Department of Agriculture and Stock for 
those years. 


1 Queensland Government Gazette No.l, Saturday 10 December 1859, pp.1-4. 

2 Knight. JJ.. 1895. In tin- Early Days (Sapsford and Co.. Brisbane). 

3 Morrison, V.F., 1888. The Aldine History of Queensland vol.1, pp.1-384 (The 

Aldine Publishing Company, Sydm 
One of the ships chartered by Lang was the Fortitude, after which Fortitude 
Valley, a suburb of Brisbane, was named; and it was in the Fortitude that W 
Pettigrew, later a prominent member of the Philosophical Society immigrated. 

4 Cannon, M„ 1975. Life in the Cities. \n Australia in the Victorian Age vol.3, p.14 

(T. Nelson Australia Pty. Ltd., Melbourne). 

5 Lawson, R., 1973. Brisbane in the 1890s pp.3-4 (University of Queensland 

Press, Brisbane). 

6 Second Census of the- Colony of Queensland 1864 taken on the 1st January 1864 

1864 (Registrar General's Report, Queensland Government Printer). 

7 O'Donohue, W. 1981-82. First Agent General. Development of the Office in 

London 1860-1876./ h\ Hist S0C Qd 11(3): 59-74. 

8 Johnson, W.R., 1982. The Call of the Land, a History of Queensland to the Present 

Day p.84 Uacaranda Press, Brisbane). 

9 Schindler, C, 1916. Non-British settlement in Queensland./ H. Hist, Site, Qd 

1(2); K4-75. 
10 Bowen tu Newcastle, August 1861. Governor's Dispatches to Secretary of State 1, 

I I Bowen to Newcastle. 7 April 1860. Governor's Dispatches to Secretary of State t, 

p. 194 (QSA Gov/22). 

12 Morrison. AA, 1966. Colonial Society I860- 1890. Qd Heritage 1(5): 21-30. 

13 Holthouse, H. ( 1982. Illustrated History of Brisbane p.27 (A.H. & A.W. Reed Pty 

Ltd, Frenehs Forest) 

14 Bowen to Newcastle, 18 Mav 1860. Governor's Dispatches to Secretary of State 1, 

p.219 (QSA GOV/22). 

15 Qur First Half Century, a review of Queensland Progress, 1909, pp. 1 1-13 

i Government of Queensland, Brisba 

16 With Hope and Courage, undated (Division of Migrant Services, Brisbane) 

17 Bowen to Newcastle, 25 Mav 1860. Governors Dispatches to Secretary of State 1. 

(k240 (QSA Gov/22). 

18 Colliver, F.S. and Woolston, F.P.. 1978. Aboriginals in the Brisbane Area, pp.58- 

88. In Brisbane Retrospect. Eight Aspects of Brisbane History (library Board of 
Queensland. Brisbane). 

19 Holthouse, H.. 1975. Looking Back, The first 150 years of Queensland Schools p.15 

(Department of Education, Brisbane). 

20 Hawkins, T.M., 1965. The Queensland Great Public Schools, a History pp.3.27 

(Jacaranda Press. Brisbane). 

21 Birman t W., 1979. Gregory of Rahiworth a Man in his Time p,98 (University of 

W A Press, Perth). 

22 Whittell, H.M.. 1954. The Literature of Australian Birds pp. 174-5 (Paterson 

Brockensha, Perth). 

23 Bowen to Newcastle, Feb. 1860. Governor's Dispatcties to Secretary of State 1, 

p.61 (QSA Gov/22). 

24 Marks, E.M., 1960. A History of the Queensland Philosophical Society and the 
Previous page: The central mu Roval Society of Queensland from 1859 to 1911. Proc. R. Soc. Qd 71(2): 17-42. 

ft the Exhibition building, 1986 25 General Report of Proceedings. 2 December 1862. Trans Phtl. Soc. Qd 1. 












Moreton Bay Courier 21 and 25 January 1862; The Queensland Tw. 

January 1862. 
In the annual report of the museum's trustees for 1899, signed by Chairman 
A. Norton on behalf of the board, the founding of the museum is described: 
The Queensland Museum began its existence in the year 
1855. Its birth was due to the gifts and exertions of a little 
knot of earnest naturalists, whose first contributions were 
deposited in a room in the so-called Conservatory on 
Wickham Terrace. Foremost amon>; his friends in self 
denying enthusiasm was the late Charies Coxen, who for 
years was Honorary Curator, and whose talent and 
unselfish perseverance we hold in honour. (VP 1900, vol.2, 
Many of the programmes for the museum's public lectures 1911-16 similarly 
describe the museum as having been founded in 1855. Very likely Hamlyn- 
Harris' authority for this date was the annual report of 1899. Later Mack 
(1956: The Queensland Museum 1855-1955. Mew. Qd Mux. 13(2): l($-Zi) 
also accepted this date, as did Marks (23). Nevertheless it is in its report of 
December 1862 that the Philosophical Society states that 'the Society has 
during the past year specially directed its attention to the formation of a 
nucleus of the museum of natural science'. Undoubtedly the collections given 
to that museum - by Coxen, Rawnsley and Waller - had started before 1862, 
but the museum had not. 
VP 1872: Formation of Public Museum, p.589. 
Morrison, A.A, 1962-63. Brisbane one hundred years ago./ R. Hist. Son. Qd 7(1): 

Brisbane Courier 28 July 1924. A vision of 70 years ago. 
Strahan, R., 1980. Rare and Curious Specimens. An Illustrated History of the 

Australian Museum 1827-1979 (Australian Museum, Sydney). 
Steele, J.G.. 1975. Brisbane Town in Convict Days 1824-1842 pp.154-5 

(University of Queensland Press, Brisbane). 
Hindwood, KA-, 1938. John Gould in Australia. Emu 38: 95-118. 
Marks, E.N., 1963. Silvester Diggles - a Queensland naturalist one hundred 

years ago. QdNat. 17: 15-25. 
Anon, vide Carter, J., 1981. Nothing to Spare (Penguin Books, Australia). 
Brisbane Courier 17 May 1864. 
Brisbane Courier 29 September 1864. 

Cilento, R., 1962. Medicine in Queensland./. R. Htst Soc. Qd 6(4): 866-907, 
Barclay, E. t 1971. Fevers and Stinks; some problems of Public Health in the 
1870s and the 1880s. Qd Heritage 2(4); 3-12. 


1 Moreton Bay Courier 25 January 1862. 

2 Steele, J.G., 1975. Brisbane Town in Convict /.toystUniversity of Queensland 

Press, Brisbane). 

3 Hogaii, J., 1978. A Study of Brisbane's Historic Windmill (unpublished 

manuscript, Brisbane City Council, Brisbane) 

4 Marks, E.N., 1960. A history of the Queensland Philosophical Society and the 

Royal Society of Queensland from 1859 to 1911. Proc. R. Soc. Qd 71(2): 17-42. 

5 VP 1870: pp.117.142,167,168. 

6 Aplin to Minister for Public Works, 1 June 1871. VP 1872: p.589. 

7 SUigtr to Hon W.H. Walsh, 2 June 1873 (QSA Department of Public Works 

inward correspondence 2168, 2169). 

8 Hogan, J., 1982. Living History of Brisbane (Boolarong Publications, Brisbane). 

9 Queensland Post Office Directory 1878-9. 

10 Coxen to Hon. Secretary for Public Works, 26 July 1872 (QSA). 

11 Stanley to the Under Secretary, Department for Public Works, 12 August 1872 


12 Staiger to Hon. J.M. Thompson, 21 July 1873, 2 August 1873 (QSA). 

13 Gregory to the Secretary for Public Works, 28 April 1875 (QSA PRE A 337 6144 


14 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 6 February 1877, 29 May 1877. 

15 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 18 July 1877. 

16 Queensland Parliamentary Debates 1884: vol.44, p. 1611. 

17 Royal National Agricultural and Industrial Association (RNA) records, John 

Oxiey Library. 

18 Wadley, D„ 1973. Address by the President of the RNA to Brisbane North 

Rotary Club, 12 June 1973. 

19 The Brisbane Courier 15 August 1891. 


20 Personal reminiscence of J.B. Chapel, former Graded Foreman, State Works 


21 Watson, D. and McKay, J., 1984. A directory of Queensland Architects to 1940. 

Occasional paper* of the Fryer Library, university of Queensland 5; 1-236. 

22 Addison, G.H.M., 1899. Architecture as a necessary branch of education. 

Queensland Art Society Annua! Review and Exhibition Catalogue (Oxley Library 
RBJ 709.943 ANN), 

23 Bannister-Fletcher. 1961. A History of Architecture (Athlone Press, London). 

24 Exhibition Building, National Trust citation (National Trust. Queensland). 

25 Rogers, F.. 1985. Organs call the fcinu agaia Sunday Mail 24 March 19: ; 

36 Fboaris, M. I , 198& \ Place of Light and Learning (University of Queensland 
ess, Brisbane), 

27 YVOR series (QSA). 

28 Etheridge, R. inr, 1910, Manuscript report to the Premier of Queensland (QSA 

PRE A337 6144 15.10^. 

29 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 30 September 1900. 

30 Annual Report Queensland Museum 1899. VP 1900: VOlA P-14& 

31 Duty Mail 13 February 1933 (Brisbane). 

32 Standard 12 January 1934. Courier Mail 13 January 1934; 15 January 1934: 

editorial; 20 January 1934; 22 January : day Mail 14 January L934. 

Queensland Museum Cutting Hook Vol.3, p.146-8. 

33 Department of Works records. 


1 Marks, E.N., 1960. A history of the Queensland Philosophical Society and the 

Royal Society from 1859 to IflllAoc R. Sac Qd 7U2): 17-12. 

2 Government Gazette 7 October 1371: voJ.12(99). p.1455; 6 January 1872. 

l3U). p.lS72; 4 January 1873: vol.l4(2">, p.47. 

3 Aptin tO Minister for Public Works, 6 September 1871. VP 1872, p.582. 

4 Staiger to the Hon. W.H. Walsh, 2 June 1873 (QSA). 

5 Coxen to the Hoitthe Secretary for Lands, 18 July 1974 (QSA G149/3). 

1 nnual Report Queensland Museum 1876. VP 1877. 

7 Bernavs to 5e< ret try for Public Works and Mines. 14 October 1873; Coxen to 

Secretary for Public Works and Mines. VP 1875: pp.1189-93. 

8 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 21 March 1876; 21 July 1876. 

9 Bailey to the Minister for Lands, Report on the Herbarium, Queensland 

Museum. VP 1879: vol.2, p.98. 

10 Brisbane Conner 22 November 1879. 

1 1 Lukin, Under Secretary for Mines to the Board of Trustees, Queensland 

Museum 29 December 1879 (QMA correspondence). 

12 Under Secretary for Mines to Staiger. 30 December 1879; Staiger to Under 

Secretary for Mines, 21 January 1880; Miakin to the Hon. the Minister for 
Mines, 7 February 1880 (copies in QMA correspondence inward, before 1880). 

13 Strahan, R. r 1975. Rare and Curious Specimens. An Illustrated History of the 

Australian Museum 1827-1979 (Australian Museum, Sydney). 

14 Anon, 1925. Death of Professor Haswell. Australian Museum Magazine 2(6): 194. 

15 Mack, G., 1956. The Queensland Museum 1855-1955. Mem. Qd Mus. 13(2): 

L6 Johnston, ML, 1916. Presidential address. Prvc. R Soc. Qd 28: 1-17. 

White, C.T., 1949. P.M. Bailey, his life and work. Proc & Soc Qd 61 : 105-114. 

17 Bernays to Ferkins. Under Secretary for Public Lands, Memorandum. 19 

October 1883 (QSA G140/3). 

18 Queensland Museum Board Minuter 1 June 1880. 

19 Queensland Parliamentary Debates 1880: vol.33, p.961. 

20 de Vis to the Hon. the Minister for Works, 12 November 1881 (QSA 2209D). 

21 Tenison-Woods to fhe Hon. Commissioner for Public Works, 24 November 1881 


22 White, C.T., 1945. Henry Tryon — First Hon. Secretary, Royal Society of 

Queensland, and his place in Queensland Science. /W ft SoC (#56(9): 77-80. 

23 Brondbent to de Vis. 23 Mav 1889 (QMA). 

24 Hurst to de Vis, 26 November 1887 (QMA). 

25 Hurst to de Vis, 5 November 1887 (QMA). 

26 Hurst to de Vis, 20 November 1887 (QMA). 

27 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 4 December 1891. 

28 Stirling, EX. and Zietz, A.H.C.. 1899. Fossil remains of Lake Callabonna. Mem. R. 

Soc. S.A. 1: 40. 

29 Queensland Museum Board Minute* 1 July 1892. 

30 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 24 February 1893. 

31 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 7 July 1893 


32 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 1 September 1893; 2 March 1894, 

33 J. Jordan to Under Secretary. Dept. Agriculture, 21 July 1900 (QMA 

correspondence inward 1900). 

34 Brisbane Telegraph 5 October 1929. Veteran Gardener Retirement. Brisbane 

Courier 8 October J 929. 
J, Jordan held the position of curator of the museum gardens from 1897 to 
1929. From his appointment until the move to South Brisbane in 1986, 
gardeners were employees of the Department of Agriculture — subsequent h 
the Department of Primary Industries. On 31 March 1934 a trust, consisting of 
the directors-general of Primary Industries and Education, and the museum's 
director, was gazetted to administer the museum and art gallery garden as a 
public reserve. 

35 Anon, 23 April 1915. A. Alder obituary. Brisbane Courier 

36 J.V. McCarthy to PJ. MacDermott, Chief Secretary's Office, 21 March 1910 

(Q$A PRE A33? 6144 1910). 

37 Etheridge, R. jnr, 1910. Manuscript report to the Premier of Queensland (QSA 

PREA337 6144 19.10). 

38 Hamlyn-Harris to Under Secretary, Chief Secretary's Department, 22 March 

1917 (QMA correspondence outward 17/159). 

39 Under Secretary to Hamlyn-Harris, 30 January 1911 (QMA correspondence 

inward 11/45). 

40 Finnev Isles and Company to Director, June 1911 (QMA correspondence inward 


41 C.J. Wild, accepting appointment 13 January 1911 (QMA correspondence 

inward 11/50). 

42 CJ. Wild to Hamlyn-Harns. 8 June 1911, 12 June 191 J (QMA correspondem e 

inward 1 1/338, 11/346). Chief Secretary's Office to Director, 26 June 1911 
(QMA correspondence inward 11/374). 

43 Longman, Acting Director to Under Secretary, Chief Secretary's Office, 

12 December 1917 (QMA correspondence inward 17/553) 

44 Marks, E.X. and Dahms, E., 1974. Henry Hacker, obituary. Mem. Qd Mus. 17(1): 

191 4. 

45 Longman to Chief Secretary's Office, 23 October 1918 (QMA Correspond* I 

inward and outward IS/403). 

46 Filmer, I.. 1944-48. Manuscript diary (QMA). 

47 Colclough to the Hon. the Premier, 21 September 1931 (QSA). 

48 Longman to Under Secretary, Chief Secretary's Department, 18 November 

1931 (QMA correspondence 1931). 

49 Telegraph 12 March 1932; Standard 12 March 1932; 14 March 1932. Museum 

Cutting Book Vol.3, pp.102-:-: (QMS). 
.50 The Sunday Mail 18 December 1932. 

51 Under Secretary, Chief Secretary's Department to Longman, 26 April 1929, with 

enclosed report of Public Service Commissioners on the museum (QMA 
correspondence inward and outward 1929/217) 

52 Mack to Director General of Education, 25 May 1956 (QMA G. Mack File). 

53 Mack to the Chairman, Public Service Board. August 1963 (QMA G. Mack hit) 


1 Marks, E'.N.. 1960. A History of the Queensland Philosophical Society and the 

Royal Society of Queensland Proa R, Soc. Qd 71: 23. 

2 Annual Report Queensland Museum 1899. VP 1900: vol.2, p.143. 

3 Aplin to Minister for Public Works. 1 June 1871; 6 September 1871. VP 1872: 


4 Woods, J.T., 1964, C. D'Oyly Aplin, first government geologist (of the SOUlh« 

district of Queensland. Stem. Qd Mus. 14(4); 112. 

5 Queensland Government Gazette 24 June 1871 - vol.l2(64), p.928; 7 October 

1871: vol.2(99), p.1455; 6 January 1872: vol.l3<l); 4january 1873: vol. 14(2), 

6 Queensland Government Gazette 11 January 1873: vol.l4(3), p .66. 

7 Staiger to the Hon W.H. Walsh, Minister for Works. 2 June 1873 (QSA G 149/3) 

8 Daintree to Btaiger, 16 Mav 1873 (QSA GU9/3). 

9 Staiger to the Hon. J.M. Thompson Minister for Works, 21 Julv 1873 (QSA 

G 149/3). 

10 Queensland Museum Numismatic Register Accession numbers N165, N166, 


1 1 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 18 July 1877. 

12 First Inventory' Queensland Museum 1875-6. Signed by A.C. Gregory and 


13 Spencer-Browne, 1926. Queensland Courier various dates in August. 

Queensland Museum Cutting Book 1. 


The Mr Dignan referred to may have been an employee of the Post Office — 
an H.E. Dignan is listed as a telegraph operator in the Blue Book of 1878. 

14 Spalding had previously worked for Ramsay, curator of the Australian 

Museum, Sydney, who had named a bird after him— the Northern Logrunner, 
Orthonyx spaldingi, formerly known as Spalding's Orthonyx. 

15 Palmer, A.H., 1884. Report on the Sufficiency or Otherwise of the Present 

Building. Queensland Museum Board Minutes 16th October 1884. 

16 Queensland Museum Numismatic Register, N32. 

17 Norton, A.H., 1901. Queensland Museum Board Minutes 26 January 1901. 

18 Etheridge, R. jnr, 1910. Manuscript report to the Premier of Queensland (QSA 

PRE A337 6144 19.10). 

19 Anon, 1915. Obituary A. Alder. The Brisbane Courier 23 April 1914. 

20 Anon, 1914. At the Brisbane Museum. The Queenslander 31 January 1914. 

21 Anon, Aboriginal Exhibit (undated, 1914 almost certainly as newspaper report 

associated with 15 above) Queensland Museum Cutting Book 1. 

22 Vernon, D.P., 1977. Obituary Thomas Claude Marshall. Mem. Qd Mus. 18(1): 


23 Marshall, T.C., 1964. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef {Angus and Robertson, 


24 Wixted, E.P., 1969. Mephisto, the Tale of a Tank. History and Technology Leaflet 

No. 2 (Queensland Museum, Brisbane). 

25 Filmer, L, 1944-48. Manuscript diary (QMA). 

26 Mack, G., 1953. New Displays in the Queensland Museum, Brisbane. Museum 

6: 178-183. 

27 In the board's annual report for 1899 the Philosophical Society and the 

museum are said to have been founded in 1855 and Mack accepted this date. 
Although some of the specimens that later were to be displayed in the 
Windmill were undoubtedly in private hands by 1855, the Philosophical 
Society was not formed until 1859 and the museum began three years later, 
on the 20th January 1862 (See Chapter I 26 ). 

28 Mack, G., 1959. Centenary of Queensland Historical Exhibition (S.G. Reid 

Government Printer, Brisbane). 

29 Evans, S., 1982. Historic Brisbane and its Early Artists p.68 (Boolarong 

Publications, Brisbane). 

30 Sanker, L, 1977. Queensland in the 1860's. The photography of Richard 

Daintree. Queensland Museum Booklet no.10. 

31 Wixted, E.P., 1970. Aviation Activities. Kalori 39: 13-14. 

32 Covacevich, J., 1977. Visitors to the Queensland Museum, A Survey of Attitudes to 

the Museum and its Displays (M.Sc. dissertation Griffith University, Brisbane). 

33 Lack, C, 1939. Diary of Death. The Sunday Mail 19 March 1939. 

34 Vernon, D.P., 1964. Some aspects of bird and mammal mounting. Kalori 31: 69-73. 

35 Shapcott, T.W., 1960. Finches. In Time on Fire (Jacaranda Press, Brisbane). 

36 Cannon, L, 1978. Humour in Museums. Kalori 55: 12-13. 

37 Mather, P. (ed.), 1975. The National Estate, Moreton and Wide Bay-Burnett 

Regions (Queensland Museum, Brisbane). 

38 Wixted, E.P., 1980. Southern Cross Minor. History and Technology Leaflet no.8 

(Queensland Museum, Brisbane). 

39 Welcome Swallows. Queensland Museum Information Leaflet 83/15. 


1 Marks, E.N., 1960. A history of the Queensland Philosophical Society and the 

Royal Society from 1859 to 1911. Proc R. Soc Qd 71(2) pp.17-42. 

2 Government Gazette 7 October 1871: vol.l2(99), p.1455; 6 January 1872: 

vol.l3(l); 4 January 1873: vol.l4(2). 

3 Secretary, Department of Public Health to Under Secretary Chief Secretary's 

Department, 15 May 1919 (QMA correspondence). 

4 Queensland Museum Attendance Books. 

5 Annual Report Queensland Museum 1876. VP 1877: vol.3, pp.1167. 

6 The Brisbane Courier 2, 3, 4 and 18 March 1876. 

7 Annual Report Queensland Museum 1886. VP 1887. 

8 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 22 December 1900. 

9 Longman to Under Secretary, 2 January 1918 (QMA correspondence inward 

and outward 1918 18/003). 

10 The Brisbane Courier Friday 8 September 1871. 

11 The Brisbane Courier Saturday 9 September 1871. 

12 K.T. Staiger to Secretary for Public Works, 2 June 1873 (QSA NOR/A66, 68 & 69). 

13 EX. Anthony to Hamlyn- Harris, 24 February 1911 (QMA correspondence 

inward 1911 11/121). 

14 Manager Prince Alfred Mine Sunnybank to Hamlyn-Harris, 7 June 1912 (QMA 12/ 



15 The Town Clerk, City of Brisbane to Director, Queensland Museum, 16 February 

1915 (QMA correspondence inward 00137/15), 

16 Mack, C, 1950. Corals and the Great Barrier Reef (The Queensland Museum, 

Brisbane) 12pp. 
Mack, G., 1959. Centenary of Queensland Historical Exhibition (S.G. Reid 
Government Printer, Brisbane). 

17 Pearn, J., 1981. Animal Toxins and Man (Division of Health, Education and 

Information, Brisbane). 

18 Bevington to H.C. Butler. 23 September 1939 (QMA). 

19 Longman to E.G. Roper, Deputy Director, Young Australia League, 4 July 1939 


20 Bevington's Annual Report, 19 December 1939 (QMA). 

21 Minden School Committee to Bevington, 13 Julv 1940; Director to K. Wheatley, 18 

March 1941; Director to Cameron's Pocket School, 1 April 1941 (QMA 

22 Hodge to S.W. Ryan, 25 September 1970 (QMA Ed24/2644/70\ 

23 Hodge to A.E. Grandson, 5 Julv 1974 (QMA Ed24/3/34). 

24 Dale to J. Allen, 20 June 1975 (QMA Ed24/4/6). 


1 Woods, J.T., 1964. C. D'Oyly H. Aplin, first government geologist for the 

southern distnct of Queensland. Mem. Qd Mus. 14(4): 107-114. 

2 Queenslayut Parliamentary Debates 1869: Series 3, p.354-70, 

3 Sanker, I.S., 1977. Queensland in the 1860's. The photography of Richard 

Daintfee, Queensland Museum Booklet No. 10. 

4 VP 1870: Legislative Assembly, p.167. 

5 VP 1872: Legislative Assembly, p.587-91. 

6 Blue Book 1873. In VP: p.44. 

7 Staiger to Hon. W.H. Walsh, 2 June 1873 (QSA). 

8 Daintree to Staiger, 16 Mav 1873 (QSA). 

9 Bartley to Colonial Secretary. 21 June 1874 (QSA COL/A191). 

10 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 18 July 1877. 9 August 1877 

11 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 3 December 1872. 

12 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 7 November 1882, 12 November 1883. 

13 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 6 May 1884. 

14 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 22 January 1885. 

15 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 1 April 1885. 

16 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 10 July 1885. 

17 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 4 June 1886. 

18 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 2 September 1887 

19 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 5 October 1888. 

20 Quemsland Museum Board Minutes 3 February 1888. 

21 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 4 January 1889. 

22 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 1 February 1889. 

23 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 4 December 1891 ■ 

24 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 4 March 1892. 

25 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 19 June 1893. 

26 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 6 July 1894. 

27 Quemsland Museum Board Minutes 5 April 1897. 

28 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 9 December 1899. 

29 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 26 July 1902. 

30 Etheridge, R. jnr, 1910. Manuscript report to the Premier of Queensland (QSA 

PRE A337 6144 19.10). 

31 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 28 February 1903. 

32 Registrar, University of Queensland to Hamlyn-Harris, 24 April 1911 (QMA 

correspondence inward 11/242). 

33 Longman to Dr H.C. Richards, 7 May 1918 (QMA correspondence inward and 

outward 18/164). 


1 Moyal, A.M., 1976. Scientists in nineteenth century Australia; a documentary 

history (Cassell Australia Ltd, North Melbourne) 280pp. 

2 Rich, P.V. et al. f 1982. An all too brief and superficial history of Australian 

vertebrate palaeontology. In P. Rich and E.M, Thompson (eds) Fossil Vertebrate 
Record of Australasia, pp. 2-26. (Monash Offset Printing, Melbourne). 

3 Bennett, G.» 1872. A trip to Queensland in search of fossils. Ann. Mag. nat 

/*sr.(4)9(52): 314. 

4 Transactions of the Philosophical Society of Queensland, 

5 Anon, 1888. Public Men and Industries (Brisbane). 


ti Chiaholm, A.. 1944. The Story of Elizabeth Gould (The Hawthorne Press, 
Melbourne) 74pp. 

7 Cilento, R. and 1-ack, C 1959. Triumph in the Tropics (Historical Committee 

Centenary Celebrations Council of Queensland, Smith & Raterson Pty. Ltd., 

8 Nicholson, C., 1812. On a fossil tree imbedded in the banks of the Brisbane 

River, NSW. Proc geoi Soc 4: 23. 

9 Branagan, D.. 1975. Samuel Stutchbun and Reverend W.K Clarke. Not Quite 

Equal and Opposite. In P. Stanbury (ed.) 100 Years of Australian Scientific 
Exploration pp.89-98 (Holt, Reinhart and Winston, Sydney). 

10 Annual Report ol the Philosophical Society of 'Queensland 1862. 

1 1 Wilson, J.S.. 1856. Quart. /. geol, Soc. 12: 283-288. 

12 Birmao, W., 1979. Gregory ofRatnwotih (University of Western Australia Press. 


13 Wight, G., 1867. On the appointment of a government geologist for Queensland. 

Trans. Phil. Soc. Qd and Queensland Daily Guardian. 

14 Mozeley, A., 1965. Richard Daintree (1831-1878), first government geologist of 

Northern Queensland. Queensland Heritage 1(2): 11-16. 

15 Marks, E.N., 1960. Presidential Address. A History oj the Queensland 

Philosophical Society and the Royal Society of Queensland from 1859 to 1911. 
Proc R Soc Qd 71(2): 17-42. 

16 Palmer, A., 1885. In Annual Report Queensland Museum 1884. VP 1885. 

17 Woods, J.T., 1956. The skull of Thytacoleo carnifex. Mem. Qd Mus. 13(2): 125-141 

18 Woods, J.T.. 1960. A million vears on the Darling Downs. Australian Museum 

Magazine 13(7): 232-234. 

19 Woods, J.T., 1964. C. D'Oyly H. Aplin, first government geologist for the 

southern district of Queensland. Mem. Qd Mus, 14(4): 107-114 + pljciv. 

20 Turner, S M 1982a. British fossils at the Queensland Museum. The Geological 

Curator ^{Si. 227-231 

21 Turner, Si, 1985 in prep. Nineteenth century' donors to the Queensland 

Museum. Geological Curators Group. 

22 Rozefelds, A., 1982. A catalogue of ichthyosaur material in the Queensland 

Museum (manuscript, Geology Section, Queensland Museum) 17pp. 

23 Jack, R.L, 1922. Northmost Australia (George Robertson & Co., Melbourne), 2 

vols. 768pp. 

24 Hann, W.. 1873. Report from Mr W. 1 lann. leader of the northern expedition 

party. VP 1873: 1031-1070. 

25 Hann, W., 1874. Hann's Expedition in Northern Queensland. Proe R. Geogf. 

Soc Load. 18(1), pt 4: 87-107, 

26 Gaffney, E,S, and Bartholoinai, A* 1979. Fossil trionychids of Australia. /. 

Palaeont. 53: 1354-1360. 

27 Strahan, R., 1979. Rare and Curious Specimens. An Illustrated History of the 

Australia* Museum 1827-1979 (Australian Museum, Sydney) 173pp. 

28 Bennett, G.F.. 1876. Notes of rambles in search of fossil remains on the Darling 

Downs. Trans Qd Phil. Soc : 1-10 

29 Gregorys AC, 1875, On the geology of part of the district of Wide Bay and 

Burnett. Queensland Parliamentary Papers, p.8. VP 1875. 

30 Hill, D. ( 1947. Robert Logan Jack: a memorial address. Proc R. Soc Qd 58: 113- 


31 de Vis. C.W., 1885. In Annual Report Queensland Museum 1884. VP 1885. 

32 de Vis, C.W., 1897. The extinct freshwater turtles of Queensland. Ann. Qd Mus. 

: J .-7, 

33 Boyd, AJ., 1889. The Earth's History for Boys; or. Geology in Verse (Watson 

Ferguson Co., Brisbane). 

34 Curheld, W.H.. 1921. Reminiscences of Queensland 1862-1899 (A.H. Frater, 


35 Shirley, J., 1898. Additions to the fossil flora of Queensland, mainly from 

Ipswich Trias-Jura System. Bull. Geol. Surv. Qd 7: i-v, 1-25. (Also Geol. Surv. 

36 McKellar, R.G., 1965. A revision of the Mastoids McvlHulus ? australis, 

'Granabomnus ? wachsmuthii\ and Itivodocrinus ? carpentert', described by 
Ethendge (1892) from the Carboniferous of Queensland. Mem Qd Mus. L4(5): 

37 Johnston, T.R, 1916. Presidential address. Obituary C.W. De Vis. MA. Proc, R. 

Soc Qd 28: 10-17. 

38 Jack, R.L and Ethendge, R. jnr, 1892. The geology and palaeontology of 

Queensland and New Guinea. Geol. Surv. QdPub. 92: xxxi + 768pp. 

39 Ethendge, R. jnr, and Woodward, A.S., 1892. On the occurrence of the genus 

Belmostmuus in the Rolling Downs Formation of Central Queensland. Trans. 
RSoc, Vict. 2(2): 1-7. 


40 de Vis, C.W.. 1911. On some Mesozoic fossils. Ann. Qd Mus. 10r 1-1K. 

41 de Vis id Bell, J.T., 21 September 1909 (QMA). 

42 Herbert, DA. 1954. Memorial Lecture. Heber Albert Longman. Proc. R. Soc. Qd 

66(7): 83-88. 

43 Longman, HA, 1913. Note on Porthcus mstratis A,S. Woodward. Mem. QdMus. 

2: 94-95. 

44 Longman, HA. 1932. A new Cretaceous fish. Menu Qd Mus. 10(2): 89-97. 

45 Schevill, W.R. to Longman, HA. 4 August 1932 (QMA). 

46 Longman, HA, 1915. On a giant turtle from the Queensland Lower Cretaceous. 

MemQdMus.Z', 24-29. 

47 Longman, H.A., 1924. Some Queensland fossil vertebrates. Mem. Qd Mus. 8: 


48 Longman, HA. 1927. The giant dinosaur: Rhoetosaurus brownei. Mem. Qd Mus. 

9(1): 1-18. 

49 Longman, HA, 1933. A new dinosaur from the Queensland Cretaceous Mem* 

QdMus. 10(3): 131-144. 

50 Longman, HA, 1928. A large jaw of Pallimnarchus pollens, Mem. Qd Mus. 9(2): 


51 Longman, HA. 1924. Some Queensland fossil vertebrates. Mem. Qd Mus. 7(1): 


52 Longman, HA. 1921 A new genus of fossil marsupials. Mem, Qd Mus. 7(2): 65-80. 

53 Woodward to Longman, 20 October 1934 (Australian Academy of Sciences 

Basser Library Archives). 

54 Longman. HA. 1929. Paiaeontological notes. Mm. Qd Mus. 9(3): 247-251. 

55 Longman, HA. 1912. The Queensland Museum. An historical sketch. The 

Queenslander 25 May 1912, p.17. 

56 Lack, C, 1936. Musing Round the Museum — Mi Longman is Proud of the 

Skeletons in His Cupboard. Courier Mail 10 October 1936. 

57 Hill, D., 1981. The first fift v years of the Department of Ge« lit >gy of the 

University of Queensland. Pap. Univ. Qd Geoi Dept 10(1); 1-68. 

58 "Airner, S., 1985 in press. Vertebrate palaeontology in Queensland. Earth 

Sciences History Journal. 

59 Hills, E.S.. 1934. Tertiary freshwater fishes from Southern Queensland. Mem. 

Qd Mus. 10: 157-174. 

60 Hills, E.S.. 1943. Tertiary freshwater fishes and crocodilian remains from 

Gladstone and Duaringa, Queensland. Mem. Qd Mus. 12: 95-100. 

61 Walkom, A.B., 1916. Note on Nilssonia mucronatum (de Vis). Mem. Qd Mus. 5. 


62 Walkom, A.B., 1924. On fossil plants from Bellevue, near Esk. Mem. Qd Mus. 

8(1). 77-92. 

63 Whitebouse, F.W., 1927. Additions to the Cretaceous ammonite fauna of eastern 

Australia. Part I. Simbirskitidae, Aconeceratidae, and Parahoplitidae. Mem. Qd 
Mus. 9(1): 109-120. 

64 Wilkins, C.H., 1926. Undiscovered Australia, betngati account of an expedition to 

tropical Australia to collect specimens of the rare native fauna for the British 
Museum. 1923 1925 (Ernest Benn Ltd., London), 

65 Fletcher, H.O., 1959. A Giant Marine Reptile from the Cretaceous Rocks. <>[ 

Queensland. Australian Museum Magazine 12: 47-49. 

66 Longman, HA to W.R. Schevill. 15 March 1940 (QMA) 

67 Schevill, W.R., 1983. pers. comm. 

68 Romer, A.S. and Lewis, A.D., 1959. A mounted skeleton of the giant plesiosaur 

Kronosaurus. Breviora 112: 1-14. 

69 Vernon, D.P.. 1977. Obituary -Thomas Claude Marshall. Mm. Qd Mus. 18(1): 


70 Schevill, W.R. to Longman, H.A., 1939 various dates (QMA). 

71 Woods, J.T., 1958. The extinct marsupial genus Palorchestes Owen. Mem. Qd 

Mus. 13(4): 177-194. 

72 (Juirk, S. and Archer, M., 1983. Prehistoric Animals of Australia (Australian 

Museum, Sydney) 

73 Woods, J.T., 1953. Brachyura from the Cretaceous of central Queensland. Mem. 

QdMus. 13(1): 50-56. 

74 Woods, J.T., 1957. Macrurous decapods from the Cretaceous of Queensland. 

Mm. Qd Mus. 13(3): 155-175. 

75 Evans, J.W., 1961. Some Upper Triassic Hemiptera from Queensland. Mem. Qd 

Mus. 14: 13-23. 
Evans, J.W., 1971. Some Upper Triassic Hemiptera from Mount Crosby, 
Queensland. Mem. QdMus. 16(1): 145-151. 

76 Woods, J.T., undated, manuscript location of types (QMA). 

77 Turner, S.. 1982. A catalogue of fossil fish in Queensland. Mem. Qd Mus. 20: 

599 611. 


78 Molnar, R., 1982. A catalogue of fossil amphibians and reptiles in Queensland. 

Mem. QdMus. 20: 613-633. 

79 Bartholomai, A., 1969. The Lower Cretaceous elopoid Fish Pachyrhizodus 

marathonensis (Etheridge Jnr). In K.S.W. Campbell (ed.) Stratigraphy and 
Palaeontology, pp.249-263. Essays in honour of Dorothy Hill (Australian 
National University Press, Canberra). 

80 Wade, M., 1984. Platypterygius australis, an Australian Cretaceous ichthyosaur. 

Lethaia 17: 99-113. 

81 Thulborn, RA and Wade, M., 1984. Dinosaur trackways in the Winton Formation 

(mid-Cretaceous) of Queensland. Mem. QdMus. 21: 413-517. 

82 Daintree, R., 1872. Notes on the geology of the colony of Queensland with an 

appendix, containing descriptions of fossils by R. Etheridge Esq. and W. 
Carruthers. Quart. J. geol. Soc. Lond. 28: 271-360. 

83 Warren, AA, and Hutchinson, M.N., 1983. The last labyrinthodont? A new 

brachyopoid (Amphibia, Temnospondyli) from the early Jurassic Evergreen 
formation of Queensland, Australia. Phil. Trans R. Soc. Lond.FT02 B303 
(1113): 1-62. 

84 Australia's fantastic time tunnel where the great mammals graze. The Bulletin 

(Australia) 28 May 1985, pp.70-9. 


1 Barber, L, 1980. The Heyday of Natural History 1820-1870 (Jonathon Cape, 


2 Sparks, J., 1982. The Discovery of Animal Behaviour (Collins, London). 

3 Sharpe, R.B., 1906. Birds. In The History of the Collections contained in the Natural 

History Departments of the British Museum. II (British Museum of Natural 
History, London). 

4 'Queensland Philosophical Society. The following paper was read by Mr 

Diggles ' Brisbane Courier 2 December 1873, p.3. Later reprinted in 

Volume 2 of the Trans QdPhil. Soc. 1877. 

5 Anon, 1875. Birds and other Reptiles. Brisbane Courier 3 April 1875, p.3. 

6 Rothschild, M., 1983. Dear Lord Rothschild: Birds, Butterflies and History (Balaban, 


7 Whittell, H.M., 1954. The Literature of Australian Birds: a History and a 

Bibliography of Australian Ornithology (Paterson Brokensha, Perth). 

8 Chisholm, A.H., 1922. Bird seeking in Queensland. Qd Nat. 3: 66-79, 115-124. 

9 Marks, E.N., 1960. A history of the Queensland Philosophical Society and the 

Royal Society of Queensland from 1859-1911. Proc. R. Soc. Qd 71: 17-41, pis 

10 Mack, G., 1956. The Queensland Museum, 1855-1955. Mem. Qd Mus. 13: 107- 

124, pl.3. 

11 Marks, E.N., 1963. Silvester Diggles— a Queensland naturalist one hundred 

years ago. Qd Nat. 17: 15-25. 

12 Diggles, S., 1866-1870. Ornithology of Australia (The Author, Brisbane). 

13 Annual Report Queensland Museum 1877-8. VP 1878. 

14 Gould, J., 1875. The Birds of New Guinea and adjacent Papuan Islands, including 

any new species that may be discovered in Australia. Part 1 (The Author, London). 

15 Gould, J., 1875. Letter concerning the existence of a new parrot in Queensland. 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1874: 499-500. 

16 Gould, J., 1875. Descriptions of three new species of birds. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 

1875: 314-315. 

17 'Queensland Philosophical Society Mr S. Diggles read the following notes on 

some new and rare specimens of Australian birds ' Brisbane Courier 5 

August 1876, p.3. Later reprinted in Volume 2 of the Trans QdPhil. Soc, 1877. 

18 Diggles, S., 1874. Habits olMenura Alberti and a description of four new 

Australian birds. Telegraph 2February 1874, p.3. Later reprinted in volume 2 of 
the Trans Qd Phil. Soc. 1877. 

19 Gregory, A.C., 1877. In Annual Report Queensland Museum 1876. 

20 Anon, 1880. The Queensland Museum. The Telegraph May 29 1880. 

21 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 1 June 1880. 

22 Forshaw, J.M., Fullagar, PJ., and Harris, JUL, 1976. Specimens of the Night Parrot 

in museums throughout the world. Emu 76: 120-126. 

23 Thickthorn, 1880. The Wonga Wonga. Queenslander 7 August 1880, p.172. 

24 de Vis, C.W., 1894. Life. Rep. Aust. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 5: 104-118. 

25 de Vis, C.W., 1883. Description of two new birds of Queensland. Proc. Linn. Soc. 

NSW. (1)7: 561-563. 

26 de Vis, C.W., 1889. Annual report of the Curator to the Trustees of the 

Queensland Museum. Queensland Parliamentary Papers CA 17-1889: pp.1-2. 

27 The Naturalist, 1889. A new bird. Queenslander 30 March 1889, p.600. 























Strahan, R„ 1979. Rare and Curious Specimens. An Illustrated History of the 

Australian Museum 1827-1979 (Australian Museum, Sydney). 
Anon, Ogilby, J.D. obituaries. Brisbane Courier 14 August 1925; Daily Mail 14 

August 1925. 
Ogilby, J.D., 1907. Catalogue of the emydosaurian and testudinian reptiles of 

New Guinea. Proc. R. Soc. Qd 19: 1-31. 
Loveridge, A., and Shreve, B., 1947. The 'New Guinea' Snapping Turtle {Chelydra 

serpentina). Copeia 1947: 120-3. 
Troughton to Longman, 21 March 1937 (QMA extract of letter in Neuhauser- 

Scott file). 
Brass, LJ„ 1953. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No.68. Summary of the 

1948 Cape York (Australia) Expedition. Bull Amer. Mus. Nat Hist. 102: 135- 

Troughton to Longman, 13 August 1937 (QMA extract of letter in Neuhauser- 

Scott file). 
Eventually, in 1973, as Regulations 13A under the Australian Customs Act 1901- 

1971, the provisions that the Australian Museum and Longman had sought to 

ensure the return of type specimens of the Australian fauna to Australia were 

introduced in respect of insects, spiders and ticks. In 1982 the regulation was 

repealed and its powers were extended to all groups of the Australian biota 

under the Wildlife Protection (Regulation of Exports and Imports) Act 1982. 
Mathews to Longman, 19 March 1937 (QMA Neuhauser-Scott file). 
Under Secretary, Department of Agriculture and Stock to Neuhauser, 30 August 1937 

(QMA copy of letter in Neuhauser-Scott file). 
Neuhauser to Longman, 4 December 1937 (QMA Neuhauser-Scott file). 
Longman to Under Secretary, Department of Agriculture on Stock, 23 August 

1937 (QMA copy of letter in Neuhauser-Scott file). 
Longman to Tate, 14 September 1937 (QMA copy of letter in Neuhauser-Scott file). 
Tate to Longman, 11 October 1937 (QMA extract in Neuhauser-Scott file). 
Longman to Troughton, 14 September 1937 (QMA copv of letter in Neuhauser- 
Scott file). 
Neuhauser to Longman, 23 February 1938 (QMA Neuhauser-Scott file). 
Under Secretary, Department of Agriculture and Stock to Neuhauser, 29 April 1938 

(QMA copy of letter in Neuhauser-Scott file). 
Longman to Neuhauser, 10 June 1938 (QMA copy of letter in Neuhauser-Scott 

Neuhauser to Longman, 18 June 1938 (QMA Neuhauser-Scott file). 
The specimen — QM J6357— that Neuhauser sent to Longman from Mt. 

Spurgeon, believing it to be Pseudocheirus peregrinus, was, indeed, a different 

species. It is a specimen of P. herbertensis cinereus Tate, 1952 — a new 

subspecies that Tate described from specimens that he collected in 1948. 

Pseudocheirus taniginosus is now known to be a synonym of P. peregrinus. 
Perhaps they did fly— Tree Kangaroos never have been recorded from Cape 

York north of the Laura Basin. 
Longman to Neuhauser, 16 July 1938 (QMA copy of letter in Neuhauser-Scott file). 
Neuhauser to Longman, 22 July 1938 (QMA Neuhauser-Scott file). 
The Cuscus that puzzled Neuhauser was Phalanger orientalis, previously 

collected from Cape York by Darlington. 
Mathews, G.M. and Neumann, 0., 1939. Six new races of Australian birds from 

north Queensland. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 59: 153-155. 
Mathews, G.M., 1941. Two new subspecies of birds collected by Dr. Scott at Cape 

York. Emu 40(4): 384. 
Mack, G., 1953. Birds from Cape York Peninsula, Queensland. Mem. Qd Mus. 

131: 1-39. 
Filmer, L, 1944-8. Manuscript diary (QMA). 
Covacevich, J., 1971. Amphibian and reptile type specimens in the Queensland 

Museum. Mem. Qd Mus. 16: 49-67. 
Ingram, GJ. and Covacevich, J., 1981. Frog and reptile type specimens in the 

Queensland Museum, with a checklist of frogs and reptiles in Queensland. 

Mem. QdMus. 20: 291-306. 
Annual Reports Queensland Museum 1974-86. 


1 Staiger to Minister for Public Works, 2 June 1873 (QSA Department of Public 

Works inward correspondence 2168, 2169). 

2 Marks, E.N., 1963. Silvester Diggles— a Queensland naturalist one hundred 

years ago. Qd Nat. 17: 15-25. 

3 Marks, E.N., 1960. A history of the Queensland Philosophical Society and the 

Royal Society of Queensland from 1859 to 1911. Proc. R. Soc. Qd 71: 17-42. 


4 Queensland Museum Board Minutes, 16 April 1877 

5 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 20 August 1880. 

6 Musgrave, A., 1932. Bibliography of Australian Entomology 1775-1930 (Royal Zool. 

W-., NSW) 380pp. 

7 Miskin, W.H., 1876. On a new and remarkable species of Attacus. Trans, enl. Sac. 

Lond. 1876(1); 7-9. 

8 Miskin, W.H., 1891 §j nonymicaJ catalogue ol the Lepidoptera Rhopalocera 

(Butterflies) of Australia with full bibliographic reference; including 
descriptions of some new species. Ann. Qd Mus. 1: 1-93. 

9 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 7 December 1888. 

10 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 2 August 1889. 

11 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 11 April 1890. 

12 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 2 May 1890. 

13 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 8 March 1892. 

14 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 1 May 1883. 

15 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 7 November 1882. 

16 Queensland Museum Hoard Mmules I July 1884. 

17 Meston, A.. 1889. Report on the government scientific expedition to the 

Bellenden Ker Range (Wooroomoran), North Queensland- Queensland 
Parliamentary Papers CA 95. 

18 Mackerras, I.M. and Maries, E.N., 1974. In retrospect: the insects nod the 

entomologists. In Changing Patterns in Entomology pp.3- 10 (Jubilee 
Publication of the Entomological Society of Queensland, Brisbane). 

19 White. C.T.. 1945. Henry Tryon - First Honorary Secretary, Royal Society of 

Queensland, and his place in Queensland Science. Broe. R. Soc Qd 56:" 77-80. 

20 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 5 September 1882. 

21 Tryon to de Vis, 21 November 1882 (QMA correspondence inward 1882). 

22 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 1 May 1883. 

23 Tryon, H.. 1889. Report on insect and fungus pests No.l, pp.1 -238 (Department of 

Agriculture, Brisbane). 

24 Tryon to de Vis. 16 November 1888 (QMA correspondence 1888). 

25 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 29 July 1899. 

26 Queensland Museum Board M mutes 4 January 1889. 

27 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 3 March 1888. 

28 Queensland Museum Board Minutes I February 1889. 

29 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 6 March 1889. 

30 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 5 April 1889. 

31 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 2 August 1889. 

32 Natural History Society of Queensland, Report of Council and President's 

Address for the year 1892 (issued 19 January 1893). 

33 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 3 July 1891. 

34 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 1 October 1891. 

35 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 5 October 1899. 

36 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 6 May 1899. 

37 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 28 March 1903. 

38 Etheridge, R. jnr. 1910. Manuscript report to the Premier of Queensland (QSA 

PRE A337 6144 19,10). 

39 Hamiyn-Harris to Wild, 30 March 1911 (QMA correspondence inward 1911 11/ 

40 Wild to Hamlyn-Harris, letters dated 1 April, 10 April, 15 Mav. 26 Maw 30 May 

of 1911 (QMA correspondence inward 1911 11/184, 11/207.' 11/291. 11/308, 11/ 

41 Woodford Police to Hamlyn-Harris, 14 June 191 1 (QMA correspondence inward 


42 Hamlyn-Harris to Under Secretary, 14 June 1911 (QMA correspondence outward 

1911 11/345). 

43 Hamlyn-Harris to T.L. Bancroft (QMA correspondence outward 1911). 

44 Bancroft, T.L, 1908. List of the mosquitoes of Queensland, with the original 

descriptions and notes on the life history of a number. Ann. Qd Mus. 8: 1-64. 

45 Carter to Hamlyn-Harris, 16 Mav 1911 (QMA correspondence inward, 1911 11/ 


46 Hamlyn-Harris to Carter (QMA correspondence outward 1911 11/298). 

47 Carter to Hamlyn-Harris, 17 October 1911 (QMA correspondence inward 1911 

43 Tillyard to Hamlyn Harris. 14 November 1911 (QMA correspondence inward 
1911 11/695). 

49 Girault to Hamlyn-Harris (QMA correspondence inward 1911, various letters). 

50 Girault, AA, 1912. Australian Hvmenoptera Chalctdotdea, Parts l-\l\. Mem. Qd 

Mus. 1:66-189. 


51 Turner to Hamlyn-Harris, 2 December 1912 (QMA correspondence inward). 

52 Proggatt to Hamlyn-Harris, 8 Match 1915 I.QMA correspondence inward). 

53 bahms, EX., 1978. A i :to d Australian Hymenoptera described 

by Alexandre Arsene Girault: t. Introduction, acknowledgements, biography, 
bibliography and localities. Mem. Qd Mus. 19: 127-190. 

54 Marks, E.N.. 1973. Henry Hacker (1876-1973). Ent. Soc. Qd Afews Bull. 100; 13-16. 
►3 Hacker, H., 1907. An entomologist's cycling trip to Cloncurry (Queensland). 

Tasmanian Nat 1:12 

56 Marks, E.N., 1974. Obituary -Henrv Hacker 1876-1973. Mem. Qd Mus. 17: 191- 


57 Hamlyu-Harris to Under Secretary, 13 February 1911 (QMA correspondence 

outwards 1911). 

58 Hacker, H., 1932. A new species of Peloridiidae from Queensland. Qd agric J. 37; 


59 Hacker, H,. 1921. Catalogue of Australian bees. Mem. Qd Mus. 7: 99-163. 

60 Mackerras, I.M., 1949. Alfred Jeffenes Turner and amateoT entomology ID 

Australia. Proc. R. Soc. Qd 60: 69-87. 

61 Dahms, E.C., 1983, 1984, 1986. A checklist of the types of Australian 

Hymenoptera described by Alexandre Arsene Girault: 11- tV. Mem. Qd Mus. 

62 Osborn, F.G.B.. 1931. Obituary-- Alfred Eland Shaw. Proc. Lrnn. Soc NSW 57: 4. 

63 Dahms, E.G., 1972. Type-specimens of cockroaches (Blattodea) in the Queensland 

Museum. Mm. QdMus. 16: 273-289. 

64 Tryon, &, 1929. Rowland Midge. Qd Nat. 7; 13-19. 

65 Queensland Museum Board Minute* 19 J.tnuarv 1877. 

m Adoo, 1936. Obituary-Charles Hedlev. Proc Linn. Soc. NSW 61: 209-220. 
67 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 2 August 1889; 6 December 1889. 
63 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 7 February 1890. 

69 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 11 April 1890. 

70 Queensland Museum Hoard Minutes X July 1890. 

71 Banfield Lo Hamlyn-Harris, 25 September 1911 (QMA correspondence inward 

1911 11/590). ' 

72 Bertha Banfield to Charles Hedley, 17 September L923 (copy in QMA» 

73 Hedley to Longman, 7 October 1923 (.QMA correspondence inward 1923) 

74 Shirley to Hamlyn-Harris, 20 August 1915 (QMA correspondence inward 191531 

75 Brisbane Telegraph 5 April 1922. Obituary of John Shirley. 

76 Fiimer, L, 1944-47. Manuscript diary (QMA). 

77 Sprent, J., 1972. Josephine Mackerras obituary. Ink motional Journal of 

Parasitology 2: 181-185. 

78 Ibwnsville Doty Bulletin Beachcomber, 30 May 1914; editorial, 9 June 1914; 

Brisbane Daily Standard 29 June 1914 

79 Great Barrier Reef Committee Minutes of first meeting, 15 September 1922 < UQA 


80 Hill, U. 1985. The Great Barrier Reef Committee: tni fat R*C 

Aust. Sa. 6(1): 18pp. 

81 Stephenson. W. and Wells, J.W., 1955- The corals of Low Isles, Queensland. Pap. 

Pep. Zool. Univ. Qd 1(4): 1-59. 

82 Wallace, C. 1978. The coral genus Acropora (Scleractinia : Astrocoenima : 

Acroparidae) in the ccnrral and southern Great Barrier Reef Province. Mem 
QdMus, SO: 273-319. 

83 Vernon, J.E.N. and Wallace, C, 1984. Scleractinia of eastern Australia Part V, 

Familv Acroparidae. Australian Institute of Marine Seienee Monograph Series li: 
1-446 + 24 pis. 

84 Eodean, R., Stephenson, W. and Kenny, R., 1956. The ecology and distribm ion i i 

intertidal organisms on certain islands off the Queensland coast. Am*? /. mar. 
Freshw.Res. 7(3): 317-342, 

85 Annual Reports of the Queensland Museum 1974-86. 

86 Kott, P., 1985. The Australian Ascidiacea part 1, Phlebobranchia and 

Stoudobranchia.Aftw. QdMus. 23: 1-440. 

87 Endean, R.. 1953-65. Queensland faunistic records III, IV. Vll, VIII. Pap. Dep. 

Zool Univ. Qd 1: 53-60, 121-40, 289-98; 2: 224-38. 

88 Rente, D.L.F.. 1980. A new family of ersitferous Orthoptera from the coastal 

sands of south east Queensland. Mem. Qd Mus. 20: 49 

1 Piggot. P.H M Blainey, G.N., Boswell, R.W., Clayton, A., Mulvaney, D.J., Talbot, F.H., 
Waterhouse, D.F., Waters, F.J., Payne, E.E.. 1975. Museums in Australia, Report of 
tin Committee of hu/uiry on museums and national collections including the 
Report of the Planning Committee on the Gallery of Aboriginal Australia p.10 
(Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra). 


2 Rannie, D., undated. El hnological appendix. In By Surf-Beat Rocks and Coral 

Strands p.l. (manuscript, Anthropology Must-urn, University of Queensland). 

3 Douglas to de Vis, 29 May 1887 (QMA). 

4 Musgrave to de Vis, 28 May 1888 <QMA). 

5 Douglas to de Vis, 2V) May 18&S tQMA). 

6 Joyce, R.B., 1971- Sir William MucGn-gor (Oxford University Press, Melbourne). 
William MacGregor was a crofter's son born in 1846 in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. 

MacGregor studied medicine al Aberdeen, Glasgow and Edinburgh 
Universities graduating in 1872. He joined the colonial service and was posted 
to the Seychelles and Mauritius where he undertook administrative as well as 
medical duties. Transferred to Fiji in 1875 he became increasingly a colonial 
administrator rather than a doctor during the next 13 years. He became 
administrator of British New Guinea in September 1888. an appointment in 
part due U> the support of Sir Samuel Griffith, premier oi Queensland. He was 
knighted in 1889 and he served in New Guinea until 1898. He was governs of 
Queensland (1909-1914), an appointment he took up after being successively 
goVefnO] of LagOS, and Newfoundland. He had presented his private 
anthropological collection (including 2065 items from Papua) to the 
Anthropological Museum at Marischal College, University of Aberdeen. A 
printed catalogue of this collection was published in 1912. He died in 1919. 

7 MacGregor Lo the Governor. Sir Henry Norman, 14 August 1889. Despatch No.53 


8 MacGregor to the Governor. Sir Henry Norman. 28 October 1895. Despatch 

No.55 (QSA). 

9 MacGregor, W., 1897- British New Guinea p.88 (John Murray, London). 

10 Pranks to Ripon. 15 June 1893. Letter enclosed in Despatch No.13, 23 June 1893 


11 de Vis to Culonial Secretary, 28 August 1893 (QMA). 

12 MacGregor to the Governor, Sir Henry Norman, 12 October 1895. Despatch 

No.55 (QSA). 

13 Chief Secretary to the Governor. Lord Lammgton. 5 November 1896 (QSA). 

14 Chief Secretary to Governor, Lord Lamington. 24 November 1895: pp.443-9 (QSA 

Gov/ A J U 

15 MacGregor to the Governor. Lord Lamington. 4 January 1897. Despatch 

No.2 (QSA). 

16 Meston, A.. 12 j uly 1919 Brisbane Matt. 

17 Roth to de Vis, 15 April 1900 (QMA). 

18 Hansard 16 October 1903: p.777; 10 October 1905; pp.1070, 1188; 17 November 

L905: p.ioTl; 13 December 1905: p.2116; 14 December 1905: p.2154;"28 
August 1906: pp.432-4; 13 November 1906; pp.1653-72. 

19 Specht, R., 1975. In Strahan, R (ed.) Ram and Curious Specimens. An Illustrated 

History nfthr Australian Museum 1827-1979 p. 144 (The Australian Museum, 
Sydney >. 

20 H. Malone . Townsville to Hamlyn-Harns, 17 February 3911 (QMA 11/84). 

21 G. McGrath, Longreach to Hamiyn-Harris. 21 February 1911 (QMA 11/93). 

22 Hamryn-Harris to j.H.P. Murray, 18 September 1913 (QMA 13/727). 

23 Etheridge, R. jnr, 1910. Manuscript report to the Chief Secretaiy on the state of 

the Queensland Museum, p.G (QSA PRE A337 6144 19.10). 

24 Hamiyn-Harris, R. and Smith, F., 1916. On the fish poisoning and poisons 

employed among the Aborigines of Queensland. Mem. (Jd Mus. 5: 1-22. 

25 Longman to A.C. Haddon, 3 December 1919 (QMA 19/00351). 

26 Longman to Secretarv, Home and Territories Department. 9 July 1918 (QMA 18/ 


27 Illidge to Longman. 9 July 1918 (QMA 00325), 

28 Longman to Secretary, Home and Territories Department, 3 December 1918 

(QMA 18/00441). 
39 l-oogman to Secretary, Home and Territories Department, 26 July 1919 (QMA 

M0 Acting Secretaiy, Home and Territories Department to Longman, 1 August 1919 

(QMA 00273). 

31 The British structural functional school, which emphasized the study of the 

structure and Junction of the social organisation of any particular group rather 
than the material evidence of its lifestyle, dominated Australian anthropology. 
Museum anthropology was left stranderl, isolated from the mainstream of 
anthropological thought lor the next fifty years. 

32 Malinowski, B,. 1935. Coral Gardens, and their Magic p.460 (American Book 

Company, New York). 

33 Longman to Chasehng, 2 September 1940 (QMA outward correspondence). 

34 Longman to J.K. Murray. 20 March 1945 (QMA outward correspondence). 

35 HaJe to Longman. 19 May 1944 (QMA inward correspondence 204). 

36 Mack to Reynolds, 6 December 1956 (QMA inward correspondence 883). 
Woods to Wright, 11 December 1965 (QNL 

38 Queensland Museum Annual Repot! 1972: p.10. 

39 Morwood, M.J., 1984. The Prehistory of the Central Queensland Highlands. 

Advance* in World Archaeology 3: 338. 

40 Robins. R.P., 1980. Wood Identification of Spearthrowers in the Queensland 

Museum Ethnographic Collection: An Evaluation. University of Queensland 
Occasional ftipen in Anthropology 10: 61. 


1 Transactions Philosophical Society of Queensland, 1, 1859-1872. 

2 Etheridge, R. jnr, 1910. Manuscript report to Premier of Queensland (QSA PRE 

A3376144 19.10). 

3 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 17 October 1884, Special Meeting. 

4 Daintree to Staiger, June 1873 (QSA WOR 466 68 and 69). 

5 First Inventory. Queensland Museum 1875-6, Signed by A.c ( i eg i v and W.i I 

Miskin (QMAi. 

6 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 4 September 1883. 

7 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 30 April 1904. 

8 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 18 November 1880. 

9 de Vis to the Hon. the Minister for Works, 3 November 1KM1 (QMA). 

10 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 10 July 1885. 

11 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 3 June 1887. 

12 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 4 June 1886. 

13 Queensland Musrum Board Minutes 5 May 1888 

14 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 7 December 1888. 

15 Queensland Museum Board Minules 7 December 1894. 

16 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 9 April 1895. 

17 Thomas, L, 1966. Bought Jones, $4.15s. The Bulletin 9 April 1966. 

18 Queensland Musi urn Board Minute;* 29 August 1903. 

19 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 26 September 1903. 

20 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 7 August 1885. 

21 Australian Museums Directory 1972. pp.49. 104 (Australian National Committee 

for the International Council ol Museums. Canberra). 

22 Uoyd CJ. and Sekuiess P,. 1980. Australia's National Collections pp. 14 1-2 

(tassel! Australia, N.S.W). 





Allwood, J., 1977. The Great Exhibitions p.71 tStudio Vista, London). 

Longman to Cumbrae Stewart, 3 June 1918 (QMA correspondence outward 18/ 

Longman to Registrar 118 (QMA correspondence outward 18/00239). 

Jack, R.L. 1922. Northmost Australia Vol.1. Chapter 30 (George Robertson and 

Co., Melbourne). 
Meldrum to I he Secretary, National Museum Brisbane. 5 May 1937 (QMA 199A). 
Longman to Meldrum, 13 May 1937 (QMA) 
Longman to Meldrum, 24 June 1937 (QMA). 
Roberts to Richards. 4 September 1937 (QMA 457). 
Longman to D. O'Shea, 7 September 1937 (QMA). 
Organisations supporting die development of a technological museum 

included: The Chamber of Commerce, Chamber of Manufactu 

Australasian Institute Of Mining and Metallurgy (Inc.), Institution of 
Engineers Australia. Master Builders 1 Association, Illuminating Engineering 
Society. Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Electrical and Radio Federation 
(Queensland). Queensland Electrical Institute. Institute of Optometrists, 
Electrical Contractors' Association, Royal Australian Institute of Arch 
Motor Mechanics' Institute of Queensland, Institute of Radio Engineers. 
Australian Welding Institute, Refrigeration Engineering Society, and Model 
Engineers' Society. 

Handbook 1967-8 (Queensland Hall of Science Industry and Health 
Development Committee. Brisbane i. 

Annual Reports Queensland Museum 1972-85. 


1 Mctotyre, K.G., 1977. The Secret Discover}' of Australia (Souvenir Press, 


2 Beaglehoie, J.C., 1934. The Exploration *n tlv Bae$e(A HldC Black, London}. 

3 Marden, L, 1985. Wreck of HMS Pandora National Geographic 168(4): 425-451. 

4 Self Contained Underwater Diving Apparatus (SCUBA) 

5 List of donors for maritime archaeology projects. Annual Report of the 

Queensland Museum 1984. p.29. 


6 Costin, Office of the Chief Protector of Aboriginals, Thursday Island to 

Director, Queensland Museum, 1 May 1906 and 28 June 1906 (QMA inward 
correspondence 1906). 


1 Staiger to Hon. W.I I Walsh, 2 June 1873 (QSA, copv QM). 

2 Staiger to Hoa W H. Walsh, 2 August 1873 (QSA, copy QM). 
Bailey, F.M., 1 September 1879. Annual Report Queensland Museum. VP 1880. 
Annual Report Queensland Museum 1876. VP 1877. 
Queensland Museum Board Minutes 20 September 1877. 
Queensland Museum Board Minutes 19 February 1877. 
Queensland Museum Bt/oed Minutes 19 February 1878. 
Colonial Secretary to Director, Queensland Museum, 7 August 1879 (QMA). 
Letter. 9 March 1878. In Annual Report Queensland Museum 1877-8. VP 1878. 
Annual Report Queensland Museum 1878-1879. VP 1879. 
Annual Report Queensland Museum 1877-1878, Appendix 5. VP 1878. 
Published references, as for instance Brisbane Courier 10 January 1884, p 5. 
Williams and Norgate to Queensland Museum. 28 May 1880 (QMA 

correspondence inward 1880). 
Annual Report Queensland Museum 1879-80. VP 1880. 
Queensland Museum Board Minutes 20 January 1879. 
D. O'Donovan to the Curator, 7 September 1880 (QMA correspondence inward 

Queensland Museum Board Minutes 19 October 1881. 
Queensland Mnseum Board Minutes 28 October 1881 
Annual Report Queensland Museum 1881-1882. VP 1882. 
Queensland Museum Board Minutes 7 November 1882. 

I Jund Museum Board Minutes 23 May 1882. 
Queensland Museum Board Minutes 5 November 1882. 
Annual Report Queensland Museum 1882. VP 1883. 
Annual Report Queensland Museum 1883. VP 1884. 
Queensland Museum Board Minutes 4 December 1883. 
Marks, E.N., 1960. A history of the Queensland Philosophical Society and the 

Royal Society of Queensland from 1859 to 191 L froc. R. Soc Qd 71(2): 

17-42, 2pl& 
Queensland Museum Board Minutes 7 March 1884, 5 September 1884. 
Queensland Museum Board Minutes 16 October 1884. 
Queensland Museum Board Minutes 5 December 1884. 
Annual Report Queensland Museum 1886. VP 1887. 
Annual Report Queensland Museum 1884, VP 1885. 
Annua! Report Queensland Museum 1887. VP 1888. Queensland Museum Board 

Minutes 3 March 1887. 

33 Queensland Museum Board Minutes April 1886: Wm Dymock of Sydney; 1 July 

1887: Angus & Robertson; 3 February 1888: J.H. Thompson. 

34 Annual Report Queensland Museum 1889, VP 1890. 

35 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 4 January 1889. 

36 Pugh 8 Almanac (John Oxley Library). 
Queensland Museum Board Minutes 5 December 1890. 
Queensland Museum Board Minutes 4 September 1883. 
Brisbane Conner 8 January 1884. 
Queensland Museum Board Minutes 2 September 1887. 
Queensland Museum Board Minutes 4 November 1892. 
Annual Report Queensland Museum 1891. VP 1892. 
Queensland Museum Board Minutes b" September 1889. 
Exercise book containing notations, not otherwise described. In Queensland 

Museum history' box (QMA). 
Queensland Museum Board Minutes 2 September 1895. 
Queensland Museum Board Minutes 2 December 1890. 
Queensland Museum Board Minutes 19 June 1893. 
Queensland Museum Board Minuter, 4 August 1883. 
Queensland Museum Board Minutes 3 November 1893, 13 April 1896. 
Queensland Museum Board Minutes 9 June 189.'.!. 
Queensland Museum Board Minutes 7 April 1893. 
Queensland Museum Board Minutes 9 April 1895, 5 July 1897. 
Queensland Museum Board Minutes 6 January 1896, 4 November 1895. 
Queensland Museum Board Minutes 28 July 1900. 
Queensland Museum Board Minutes 30 September 1899. 


56 EA Lower to Trustees, Brisbane Museum, 30 September 1899 (QMA 

Applications for Employment 1899 no.5908). 

57 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 30 October 1899. 

58 Under Secretary Dept Public Instruction to C.W. de Vis, curator, 18 February 

1901 (QMA correspondence inward 1901). 

59 Under Secretary, Dept Public Instruction to C.W. de Vis, Director, 27 June 1902, 1 

July 1902 (QMA correspondence inward 1902). 

60 Queenslander 10 May 1902. 

61 E. Lower, Chatswood to H. Longman, Director, 11 January 1918 (QMA 

correspondence inward 1918). 

62 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 29 July 1901. 

63 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 30 April 1904. 

64 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 25 June 1904. 

65 Last trace of Queensland Museum Board Minutes — loose sheets. 

66 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 27 April 1907. 

67 Hamlyn-Harris to C. Wild, 6 October 1910 (QMA correspondence inward 1910). 

68 V. Chambers, Clerk to C.J. Wild, Acting Director, 11 May 1910 (QMA 

correspondence inward 1910). 

69 de Vis' mother's maiden name was Chambers. This may have given rise to the 

rumour of a relationship that was current in the museum at this time. 

70 Etheridge, R. jnr, 1910. Manuscript report to the Queensland premier on the 

museum (QSA PRE A 337 6144 19.10). 

71 CJ. Wild to Director, 10 April 1911 (QMA correspondence inward 1911). 

72 Hamlyn-Harris to Under Secretary, Chief Secretary's Office, 31 January 1911 

(QMA correspondence outwards 1911). 

73 Under Secretary, Chief Secretary's Office to the Director, 20 October 1911 (QMA 

correspondence inward 1911). 

74 Douglas Rannie to Premier, 30 July 1913 (QMA correspondence inward 1913). 

75 Robert John Cuthbert Butler MLA for Lockyer 16 March 1918 to 9 October 

1920. Queensland Parliamentary Handbook. 

76 Newspaper report in Queensland Museum Cutting Book 2. 

77 Longman to Under Secretary, Chief Secretary's Department, 26 September 1929 

(QMA correspondence outward 1931). 

78 Staff file K.K. Watson (QMA). 


1 Marks, E.N., 1960. A history of the Philosophical Society and the Royal Society of 

Queensland from 1859 to 1911. Proc. R. Soc. Qd 71(2): 17-42, 2 pis. 

2 Coxen to the Hon. the Secretary of Lands, 18 February 1874 (QSA G149/3). 

3 Mines Dept. Memoranda 76.152M and 76.159M (QSA AGS/N342). 

4 Executive Council Minute 76/9 on 76.213M (QSA AGS/N342). 

5 Letterbook Mines Dept., Outward Letters 76.22 in MIN/G2, p.325 (QSA). 

6 Further details of their careers in the indicated publications: 
COXEN: 3ADB; Waterson Biographical Register. 
DOUGLAS: 4ADB; Waterson Biographical Register. 

FENWICK: Queenslander 21 July 1900; Johnston, R., 1970, 'John Fenwick' in 

Queensland Heritage 2(3): 21. 
GREGORY: 4ADB; Waterson Biographical Register. 

RAFF: 6ADB; Waterson Biographical Register, 
MISKIN: reference 32 below. 

7 76.805M of 7 June 1876 with Executive Council Minute 76/32 endorsed (QSA 


8 For further details of his career in: 3ADB; Medical Journal of Australia 4 

February 1961; Sprent. J., 1972, Obituary of Dr Josephine Mackerras in The 
International Journal of Parasitology 2: 181-185. 

9 The whole matter of noxious gases emanating from the museum may have 

orginated from Staiger himself— who, in a letter to the minister for Public 

Works 2 August 1873, wrote: 

I have to draw your attention to the fact that the present 
locality and state of the laboratory will not allow me to 
carry out assays or experiments which can only be done 
by aid of furnaces or machine power, or which would 
involve danger of fire or create obnoxious gases. 
(QSA G149/3). 

10 Queensland Museum Board Minutes 17 June 1881. 

11 Strahan, R„ 1975. Rare and Curious Specimens. An Illustrated History of the 

Australian Museum 1827-1979 (Australian Museum, Sydney). 

12 Bennett to Sir Richard Owen. Vide Strahan, R., 1975: reference 11, above. 


13 Moyai, AM., 1970. Sir Richard Owen and his influence on Australian zoological 

and palaeontological science. Ree. Austral. Acad. Set, 3 (2): 41-56. 

14 Krefft to L.A, Bemays, Queensland Museum Board of Trustees. 11 March 1879 

(QMA inward correspondence before 1880). 

15 Marks, E.N., 1963- Silvester Diggles— a Queensland Naturalist one hundred 

veais old. QdNat. 17(1. 2): 15-25. 

16 Further details of their careers in the indicated publications: 
O'DOHERTY- 5ADB; Waterson Biographical Register. 
BERNAYS: 3ADB; Queensland 1900 (Alcazar Press. Brisbane). 

17 with Executive Council minute 78/8 endorsed 6 February 1878, 7&390M (QSA 


18 Brisbane Conner . 7 March 1879. Queensland Museum Board Minutes 6 March 

1879 (QMA). 

19 with Ex* UtWe Council minute 79/49 endorsed. 79.768M ajid 79.766B CQSA>, 

20 Beniays to the Secretary, the Queensland Museum, 20 May 1879 (QMA inward 

correspondence before 1880). 

21 5ADB; Waterson Biographical Register. 

22 3ADB; Waterson Biographical Register. 

23 80.274L of 27 February 1880 with Executive Council minute 80/16 endorsed 


24 80.1206M oi 18 August 1880 with Executive Council minute 80/52 end< 

5A AGS/N342). 

25 8L2151B of 31 October 1881 with Executive Council minute 82/62 endorsed 


26 5ADB: Waterson Biographical Register. 

27 VP 7 October 1880: p.203; 5 November: p.30L 

28 2717 PI of 6.5-85 (QSA AGS/N342), 
■29 4726 Pi of 11.8.85 (QSA AGS/N342). 

30 5ADB, Waterson Biographical Register* 

31 5ADB; Waterson Biographical Register; Annual Review ofQld 1902; Brisbane 

Courier 12 March 1914. 

32 He had left the Public Service in 1878 and taken articles of clerkship on 13 

November 1878 with Peter MacPherson, a well known Brisbane solicitor, and 
having passed his examinations Mi&kin was admitted as a solicitor on 4 
December 1883. He practised in Brisbane in partnership with MacPherson but 
in 1892 he began practice in Rwckhampton (QSA SCT/LK12 and Queensland 
Law Almanac 1913). 

33 Further derails of 'heir carters in the indicated publications: 
BLACKMAN: Est. File 370/1906 iQSA); Clarke, C.G.Drury, 1986. FA Blackman 

(1835-1906), \nJJL Hist. Sac. Qd 12(2). 
GAILEY- Watson, D. and McKay, J., Queensland Architects to 1940, in Occasional 

papers oj the Fryer library, University of Queensland 5: 1-236; Est. File No.403/ 

1924 (QSA). 
HODGK1NSON: 4A0B: Wattrson Biographical Register. 

34 Letters and memoranda (QSA AGS/N342). 

35 Queensland Museum Board Minutes, 

36 Covacevich, J„ 1971. Amphibian and reptile type specimens in the Queensland 

Museum. Mem Qd Mus. 16: 49-67. 

37 Queensland Museum Board Minutes. 

38 Memorandum (QSAACS/N.i-U:) 

Further details of their careers in the indicated publications: 

CAMERON: Waterson Biographical Register. 

CHATAWAY: Waterson Biographical Register. 

MARKS: Waterson Biographical Register. 

SUTTON: Marks, E.N., 1960. A history of the Queensland Philosophical 

and the Royal Society of Que* >m 1859 to 1911. in Proc. R. Soc Qd, 

71(2): 17-42. 

39 Further details of their careers in the indicated publications. 

TURNER: 05.12291 O.D. of 14 November 1905 (QSA AGS/N342). Marks, E.N. 
and Mackerras, LM. ( 1974, The insects and the entomologists, in Changing 
Patterns m Entomology (The Entomological Society of Queensland. Brisbane). 

SCRIVEN: PSB File No.505 Unprocessed Materia] Repository 2-H32 (QSA) 

40 0.5.13531 G of 15.11.1905 and 05.13744 of 16.11.1905 (QSA AGS/N342). 

41 QSAAGS/N342. 

42 07.2438 CS of 20.9.1907. 05.12291 OD of 24.9.1907 and 075038 Agnc of 

26.9.1907 (QSA AGS/N342V 

43 Chief Secretary to Premier of New South Wales, 2 June 1910 (QSA PRE A 337 

6144 19.10). 

44 Secretary Australian Museum to Under Secretary. Chief Secretary's Office, 14 

June 1910, telegram (QSA PRE A337/G144, 19.10) 










Etheridge, R. jnr, 1910. Manuscript reports to the Premier of Queensland (QSA 

Kidstoo to Btheridae, VB July 1910 (USA PRE A337 6144 19.10). 

Queensland Parliamentary' Debates 1910: vol.106, p.1407. 

Under Secretary, Chief Secretary's Department to Longman, 26 April 1929, with 

enclosed Report of the Public Service Commissioners on the museum (QMA 

correspondence inward and outward 1929/1' I 
Longman to the Under Sea-elan. Chief S& i -tment, 13 June 3929 

(QMA correspondence inward and outward 1929). 
Courier Mail 20 January 1934, 

Queensland Government Gazette 22 August. 1970: vol.234, p.2109. 
Queensland Parliamentary Debates 1970: vol.253, pp.2515-2530, 2967-2973. 

l$nd Government Gazette 1970: \oJ 2 
The Telegraph 13 November, 1934. 
Director General of Works to Director, Queensland Museum, 23 April 1985; 

trtment of Works, Quantity Surveying Branch memorandum 22 April 19M5, 

relocation of Queensland Museum (0MA G445/15). 
Mather, P. (ed) 1978. The Small Museum —a collection of papers relative to the 

establishment, housing and operation of local and regional museums (Queensland 

Museum, Brisbane). 
Campbell B., Wallace, C. and King, H., 1974. Field Study of Marine littoral 

invertebrate mocrofaum from the proposed Brisbane Airport Extension arm. Report 

to the Co-ordinator General (Queensland Museum. Brisbane), 
Campbell B., Wallace. C, King, R. and Mather. P., 1974. The sublitioral 

maerobenthos of the proposed Brisbane Airport Extension area. Report to the Co- 

mtinator General (Queensland Museum, Brisbane). 
Campbell, B., Monroe, K., Mather, P. and Wallace, C, 1974. The estuanne sublittoral 

macrobenihos of south-eastern Queensland: A Preliminary Survey. Report to the 

coastal management Investigation (Queensland Museum, Brisbane). 
Mather, P., 1975. The National Estate, Moreton. Wide-Bay Burnett Regions. A 

report to the Co-ordinator General (Queensland Museum, Brisbane). 


1 Flower, W.H. 1898. Museums organisation. Presidential address to the British 

Association for the Advancement of Science in Essays on Museums and other 
subjects connected with Natural History pp.1-29 (Macmillan & Co.. London). 

2 Wittlin, A. S„ 1949. The Museum, its History and its Task in Education (Kegan 

Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co., London) 297 pp. 

3 Caygill, M.. 1981, The Story of the British Museum {British Museum Publications, 


4 Hodson, K., 1975. .4 Social History of Museums (Macmillan Press, London). 

5 Solomon Da Costa, donor of a collection of Hebrew manuscripts to the British 

Museum, to 'the honourable personages appointed and made overseers of the 
great and noted treasury called the British Museum' 1876. Vide Caygill M.. 1981 
The Story of the British Museum pp.14-5 (British Museum Publications Ltd., 
Lorv ' 

6 Karp, W., 1965. The Smithsonian Institution (Smithsonian Institution with Editor 

a( American Heritage Magazine, Washington D.C). 

7 Mather. P.. 1976. Museums, Natural History and Queensland. An account of the 

development of the modern museum concept and its application in the jield of 
natural science, especially in Queensland (manuscript, Queensland Museum, 

8 Piggort, P.FL, Blarney, G.N., Boswell, R.W M Clayton, A., Mulvancy, D.J., TaJbot, F.H., 

Waterhouse, D.F., Waters, PJ., Payne, E.E.. 1975 Museums m Australia. Repeot of 
the Inquiry on Museums and National Collections (Australian Government 
Publishing Sen-ice, Canberra), 124 pp. 

9 Etheridge, R- jnr, 1910, Manuscript repori to i he Premier of Queensland (QSA 

PRE A337 6144 19.10). 

10 Annual Report Queensland Museum 1983, pp.4, 5. 

11 Parr, A.E., 1959. Moslh about Museums (The American Museum of Natural 

History. New York). 


1 Whitley, C, 1938. John Gould's Associates. Emu 38: 141-167. 

2 WhitteU, H.M., 1954. The literature of Australian Birds: a History and a 

Bibliography of Australian Ornithology (Paterson Brockensha, Perth.). 

3 Hindwood, RA, 1938. Gould in Australia. Emu 38; 95-118. 

4 Dickson, X. 1938. Gould's major works. Emu 38; 118-131. 


5 Anon, 1888 Public Men and Industrie* (Brisbane). ABD: Watersan biographical 


6 Cilento, K. and Lack, C, 1959. Triumph in the Tropics (Historical Committee 

rrtenary Celebrations Council of Queensland, Smith Paterson and (_<>.. 

7 Aurousseau, M. (ed.), 1968. The Letters o/F.W. Luttwig Leichhardt 3 vols 

(Cambridge University Press, U.K.). 

8 Leichhardt, L, 1847. Journal of an overland expedition in Australia, from MoYtton 

Bay to Port Essmgton. a distant of upward if 3.000 miles, during the years IH44- 
1845 (London). 

9 Marks, E.N., 1960. A history of the Queensland Philosophical Society and the 

Royal Society of Queensland from 1859 to L&l 1 Proa R Soc Qd 71(2): 17-42, 

10 Coxeo to Hon. Secretary for Public Works. 26 July 1S72 tQSA). 

1 1 Mack, G., 1956, The Queensland Museum 18551955. Me»L Qd Mus. 13(2). 106- 


12 Karl Theodor Staiger (grandson of Karl Theodor Staiger. custodian 1873-9) to 

Queensland Museum, personal communication 1985. 

13 Staiger to W.H. Walsh, Secretary for Public Works, 2 June 1873 (QSA). 

14 Bailey, F.M. and Staiger. K.T., 1879. An Illustrated Monograph of Queensland 

Grasses (Brisbane) 

15 Staiger, Death Certificate No.21256, 5 October 1888 (Registrar General. 


16 Blue Book, various years 1873-1880. In VP. 

17 Webster, E.M., 1984. The Moon Man (Melbourne University Press, Melbourne). 
The Queensland Museum had just moved to its new building in William Street 

at the time of Miklouho-Maclay's visit, not to the Gregory Terrace building as 
Webster implies; and the investigations were conducted in the building just 
vacated by the museum — not in the museum. 

18 Greenop, F.S., 1944. Who Travels Alone (KG. Murray Publishing Company, Sydney). 

19 Queensland Post Office Directories, various years 1880-1888. 

20 Queensland Museum Board Minutes, various entires 1876-1888. 

21 Staiger-Pearce, Marriage Certificate No.4591, 19 December 1874 (Registrar 

General, Quee i liana) 

22 Brisbane Courier. Saturday 6 October 1888: p.6. 

23 Pike, D. (ed), 1972. 4 ADB 1851-90. D-J (Melbourne University Press), 
family documents, de Vis family, held by Dorothea Melloy of Brisbane, great 

grand -daughter of Charles Walter de Vis, grand-daughter of Charles James de 
Vis of Charters Towers. 

24 Tryon, H. Manuscript On the life and ancestors of Charles Walter de Vis; G.H. de 

Vis to Tryon, 20 September 1915 (University of Queensland. Fryer Library, St 
Lucia. D. 1915 Try. F228). 

25 Charles Walter de Vis to the Hon, Minister for Works, 3 November 1881, 

Application for curatorship of the museum (QMA). 

26 Queensland Museum Correspondence files 1882-93. 

27 Johnston, T.H.. 1916. Obituary C.W. de Vis. Proc R $« Qd 28; 1-17 

28 Charles Walter de Vis, Death Certificate 30 April 1915 CRegistrai General, 


29 Anon, 1904. Mr Charles Syson Devis. Edgbastonia 24(280): 180-9 (Edgbasiun. 


30 Marshall, AJ., 1954. Bower Birds p.135 (Clarendon Press, Oxford). 

31 Jones, D,. 1961. Cardwell Shire Story pp.164-178 (Jacaranda Press. Brisbane). 

32 Goode, J„ 1977. Rape of the Fly p.123 (Thomas Nelson Australia Ltd.. Melbourne). 

33 Davis, E.D., 1976. The Life and Times of Steele Rudd (Lansdowne Press, 


34 Broadbent, K., 1885. On the migration of birds at the Cape York Peninsula 

RSoc Qd 1884 1:93-96 

35 Meston, Am 1889. Report of the Government Scientific Expedition to Bellenden-Ker 

Range (Government Printer, Brisbane). 

36 Anon. 1911. Obituary. Kendall Broadbent Emu 11: 62, 

37 McCarthy, J.V, to PJ. Mcpermott, Under Secretary, Premier's Office, 21 March 

1910 {QSA PRE A337 6144 19.50). 

38 Marks, E.N., 1983. Hamlyn-Harris, Ronald. ADB 1891-1939, raLA, 0,177. 

39 Hamlyn-flarris to Ogilby and Ogilby to Hamlyn-Harris. various letters 1915 (QMA 

correspondence inward and outward 1915). 

40 Clarke, C.C. Drary. 1986 pers. comm. 

41 Anon, 1954, Obituary. HA Longman. Qd Nat. 15 (1-2): 38-40. 

42 Herbert, DA, 1955. Memorial Lecture, Heber Albert Longman. Proc. R. Soc Qd 

66(7): 83^89. 

43 Ftuner, !.. 1944-48, Manuscript diary (QMA). 


44 Courier Mail 21 July 1936. 

45 Anon, 1963. Death of G. Mack, museum director. Telegraph 24 October 1963. 

46 Anon, 1964. Was World Authority on Birds of Australia. Courier Mail 25 October 


47 Anon, 1964. Obituary, G. Mack. Qd Nat. 17(3,4): 75. 

48 Jack, N., 1964. Obituary Mr George Mack. Emu 63(4): 343-44. 

49 Vernon, D.P., 1964. Vale. Kalori 28 April 1964: 19. 



1 Staff and trustees from 1971 are published in the Annual Reports of the 

Queensland Museum 1971-1986. 

2 Hedges was the only gardener not employed by the Department of Agriculture, 

which was responsible for the museum garden after the move to the Exhibition 
building (see Chapter 3). 

*' « ; * 

*.-' : 

i . R#Sr' 



Previous page: Richard Daintree, the 
government geologist for north 
Queensland had been sent to London in 
1871 to arrange the Queensland Annexe 
in the International Exhibition of Arts 
and Industries. He remained there as 
Queensland's agent general. In 1872 he 
arranged a similar display, here 
photographed by the official 
photographer to the exhibition, and 
described in The Times, London 17 June 

thanks to the energy and hard 
work of Mr Daintree, the result is 
extremely creditable to the colony, 
and holds out great promise of its 
future prosperity. The walls are 
hung round with geological maps of 
Queensland, with pictures of the 
aboriginal inhabitants, with a great 
variety of coloured photographs of 
scenery, most artistically executed 
by Mr Daintree himself, and with 
illustrations of the past and present 
flora and fauna of the country. The 
maps exhibit almost every variety 
of mineral wealth; very extensive 
coalfields of two formations, and an 
abundance of tin, copper, gold, 
silver, and other metals. Specimens 
of the various ores are displayed in 
cases, and finished metal work of a 
high order of merit .Among the 
vegetable productions are cotton, a 
grass likely to be valuable in the 
manufacture of paper, and a great 
variety of woods, many of them of 
beautiful grain and close texture, 
capable ofreceiving a fine polish, 
and well adapted for the best kinds 
of cabinet work. Several cases are 
filled by a superb collection of 
stuffed birds, very well mounted, 
and many of them of gorgeous 
plumage. Stuffed kangaroos are 
also to be found, and kangaroo and 
other skins adorn the walls. Among 
a few native implements and 
weapons may be seen hatchets 
formed, as in the most primeval 
times, by binding a shaped flint or 
celt to a handle, and near these are 
nets and other contrivances for 
ensnaring creatures used as food. 

At the opening 'some 50 gentlemen', 
including 'many of the leading colonists' 
then in London, sat down to a repast, 
provided by Mr Daintree, at which - 
they might either mingle English 
and Australian foods, or dine 
exclusively upon either. 

The Queensland contribution to 

the feast consisted of kangaroo 
soup, pate de homard a la dugong, 
ox tongues, sheep tongues, salt and 
spiced beef, mutton and lard de 
dugong"..... The kangaroo soup and 
the tongues were excellent and the 
meats, if not exactly excellent, 
were very eatable, and have 

improved Australian wines were 

placed upon the table but 
unfortunately with no information 
about their age, the cost at which 
they were produced or the districts 

yielding them. The best a white 

wine called Riesling had a really 

fine bouquet and an extremely 
pleasant flavour. The Australian 

hock a sound pure wine of 

natural character The 'Australian 

claref was distinctly bad (The 

Times, loc. cil.\ 
In responding to the toast to Queensland, 
Mr Daintree referred to the 'abundant 
wealth and inexhaustible resources of all 
the British colonies'. 


Page numbers in italics refer to 
illustrations; those in bold type 
indicate the more substantial 

Abel Smith, Sir Henry, 113 
Aboriginal (see also collections) 

archaeology ,2 15 

anthropology ,2 15 


campsite (see also displays), 210 

culture (teaching of), 116 



material culture.206 208 212-3 

message sticks,i9S-9 

midden sites,210 


rock art^ig 218 

spear throwers,219 

stone arrangements,213-4 
Aboriginal Arts Board (Australia 

Aboriginal and Island Affairs. Dept 

Aboriginal Relics Preservation Act 


alienation.7 200 206 208 

audiovisual, 115 

Broadbent and,317 


European disease, 7 

protectors of,206 251 291 
Acclimatisation Society,23 39 279 311 
Acrobates pygmaeus, 163 
Addison, G.H.M.,23-5 
Adsett, D.,97 
Adult education,102 
Agnew, N.,216 240 

agent general, Queensland, 122 131 228 
agricultural crops,178 
Agricultural Society of NSW show 

agricultural ventures,3 : 
Agriculture, Dept of.45-9 53 178-9 184-5 

178 266 
AIF.77 212 
Albert Lyrebird, 156 
Albert Park,286 296 
alginates (in mould ing),88 
Alice Springs, 115 

Alder, Anthony,40 52-5 70 73-5 291 
Alexander the Great,302 
Allen, WA.225 
Allingham Creek,i4S 
Amateur Fishermen's Association of 

Queensland, 162 
American Congress,303 
American Journal of Science£64 
American Museum of Natural History ,58 

142 145 147 163-4 
American Snapping Turtle,162 
ammonites, 139-40 
Anderson, Lars (sawmill),85 
Andrews, Frederick, 157 
animals, stuffed,152 
Annals and Magazine of Natural 

Annals of the Queensland Museum,10S 

135-6 176 265 287 228 293 
Annelida, annelids, 174 194 
Annual Reports, Queensland 


Antarctic fossils,137 
Antechinus leo,170 

material, collecting of,200 

Hamlyn-Harris research,210 
Anthropological Society of 

Queensland,213 323 
anthropologist,213 248 
anthropologist, Papuan government,211 
anthropology (see also collections, 


collection bias,219 

collection management,215-6 

lectures on,210 


social (structural-functional),211 213 
anthropology museum, University of 

Queensland.213 218 
Aplin, C. D'Oyly Hale, 16 36 68-9 106 122- 

3 131148 
Aprosmictus insignissimus,]55 
arachnology, arachnids (see also 

Aradidae,185 178 

field work,214 218 


historical, industrial,234 
Archbold (gardener) ,56* 
Archbold, Richard, 58 163 
Archer, Michael,115 147 148 149 169 
Archer, Archibalds 43 
Archiv fur Naturgeschichte,264 
Arcom Pacific Pty Ltd.250 
Arhopala wildei.175 
Art Gallery, Queensland^ 31 104 227 

artifice rs.31 
art section,31 
Arts, Heritage and the Environment, 

Dept of, 247 250 
Aru Is, 156 
Ashmore Reef,251 

assays, mineral,20 36 102 106 123 125 
associates, museum (see also staff, 

honorary), 143 
attendance figures,104-5 
attendants, 106 
Atthey, Thomas, 134 
audiovisuaIs,114 115 
Austral oil engine,235 
Australia Council (Aboriginal Arts 

Australian Aboriginal Life diorama (see 

displays Aboriginal Campsite) 
Australian animals (audiovisual),115 
Australian Association for the 

Advancement of Science, 137 314 
Australian Biological Resources 

Survey, 168 
Australian Committee of Inquiry on 

Museums and National Collections, 

Australian ethnography, 31 215 
Australian Hookworm Campaign,321 
Australian Institute of Aboriginal 

Australian Institute of Marine 

Australian Museum,9-10 41 43-4 49 52- 

3 103 124 130 136 155 163 186-7 204 

207 262 280 282 291 316 

Australian National Helminth 

Australian National Research Council,322 
Australian New Zealand Association for 

the Advancement of Science.321 
Australian Paper Mills,116 
Australian War Memorial,77 
Austrosaurus mackillopi,]38 
aviation history (see also Hinkler, 

Thomas Macleod collection, 

Kingsford Smith),235 
AVRO Avian Cirrus G-EBOV, 77-8 85 97 

226227 229 
AVRO Baby,S5 86 220-1 236 

Bailey, Frederick Manson.39 41 43 71 

177 255 283 319 321 
Baillie.J.,54 55 56 
Baird, Betty,61 
Baker, P.,247 
Balaam, WJ.,84 
Bald Hills, 139 
Bancroft, Joseph.17 48 179 190 279 279 

288 312 
Bancroft, Josephine (see also 

Bancroft family, 92 
Bancroft, Thomas,181 189 
Banfield, Bertha,187 
Banfield, EJ.,187 192 210-1 
Banks, Sir Joseph,8 
Barbour, Thomas,141 
barnacles, 194 
Barnard, H.G.,57 
Barnard, Wilfred Bourne,185 185 
Bartholomai, Alan,62, 63 63 85 88 126 132 

141-2 143-8 147 213-4 216 295 
Bartley, Nehemiah,123 
basicranium, analyses, 147 
Beagle 1841,74 
beam engine.91 232 233 
bees, 181 

catalogue of, 184 
beetles (see Coleoptera) 

foreign, 175 
Beirne, Michael P.,58 60 62 79 
Belcher, R.,95 
Bell, the Hon. J.T.,137 
Bellenden Ker, - Range,158 177 194 195 

Bendeez Pty Ltd,250 
Beni Assan,225 
Bennett, George.10 130 133 
Bennett, F.G.,133 
benthic fauna,197 
Berlin Museum, 184 
Bernays, C.A.,210 
Bernays, L.A.,42 71 284 284 
Berney, Frederick.137-9 
Berry,J.,49 50 54 105 
Berrvman, V.$0 91 
Beutel,E.,W9 233 
Bevington, W.R.iiO 111 111-2 
Bibliotheca Zoologica,258 
bicentennial, 1988.298 
Billing, Shirley (nee Deller),112 
Bingham, EJ.,59 
bird haU,89 

Bishop, Martin J.,188 189 
Blackall Range, 189 
Black Mountain Skink,i70 


Blackmail, h A 
Blake. Capl.W.H.j 

Bl,>tiidu tl l86 

Bleeker. P., Atlas TcHlhyohgt<flti',35B 259 

Bligh, 0..95 

BlufT Downs.147 

oj trustees i iee also trustees) 20 
.31 39 156 174 276-99 222-3 233 247 


bueiness,27828Q283 289 

businc: t, ' I I Cl ;>f,283 

disbanding o£291 
Final meeting 1907,391 
inaugural meeting 1970.295 
meetings.41 257-8 295 
quorum, 284 

1 6.264 
site and building committee,298 
statutory powers.286 290 293 
Boer witr.289 

Bologna, Giovanni de.228 

Bollon.W.R.R ( 297 
Booklets, Quo i uiseum.62 llO 

nding.256 254 266-7 269 271 
books, Coiten '6,256 

i looks, wanl "' ' ' 
. marine.31 
botanical departmi ■ 
i . QloniaJ.43 
bo v.". economic,4S 
Bougainville, Chevalier de,245 
Bounty, HMS£4fi 
Bowen, Sir ' rgueon. 

KCMG.2 3 4 8-9 310 
Bowman, L .,.,. 

-i rebelhon.223 

I. (Thomas Ibmpionl.ZSO 

branch museums, <2 193 237 294 297 
north Quetmsl;md,298 


Brazier. T..136 
Bremen, 5,6164213 
Brighton Pavilion,24 
me,2 6 "9 17 
floods 1893,105 

iuneil.25 27 108 
Brisbane Anporl redevelopmenr*299 
British Association 'or the Advancement 

h Museum 
Broadbent collections.316 
expeditions, WD 147 164 

nan purchase,156-7 
Hack, i 

model tor colonists. 10 
mosquitoes, 179 

New Guinea material.161 203-4 
palaeontology, 136 138 
Briti&h Museum Catalogucs.258 

British New Guinea (see New Guinea) 
British school of social jnthropulogy.Sll 

Broadbent. Kendall,43-5 37-40 4? 52-4 
71 103 124 134 154 155 157-8 158-9 
1W 177-8 186 204 283 291 315-W 

Broad Sound.178 

Broken River, 146 

Brooker,WA. l >7 

Brookes. William,222 

Browne. J. Arthur. 138 

Bry^, Professor W.H.,141 
Brycu, Lee,212 
brvuzoans f 194 197 
Buckley, D.R.,54 

um. J-,216 
Buhot, Slephen.206 208 


Burleigh Head6.179 

Butler; K.J. Cuthbert,55~6 65269 

butle, I also Lepidoptera, 


Busacott, C.H., 284 2S5 

birds. 134 

. idiles.134 
lizards, 134 

pials.134 US 

turtles. 134 

■ ,:.ns,17r, 179 

1 ail I ■ ■■' kuhop),299 

Cairns. W.W..LMf 

all ■:, 

.,n ■ M ■ .-213 
t ariiluum nautiloids. — tril0m~tes,144 
Campbell. B.M.,62 90 93 193-4 197 
Campbell, Charles.1 

Cameron. J.,289 291 

cannon, bronze^'. 

Cannon. Lester, 190 194 

Canterbury Mu&eum.l34 

Capi iork,:i 158 167 177 V<)6 gig 229 316 


it oids, 135 
coal measures.134 
palaeoniscoid fish, 136 

i.v (see catalogues) 
Cardwell.71 158 177 283 316 
caretakers cottage^ 50 55 105 
Cofiia aarttiis,l70 

US 217 
Carnarvon Gorge,213 

irvon Range ,2 14 218 
Carnegie Corponrtion.M 
Caniegie travel grajit.6] 141 ;: ; .i 
Carnegie 'Oust Granti59 111 
Carpentaria basin. - subbasin,14 
Carter, H.J.,182 

Casuemainc lb 299 

Catalogue oj \ Au si rot 'it m Stalk- and 

lU-tycd Cnntaicu.262 

Csffd index. birds,157162 

New Guinea tMacGregor) 

collect ion.203-4 2UD 

cataloguing (see alSo registers), 188 

MscGcegor collet tion, ! 
Cattle Station Yards model,226 
census, 1864,7 
centenary ot the Queensland 


centenary trf Queensland^ 

cephalopods.181 320 
Cemtodus (see also '■■■■■ 
chafer beetle,175 
Chalcidoidea,182 185 
Chambers, H. Vere,53 269 

-19 306 
Chapel, J.B.,24 
Charters Towers. 183 


Chataway.J.V.^y 289-90 
Chtlydra serpen linu^'l 
Chester. Chad 5,38 257 
chickens, two-headed- I 
Chief Secretary s Oept.269 
children's hour,7o 
Chillagoe Caves.75 
Cmna.145 233 
Chinchilla.U 142 

e ftgoda,223 
Chisholm, Alec,J23 

ilSoci ly, Bristams155 
Charley, DJX42 

chronometer, Earnshaw,230 

Churchill Fellowship, U4 

C1B 101 

CityHall.i9 25 

Clarke. A.W., 124 

Clarke, Joseph KJ& 

Clarke River .126 

Clarke, Sir Ruperl 

Clark, the Rev, William Branwhite.130 

cleaning of museum, 102-3 
Clerk of the Legislative Assembly.17 
Clifton, Darling Dow nt, 130 283 

i naturalist.137 
closure ol galleries (see Queensland 

Coath, Capt J.W..201 
Cobb & OjMO 
Cobb A Co Museum of Animal 

Transport , 
Cochrane. Ben.237 
Cockerell. John T\. 68 156-7 
Cockerdl, T.D.A.,184 
cockroaches, 186 
&jghlan,J.C w 206 206-7 

-^h.M..54-6 59 73 75 
Coleman, R.A.,95 247 
collecting. !'■ 


by overseas institutions, 163-4 

" ruinea materiaX21fi 

transport of mate-i ial.316 
CAUecfioris (See also collections 
anthropology - history and 
technology, — insects, — 
invertebrates)^ 59 69 152 174 194 

3 302 305 
birds (MacGregor),161i6*i 
Broadbent, 1 \ 
care of, 175 

Coxens,38 174 186 256 
development of, 280 
donations. 156 
enlargement, expansion of,22 50 69 

102 28 

geological^l 43 133 174 222 
Geologicil Survey,126 133 
herbarium. 4 1 

mineralogieaI,21 36 68 124 126-7 134 
natural history ,36 222 

New Guinea (natural htetoryMfil 



opal, 127 

Philosophical Societys 
purchase of. 156 
reference, 186 
study of, 152 
vertebrate, 167 170 
vertebrate palaeontology, 1>4 
collections, anthropology ,200 
Aboriginal.206 208 211 
Aboriginal archaeology ,217 
Arnhem Land (eastel 
curatlon of,213 
Fly Rw 

Irian Java.2 12 

MacCre«or,50 53 202 203 202-4 


management C-f,218 
New Gumea2202 212 292 
New Guinea, British.202 

New Guinea. German.210 
New Zealand,2<X) 

palaeolithic implements^ \2 
Papua, Gulf of.2 10 
Skertchly's, : 


i west fVitic.200 
Vanuatu,^ 210 
collections, Kistoryand u.rluiology£28 



food and adulteration ,225 


technology,222 226 233 

collections, msects,174 175-86 

Agriculture. Depf nU79 Iftt 


Chaieidoidea,185 196 


optera (beetles),175 ItH 

Diggles',155 175 



Hem ipt era, 184 


Lepidoptera (butterflies.) J75-0 


L79 181 

Salting'*, 175 

collectiuns, mvertebrates,38 177-8 182 

ascidians.194 197 
iceans.194 K#>-7 


helminth>.190 192 196 

protozoans, 190 192 

spiders.189 196 

u>tals,192-3 197 
zoology (see also Broadbent'),181 

geology .43 

see also Wild),179 

collectors, gentlemen,174 
Coiliver, F. Stanley.64 144 149 
colonial architect.16 18 21 26 
Colonial Museum. London.202 
Colonial Museum, New Zealand.123 
Colonial Museum, Sydney ,9 
colonial secretary ,45 
Commissariat Store.14 230 Z3X 
Commonwealth Employment Scheme,114 

uiity support ,230 
Comptroller General ol Prison 
computerisation of records.168 

hall (see Exhibition building.) 
Condauuiie River ,2 14 
Conference ol Australian Museum 

anthropology ,214-6 
history and t£chnology,240 
laboratory ,31 
maritime archaeoloj 
■ I 
convict barrai 

■ ;, C;tpl. Jamt 


im.i ; 

Cooktown.218 228^0 


.-oral i Greal 

Barrier Reef). 174 


74 192-3 

tell University.isa 

Cornish tin minr-s,222 

o>iyvwhvUi mesUm 

Cosanoccra ht'TVuks_\~[. 



cottage, caretafcer&3S 50 55 105 


Coxen,Cnarles,6-lQ EN8S6-SS7-8.6S 9 

102123 30 L74-5 1Kb 

o5 31<M 
Coxen, Chiiries (portrait a(J,22fi 

17-1 178 181 
Coxen, Stephen, 10 155 

Covacevich,J. ( U01fl9 

ctabs,68 194 
CnUiu-hinnt ■ hrni, ' 

Cretaceous formations.138 
Cretaceous fio&sils, 

tish.134 lUb 142 143 
insects, 147 

omit hopod. 148 

reptiles, 134 136 

iilus natham,\3>l 
Cnmibie. A.. 138 
Crosby, K.^14 
cruataceans,174 193-4 
CryptuterTriss bmis (see also iermik* 

in ft it '4 

Crystal Pafece,24 

Cultural Centre CompU . 
Cultural Centre Planning and 

Establishment Committet\296 
cultural heritage, I 
cultural items, systematic sampling 



curat ion, 58 

curator, appointment of.37 58 

curiu hunters,200 

Currane statkm.142 

i . K.,38 41 
custodian (see Staiger) 

Customs, and Excn . i 10 235 


Cuvier Animal Kingd&n,Wi 

Czechura, G.,169 

E.C.,59 62 90 142.348 Ifl 

189 ! 
Dale. I 

Daintrcc photoBraphs,i0 // 8 
Damtn I lard 17 68-982 12B-31S3 

HI 145 148 222 

Daniells, James,. 133 136 
Darling Dowtis/B o 2 44 5 E5 tSS 134 

lus&il£ ) 13fi 
industrial I 
settlers-lSO L 
Darvall i 

Darwin, Char)fis,9 74 102 161 

DttsyuToidts b*ym • 


storage and retrieval, 162 
i Klatniurt Productions^ZSG 
David. I o i W. Edgeworth.137 

Davis, Arthnr.318 
Davies, Valerie,^ 189 189 

Shirley (see also Billinj 

Denham.Digby. I.. 
Denmead, Alan, 138 
depression ,36 

189(»s,24 47-8 50 10b 135 136 159 178 

■ ", 
building . 
d*Vis I ■ Hi '■ i - '^47 

'4 134-7 157 m 
177-8 188 203 208 225 6 200 ; 
> i U3-5 
. . 162 
Devonian rnrals. nauliloids.145 
Q i.J.,49 


Diggles' 0ntith&togy,25& 

Dlggles -I ter,9173fi6a 154-6 174- 

5 m 


/> queffnstandicux;V36 

dinosanrs.116 148 

trackways.88 93 145 146 147 
ints.7b Wi 
diprotodoni fussils,45 130 136-7 


cabinets, 15! 
collections for. 152 

S^l 154 156 
Hamlyn-Harrte,2M 210 
humour in.90 
life expectancy ,95 
installation, 95 97 
Dvercrowdtng.70-1 210 

, i .. n 05 
policy ,152 




displays (see also under separate entries 

for each building occupied),41 


Aboriginal Campsite diorama,73 74 

78 95 210 300-1 

Aepyornis maximus,89 

animal habitat group dioramas,74-5 
78 75 


bird hall,90 


Black Noddy,90 


Bowerbird, Regent,102 

carpet snakes,70 

columnar basalt.88 

Coral Pool diorama,74 76 192 

Cretaceous marine reptiles,91 

Discovering the Way, 75 85 

Eurvzvgoma.SO 115 

Flightless Birds,89 

Focus on Progress,85 

From Flame to Fluorescent, 85 

geology of Queensland, 123 

Great Barrier Reef,80 

Hairy Nosed Wombat,89 89 

Hinkler planes,85 

Hirundo neoxena,93 

history and technology,234 

human evolution,80 

human physiology,80 


insects,75 90 102 

Introducing Earth History,85 

Investigator Tree.Z? 74 

Kangaroo, Red.87 87 

Limestone Cave diorama,74 75-6 

live animals,70 92 


Lvrebird, Superb,89 

MacGregor collection,210 213 205 

mammals (Rowland Ward),77 

Marine Mammals, 88 88 


meat ants' nest,94 

Melanesian anthropology, 91 

mineralogical,69 124 



monstrosities, 78 

MuUaburrasaurus,96 97 

Myths and Customs of the Torres 

new, for South Brisbane,87 88-97 

Noisy Miner ,90 

Oil and Gas in Queensland,85 

Pleistocene Period,79 


Rhoetosaurus brownei,76 90 91 

Samford Bora Ringed 87 214 

Sharks and Rays,85 85 



termite mounds.88 94 

Texas Caves,88 

touch,88 90 114 


Tyrannosaurus rex,76 91 91 

vertebrates, 152 

wild flower,5i 
Display Hall of Science Industry and 

doctrine of natural theology,152 
Domrow, R.,196 
donations.63 135 261 
Douglas, John, MLA.202 263 276 281 288 

Doulton & Co.,226 
Dow, D.D.,90 
Doyle, Patrick, 135 
Drake, Carl J.,185 
Drakiessa hackeri.ISS 
Dromaeius megaloniaXSl 

Duke of Edinburgh,76 
Dundas, Douglas,76 
Dunk 1,187 192 210 
Dunn, S.,138 
duplicates,152 161281 
duplicates, MacGregor col lection, 204 
Durham Downs,138 
Dutch East India men, — spice 
traders ,244 

eastern Australian coast,245 
East Indies,244 
Ebenaqua ritchieri,l44 
education^ 108-116 288 306 

extension,59 110 111 111 116 116 298 

holiday programme,2i7 

school visits,ii3 114 116 



Education, Dept of (see also Public 

Instruction, Dept of), 111 298 
Edward River Settlement,218 
Edwards, Capt. Edward,246 
Egyptian antiquities, pottery ,225 
Egyptology, University College, 

Eight Mile Plains,135 
Elder, L.,62 

electrical apparatus,232 
Electrical Institute, Queensland,230 
Emmet district,214 
electric light (see Exhibition building, 

Endean. R.,193 
Endeavour, HMS.245 
Endeavour, FIS.182 
engines (see also beam engine),235 
Engineering Undergraduate Society.232 
English knitting sheath,223 
enquiries into museum (see also 


select committee,286 

Public Service Commissioner's,293 

Richards and Watson 294 
enquiries, public,110 
Epping Forest, 106 
Erie Mill engine,240 
Ericsson hot air engine,235 
Escape River, 229 

Espiritu Santo,201 
estuarine surveys.M 194 
Etheridge. R. jnr,49 207 292 

palaeontology, 136 

report to premier,53~4 72 180 189 210 

222 269 291-3 304 
ethnoarchaeology,218 248 

field work,218 

ethnographic material 

collection of,204 


New Guinea,50 

New Hebrides,50 
ethnologist, museum,211 
Eungella honeyeater,167 169 
Eurombah Creek,138 

European interest in Australia,8 
Euryzygoma dunense,115 L38 
evolution, 157 

of man,85 200 
Evan, Samuel, 138 
exchange, 152 

MacGregor collection,203 210 
Executive Council.4 
Exhibition buiIding,i2-3 22 22-3 242527 

23-31 48 125 289 

accommodation^ 30 

cleaning ( 79 

closure,97-8 296 



displays in,71-2 76 99 

drinking water,26 

earth basements 

Iighting.72 79 312 

move to, 179 

opening,72 105 

rain damage,29 79 


refreshment rooms,32 105 

safety, 104 


roof trusses,31 


women's closets, 105 

National Agricultural and Industrial 
Association show 1876 Brisbane, 

Brisbane 1897 International^ 125 


London 1871, 1872, Arts and 
Industries,83 122-3 352-5 

London 1886 Colonial and Indian,124 
202 226 

Melbourne 1881 International.281 

Melbourne 1888 Centennial, 72 125 

Sydney 1877 Agricultural,83 281 

Sydney 1880 International, 281 

specimen loans to,281 
Expeditions to Australia.58 131 

Archbold 1948,167 

British Museum (Wilkins) 1923-5,58 

British Museum 1978,147 

Harvard Museum of Comparative 
Zoology,58 138 140 

Hann, William,132 

Low Isles 1927,192 

Northern Australian 1855,8 
explorers, exploration,229 244 
extension education (see education) 

Falconer, J.E.,135 


Fenwick, A.,34-5 56 270 

Fenwick, J.,276 280 290 

Fenwick, Mrs J.,260 

fibreglass (in moulding),87 

Field Naturalists' Club,108 

field work, - assistants,63 81 157 247 299 

Fiji.203 283 

filarial worms,190 

Filmer, L,56-7 61 76 79 166 322 


Finney Isles and Co.,34 

fire, -risk,21 28-9 38 

firearms, 106 235 

fish,162 177 

fishermen, Macassan,244 

fitout (of galleries),97 

Flagellation ofChrist,221 

Flamingo Bay, - Charters.250 

Fleay, David,109 


Fletcher, A.R.. MLA.294 

Flinders, Matthew.74 2 

FlindmicMhys dcnm*w//r,138 


Floriculture buiiding.297 


food (constituents and adulterations),225 

F^rde, Clanc.271 

-..Deptof,237 297 
Forestry and Timber Muscum,237 
forestry and timber industry.23 
Forgan Smith, Premier,28 
fossils (sec also collection.. 

ammonites, "13d- 40 

Antarctic, 137 


■ X)Olt9Qrl4B 

Darling DowiE,20? 

Heirjipiera 1 142 
in9ectsJ42 147 
invertebrates, 142 145 

kangaroo, 137 

marsupials.130 134 138 142 U 

plants.137 139 142 145 147 

turtle. 138 

vertebrates 134 12 

vertebrates. cave,T3fl 
Fossil Mtmwwls of Australians^ 
Franks. Augustus W.,203 
Free Library and Museum.lfi 
freeze drying,87 
French Navy.251 
freshwater crayfish,197 
Frost, Riehard.137 
fruit pests (see insects pests) 
Fulton, Collin, Boys, Gilmour, 

and partners.2^6 
fumigation, 104 
fungus bugs.lSG 
tumiture, display and storac; 

Gailey. Richard^W 288-90 

Gambusia assimsJ3£'\ 

Garrett traction engine,^ 235 23> 

Garstang, John ,225" 

gastric brooding frog. 16h 


Gehrmann, E,£16 

general fund,295 

geographic variation.152 

gEological material (see also 


acquisition of, 134 137 
geological museum (see mineralogical 

Geological Society, London.131 
Geological Survey, 125 131 13.'! 136 228 
geotegy "1" Brirtbane.130 
geology sectional 

geologists. govemment,68 122 125 131 
George 11,302 
George V.104 
tkr.nnum, HMAS.192 
Gibson, Capt. Philip.250 
Gibson, Robin,31 
Gilbert, Dl.,95 
Gilbert River.ttfi 
Gill. J.C.H, ,295 
Girault.A.A.175 182-3 

glassware (Cypriote),223 

Gloucester, Duke of,79 

Godman, Frederick, 156-7 

Goebel. W.JW 

gold, fields (Victorian), 122 

gold, nuggets.106 

Golden Bowerbird.*? 156 139 160 

Goode. George Bruwn,304 

Gore of Yandilla.137 

Gorman, A.,34- 5 

Gould, ElbabellUO 

GouIdJ..8 10 154-5 311 

Gould, J- Australian Hmfc, 355 256^56 

Gould. J, Mammals of Australia, 258 311 
government funding, paoSldj 299 

nment Printi 264 266 271 

government select committee (see 

enquiries iAtO museum) 
Governor Gipps, 17 
Graham, &&,136 



Grace Bros,250 


Great Artesian Basin, 144 

Great Barrier Reef (see also coral reefs, 
displays),110 187 192 245-6 314 
Marine Park. Capricornut seetion.249 

Great Barrier Reef CommiUee.192 322 

Great Barrier Reef Wonderland, - 

Association Inc.,298 
.. y, AX:..8 19 82 131 133 135 148 175 

SOB 276 278 289-90 312 
OaensHL W.E.,54 54 
Grichtmg, I..58189 
Griffiths; Sli Samuel.104 802 B69 

guide to the museum.110 
Gulf of Carpentaria,!^ 316 
Gulliver, Tom. 156 
Gunn, Shirley &fi2 80 112 113 271 
Guttejidgei Masking and Davey,298 


Gym[wJ20 1 124 131297 
Gympie Forestry Cenire.237 

Hacker, Henrvva- 5 54 6 fri 56 75 174 

181 182 183-5 
Harkfrielfo VeitcM,lM 
Racket, T.R.,36 131 
HaRen.Otio.256 254 
Hall. R..49 52 
Hall Of Science, Industry and Health 

Development Committee.63-4 
232-4 294 
Hamilton. W.,104 
Hamlvn-Harris, Ronald.50 5-/ 53-5 68 73 

103 105 108 126 137-8 162 BO 182 187 

192 208 210-1 228 269 293 320-1 
handicapped members of community, 103 

Hanlon, Premier E.M..104 33Q 
Mann. William J26 132 133 
Happy Bay.249 

Harbours and Marine. Depl of.57 76 230 
Hardlev, R., 116 217-8 
Haien, L..6V 
Hargrave. I.-,31<- 

on, B.,52-3 54 55 56 
Harrison, K.,197 
Harrison. R.I..295 
Hartmann, H.,137 

Harvard Collegers 

Harvard Museum of Compai a 

Haswell, W A.39-41 40 41 43 103 124 

m-Affl 177 225 258 281") 

282-3 316 


Hawkins, G.H.,48-50 265 
Heariingion Hal 1. 133 136 
■■ lh.U 

Hedges. W .49 

Hedley, CharleM3 177 186 385-7 192 
Hetaeus hatnlym, H. hamsi,)82 

Hemiptera (see also collections, 

fossils), 184 

Henderson, G.,247 
Her Majesty's Stationary Office, 26* 
herbariuin,39-42 72 283-4 
Herbert, R.G.M.4 4 
Herbert River.71 
Heibertun.44 158 179 
Hermann, H.W.,57 187 
Heron I. Research Station,l92 
Heusslcr, John, 4 
Hey. Rev. N., 206 208 
Higfcnr i ,156 

Hill, Mrs Lumley.139 
HiUer, Anlhony,89 
Hills. Edwin Sherborn.139 
Htnklei ( HJ.L.(r>rt}.77 :■. ■■ 
Hinkler memorabilia.85 
Hinwood, Rhyl (nee Jones).81 
Htstoirt- Nalurrlle des Pmssfm&,2t] I 
tisi w Shipwmks Act im:MA 246-7 
historical objeets,229 
historical societies.229 
history and technology Section, "" E3 

237 272 
Hoare, Sue, 168 
Hodge. J.C.,85 112 114 
Hodgkinson. \V.O. r 288 291 
Holdieh, D..L97 
holiday programmes ,112 116 
Holmes. W..9 

Home Secretaries Depl,207 
honorary fellows (see also staff, 

honorary). 143 
Hooker, Sir joseph.43 

Hooper, George,207 

hospital dispensar>'J21 279 
houses of pari iament, 17 
housing,4 11 

Hu|jhendenj:% 137-8 140 
Hughes, Henry, 130 
human skeletal material.211 
Hurst. EMM 125 137 338 264-5 
hydrographic data^246 
Hyporhrysops digglt&ii.llS 



Illidge, Rowland,J&7 186 205 211 

immigrants, German.6 

immigration^ 4 6 


immigration depL201 
blperial War Museum.^ 
indexing (see catalogues, cataloguing) 
indigenous peoples.248 scientific 

literature, ins 
industrial award (attendants). 103 
industrial department.52 228 

Industrial and Technological Museum, 

Victoria ,228 
industries (early),^44 
industry, secondary .229 
Inflatable Boa! Centre.250 
information (see also enquiries, 

public), 106 
information leaflets.110 

information retrievai.170 
Ingram, G.,90 168-9 

tones, HJ13 

insects (see also collections, displav).45 
174 175-86 

insect life historic 
insect damage,78 12:, 184 
Inskip Point, 177 


Institution of Engineers Australia,232 
Instruction Publique des Beaux Arts, 

Ministere de,258 
interlibrary loans.273 
International Council of Museums 


i variation,134 161 
inventory, 1876,154 157 174-5 200 

■222 278 
in vertebrates, 193-4 



marine ( 68 177 


studies, 174 
Investigator Tree, 74 
Irwin, inapector,293 
Isaac, Frederick. 130 

Jack, Robert Logari.1?.? 133 136 

Jack. Thomas,138 

Jackson, G.K.,56 212 

James Cook Museum, Cooklown,233 

James Cook University, 193 

Jamieson, B.G.M..196 ' 

Japanese sword, 106 

Jardine, Frank L.,319 

Jardine, John, 155 

Jarvis, H.L.,56185 


Jell. P., 126 144 

Jessie Kelly.201 

Joflfe, \X£6 

John Oxley Library,21 

John Walker and Suns | 

Johnston, J.S.,23 

Johnston, T, Harvey.55 100 282 219 

Jonas Bros, New York,9J 

Jondaryan station,310 

[ones, Rhyl.81 

Jordan, Henry.4 10 

Jordan, J.,49 56 

Jurassic 1abyrinthodunL4. r » 

plants. 149 
Justice. Dept ot233 


■ £36*248 

Kcebic Collegers 

■ K.,59 81 
Kellugs (Australia) Pty Ltd,299 
Kemp, Anne, 139 143 
Kennedy. Edmund,: ' 
Kennedy, expedition. 230 
Kennedy's sextant,82 
Kennel, Mrs,48 
Kenny. R..193 

Kidston, W.,53 291-2 304 o 
Kmiberley region, W.A..218 
Kindergarten Teacher's College. 108 
hung, H.E.. M1A276 
King, George ,130 
King. Helen.188 
King Parrot. i~j 
King s<)Ioihoii,302 

Kings Creek, 130 132 338 ' 
Kingsford Smith memorabilia. 236 

270 271 
Kingsford-Smith, Charles and family.273 
Krcftt, Gerard.K) 132 282 3 
Komillaroy Tribe, 102 311 
Kott. Patrida.194 

K. qiiMn5landi<w.,]38 139 140 Ml 

labelling.78 153 188 211 

laboratories 31 

Labour movement.6 


labyrinthodont, Jurassic.145 

Lady Elliott I..249 

Lake Caltabonita, SAt45 

Lamb. Joseph.49 V) 52-3 126 188-9 

Lamington, bird. 203-4 
Lamington Plateau, 184 
Lancaster. W.N.,92 236 
land bills.6 


order system.4 

titles ofiice,6 
Lang. Rev. John Dunmore,3 4 4 8 
I arl,, Malcolm, 145 

Lark Quarry dinosaur Ir.i, lL\vay,91 146 
Lark Quarry Environment Park,145 
Ulrs Anderson's Sawmill,234 
fates (use in moulding),80 87 
La Trobe University,^ 
Lawrence, Capf. WHJqQ 201 
Lea, A.M.. 182-3 
leaflets, information, 110 
Leahy. Constable.181 
lertiues, public, 108-9 139 

r empe,J4P 
Legislative Assembly ,6 

clerk of,284 
Leichhardt. Ludwig,83 131 310 
Lemley, Kay E..147 149 
Lennon, Norman.272 
l.cpidoptcra (see also butterflies), 177 

18G 287 
Leslie. Patrick r fl2 130 730 
library, Queensland Museum-252-.V 


accommodation, 260 269 

acqu.f3itton.155 262-3 264 

administration of.257 264-6 273 


attitude of boards? 261 


binding^ 3 ,■- 

development of.257 
donations.:' n0 
exehange.265-6 269 
expendilure.257-8 261 
Longman .270 


ovcrcrowding.263-4 271 

public use of,261 269 


alt i I di pli atj ^.266 

special collections.272 
suppliers,256 272 

work load,273 

Lindou, E.B.,43 4 124 
Linnaeus (Q2 

Liiinean Society, London,323 

Linnean Society of NSW,314 

live specimens,?!) 

lizards (see also reptiles).169 

loans, conditions of, 280 

loan kits.112 114 

local governments 

Logan, Commandant,! 1 ) 130 

London. City of.106 

Longman, Heber A.+14-5 59 54 56 S4-7 

5B-9 60 108 112 138 139 138-41 
ii ■ ■ 4 169 184 192 2U-2 229 

.252-.3 269 300-9 321-3 
Longman, lrene,56 321 
Lnngmorc, Wayne. 168-9 
i -:pecimens.43 286 
Low Isle* expedition, 192 

Lower; E..49266 

h i . P.,176 

Lukin.&.L..2?6 283 
Lukin, Gresley.276 2S2 284 
ujngOah.70 92 282 
1,136 M3 

McAnna, M.E.,59 61 78 79 30 80-1 166 

McClelland, ri.,52 
McConnel, David C, 135 
McConnell, Uraub 

MacDermott, PJ..53 

McDonell, S.G.,201 

Mcllwraith. Thomas.135 202 

Made, Ceurge.55 59-62 60 78 80 100-1 

112 113 142 167 185 213 271 323 

McKay. Roland.168 190 
McKenzie, Margaret.yti 
McKenzie, Man^.^^W 216 
WacGregor coUectiorj (ace collections] 
MacGregor. Sir William,l57 161 186 202-4 

204 216 

nis, lan.190 
Mackerras. Josephine.186 
MacUay, ITiHiara.178 
Macphersun, .^]ex,43 45 124 133 136 
Macphersnn Range.206 
Macropus titan,136~7 
Macros&an, J.M.,284 284 288 
malacology, 186 
Malinowski, Bronislaw^li 
mammal-like reptiles,H7 



aquatic. 194 
manufacturer* samples^2fl 

manuscript names of de Vis', 134 

Mapaia Station.213 

Afanu. wreck ol r 3L> 

Maritime Archaeological Association of 

maritime archaeologists.247 
maritime archaeology section,3I 24! 

section, 247 
Marknam. S.F..28 
Marks. Mrs A.H..230 
Marks. CP.J?12 289 289 
Marks, EX'. 
Marks t'amiiv. 

Marmor Limestone Quarry.138 
Marsh, LO.,232 
Marshall. T.C. ■ •/ 5555773 

! i S 78 88109 138141192 321 

bones, giant,130 

carnivorous, 169 

■ imalioniUfl 

MaryvaK . i '■ I 

Mather, P. (neeKott),194 

Mathews, Gregory, 163 |fl7 

Matthews.}: " 
May. Sydnev.322 
Maynard. L.M.,235 
Mem, C.S., 1 I 

anthropology ,215 

ethnography, 2 16 
Melbourne Exhibition building,24 
Meldrum. A.R..229 
McmmK ufthe Queensland Mtiseutn.lQB 

182 269 287 
Mephtito,77-H9}224 229 
Mcftozoic faunas, 138 


Meslon An hihald.159 177 206 
Middle Eocene bat, 147 
Miklouhn Maday, N.,312 3 

assays (see separate entrv) 

boom,U 16 131 

deposits, development of, 122 

specimens, 107 124 
miner alogical (see also collections,) 

museum, 16 69 122 131 

specimens, 125 

use of, 125 

mineralogist, 49 127 
mineralogy,12lL' 3 

catalogue of,125 131 

search for,130 
miners, 171 

Mines, Dep( nf ( 124-5 142 


potential ,222 
minister far 


Agriculture and Stoek.290 

Home Affairs,247 

Lands and Works.276 


Public In3truction^M8-y 

Public Works,17 36 227 

Public Works and Mines,28r> 
Miocene deposits.147 149 

Miskin, W.H.,40 175-6 186 276279 280 

I J 287 -8 312 
Miskm's species, 176 
M.t.hHi, Sir Tlioinah.UK) /a/ 
model stnckyard,288 
molluscs (sec also collections, shells) ( 43 

174 177 IR6-8 

non-marine, 188 

terrestrial, 188 
Molnar. R.E.147 
Monroe, R.W..189 194 
Montague Road, West End,297 
Monteith. G..184 -$193 
Moreton, Berkely Basilar 288 290 
M->retonBay,2 194 197 

penal colony I set also penal 

settlement),!- J ISO 
Moreton 1..218 
Morgan, G.,197 
Mominglon I..218 
Mornington I. rait, 2 12 
Morris, l.G.,295 
mosquitoes (see also collections). 181 190 

Mosuwadoga, G..225 216 
motor vehicles. 167 

uialerials.87 8 
Mount Krebli 
Mount Spurgeon,166 
move, museum to Exhibition buildiriR.103 

106 289 297 

liiimenury (juilding.16 

lo Post Office bm1r]ing,36 

uth Brisbane.103 297 306-7 

to Witiiain St.,103 280 383 286 
Mueller, Baron von, 132 
Muiler. Heinrieh,83 
Murphy. Eileen G.,M-5 54-5 54,55 56" 62 

Murray, 1..138 
Murray. j.H.P.,210 
Murray, J.K. ,212 
Museum of Applied Arts and Science, 

Museum fur Naturkunde,5K 164 BB7 
Museum of Science. Industry and 

Applied Arts,232 
museum services in Queensland;^ 
museum socieries.299 
Museum Society ol Queenslnrid,64 233 


definition of,304 

educational rote.304 

European, 1U 63 

evolution of.304 

functions ot.304 
local and regional,298 
research role,303-4 

state support,304 
Musgrave, Anthony ^02 
\futtaburrasaurus,96 148 
Myal aww.310 
Mygalomorphac, 189-90 

named Bpecii 

\a n n ost i nctis gracibides , 169 
Naples. Stazione Zoology 20 
Nathan, Sir Matthew.138 187 102 
National Agricultural and Industrial 

Association of Queensland^ 

23 104 289 
National Association (as above, see also 

Royal National Association) 

National Association building (<hx 

Exhibition building) 
national character .25 
National Estate granrs.248 
National Estate, southeast 

national ldentity.HO^ 
National Geographic Society,250 
National Museum of Victoria 
National Parks, and Wildlife Service, HO 

National Trust of Queensland.297 
natural environment, alienation ot.7 
natural history 1 19th century),152 
natural history dealers, 152 
Natural History SocieU 

Queensland,136 179 

natural resources, development of. 122 
natural BelectionJB] 
Nature Lovers League, Ul 
naval vessel.247 
NEC Information Sysiems,250 
Nelson, Sir Hugh,2G3 
Nt'oamtodus forstirt. 92 282 

Neuhauscr, Gahtidi.\5B 163-4 
Neumann, Professor, 164 167 
New Fitrm power house, 233 

New Guinea caltectiaatO 

Broadbent in,31b" 

British protect orate, 16 1 202 . 
New Guinea. Hedley in,186 
New Guinea, spiders, 189 
newspaper articles, 102 109 10 139 
new species.152 155 

de Vis, 157 
Ncwstcad House t 82 
Newton, R.,38 
New 7.ealaml,284 
Nicholson, C.,130 
Night Carrot, 157 
NUssonh mummab, 139 

Norman, Sir Henry ,202 

. V. 49 
Norris, A.J.,48 26 

Norsk- \<ortJh/ive Expedition Report 5,264 
Northern Australia Expedition 1855.8 ISO 
Northern Territory, 147 215 

spiders, 189 
northwest Queensland.218 
Norton, Albert,47 52 72 135 286 288-90 
Nothofagus forest 184 

Novara Expedition Reportsj!54 5 256- 7 
noxious gases, 123 274 
Nunley, lris.87 

Oakden. Margaret.oV Vi* 

Oakev Pnmai7 School,123 

O'Doherty, K.I..2H4 2S4 287 

Qeduw nutrmorataJ50 

Ogg family, 135 

Ogilby, JJ)..49-50 54-6 54 u6 162 

O'Hagan, john,232 

Oldham. R.V..59 84 


opening, museum 

in Exhibition building.72 289 

in William Street, 70 280 
opening hours.102 


Ordovician nautiloids.l-U 
■■ jampies, identification of (see alao 
assays), 174 



purchase of ,23 
ornithological studies. 15S 
Ornithologists Union^H 

a. M.,230 
overcrowding in museum (see also 

librarv. shortage pf Space, 

storage),156 213 
Owen, Sir Richard, 130 133 282 

Oxley Library (see John Oxley Library) 

Ojcvm/hwW* micrulepidot us, 158-9 169 


mural lumensts, 138 B 
Pacific cultural material.200 

Pacific, south-western, 201 

Page, J..KM 

Page Hanify, Inspector r 293 

Palasolestes gorei.W 
palaeolithic implements, fcuropean.-!? 
palaeonfalqgicaJ material (British),l32 
palaeontology ,130 

invertebrate. 144 

verlCbWltfl,iaa 134 138 142 174 282 

vertebrate teaching, 139 
Palaeozoic fossils, 144 

fish, 143 
PaUitnnarchus potleti5,138 
Palmer, A.H.,71 216 218 285 285 289 
Palmer. Edward,13B 
Pandora, HMS.246-7 249 



at Tahiti^/"* 
Papua New Guinea (see also New 

Guinea) JB1 163 
Papua Nl-w Guinea fauual affinities, 190 
Papua and New Guinea. Territory of.216 
Papua New Guinea governments 11 
PapUfl New Guinea National Muscum.216 

Par liamentarv building, 16-18 7736 68-9 

102 123 131 

move to, 16 
parliamentary library,16 259 

messengers,!? 36 102 

fWoe Kiver.230 

ventures, 3 

Patents {Au8ftaKan)^73 

Patents, Spec&cattonx nf A&titisbb2&\ 27; v . 


Peaxte, FJ..201 

Pearson, N.,138 

Peckham, GAV .189 


penal settlement (see also Moreton 

Bav),2 14 16 
Perkins, F.A.,142 
personnel, back up,248 
Petrie, Andrew,16 
Petri e family, 135 
Pertigrcw. WilUam.222 
Philip of Macedonia.302 
PWllips, George. 131 

graphic apparatus. 
226 ■ ° fl 

Philosophical Society, Queensland,9-ll 
16-7 2138 KB 122 130-1 133 135152 

office bearers.9 
Philosophical Society Transaction S.1S0 136 
phntography Sectibn.84 
photography, use of, 131 
photomicrographs, 184 

Piggotj Report21S 

pigmy sperm whale.7788 
Pilton, Darting Downs, 133 136 318 
pineapple pesis.178 

Pitcairn I..246 
plant fossils (sec- fossils) 

Platypus Frog, 171 
Pleistocene, 133 

deposits, 147 


. iurs,l38 141 
Pliocene deposits.147 

fauna, 142 
Plio-Pleistwene vertebrates, 136 
Plumed Frogmouth.109 
Podar^us ttcvtlatus t VG& 

. ■■ 
Pa&ilia nticvlata,VA 
poisonous plants,42 

court J.7 

inspectors Ca 

Aborigines).208 'Mi 210 ZIt 
poluica (18S9M6 


polyester resin (in mouldmg>,87 


Port Office,74 

Poriheus australisXW 

Post Office buildin&W B 19-21 36 70 

102 123 

displays in,69-70 

Porter, VI 

power house, New Farm, 233 
Precambrian fauna, 144 
premier. NSW.291 
Prentice, Professor SA.232-3 295 
Preston, A..45 48 265 
Primary Industries, Dept of, 110 
primary product ion, 22K 
Prince Alfred Mine, Sunnybank.108 
Printing Induslry Museum.237 
Prionodura newtimia,156 159 160 
Proceeding nflhe Zoological Society 2*^1 
property uwiiership.4 6 
Pmpleopus 142 
prospectors.]] 174 
prostitutts,47 106 
protozoans, 190 
Pwwlochirus laniginosus,\G6 

P. peregririus r l<ffi 
pterosaur remains.148 

donations, 299 

lectures.108 109 139 

library.261 263 266 

relations.58 106 108 

revenue, 4 

Public Instruction, Dept of,108 287 
public service,4 6 215 

ervice Commissioner.232 
Public Works, Dept of.4 79-80 
I'ullcme, R.H.,189 
Purvis. HJ72 
pythons, live (see also drsplav, carpet 

snakes] H 

QANTAS.92 229 236 

Quarttrty Journal Geological Sniffy ,261 

Queen Eli*abeth,76 

Queen Victoria. 106 

Queen Sfc2 8 17 

Queens Park Museum, Mancheste 


habitats, 174 

history of.233 


Queensland Aero Club. Royal. 237 
Queensland Art GaJlery tsee Art Gallery) 
Queensland centenary,233 

Queensland Entomological Society.320 

Queensland House, London.87 
Queensland Cultural Centre (see 

Cultural Centre! 
Queensland Fisheries Service, 197 
Queensland Institute of Medical 

Research, 190 
Queensland Museum (see also separate 

entries for each building occupied) 

accommodation. 11 305 

advisory committec.293 

annual reporls,290 


By-Laws, 102 106 279 

board of trustees {see separate 

cleaning, 102-3 

closure of «atleries,97 103-4 324-5 

consultancies, 299 

control of MacGregor col lection. 203 

corporate pl,tn,299 

criticism of,290 293 

development of,233 

equipmenCll 305 


facilities,!! 305 

founding of.9 

librarv (see separate Entry] 

management of.276 279 284 (see separate entry) 

moves (see separate enl 

newbuiIding.16-18 22 31-2 

32-3 39 79 106 156 263 286 
293 295- 6 

ogectives^99 305 

official imme f 276 

operating funds.278 

plans of buildings.276 278-9 296 


publication progammc (sec also 

Annals — , Memoirs of the 

Queensland Museum), 299 

public confidence in,41 

responsible depart men 1 ,287 

i 296 
role.9 10 50 59 102 174 202 225 237 

280 291305 
scientific sutus,52 58-9 162 283 293 

site for.9 20- 1 31 104 276 278-9 296 
staff (see separate entry) 
statutory rcsponsibilities,304-5 
vehicles.81 164 165 
tjxeensland Museum Act BTO-85,29 233 
294 305 


Queensland Museum Association 

llU -rp.,64 233 
Queensland Museum Booklet 31 rtes 


Queensland National Parka and Wildlife 
Service (sec National Parks and 
Wildlife Service) 

Queensland Naturalists Club.323 

Queensland Philosophical Society (sex- 
Philosophical Society) 

Queensland Public Service (see public 

Queensland railways,317 

Queensland Transport and Technology 
Cento Act 1984237 298 

Queensland University (see University of 

QueeB8landers^6 20] 


Quifln, Patrick,?? 

Uumneii, M.,2 IS 2)5 216 216 2*8231 

Rabbit Commissi, n . L?fi 

radio. 109-110 

Raff, G.,276 283 288 

raft. Mornmgton 1..212 

rail travel. It 

railway messenger's room.21 

Rainbow, WJJSfl 

Rainmrd, E.H..192 

■ air- damage Cse* also water damage). 16 

28 29 79 104 
rainforests. 174 175 

: , K.t\52 759 282 

Rannie, Douglas,^ 201 269 330 

Ransomes, Sims and Jeiferies portable 

steam engine, 234 237 
Raltus atlmnrum,]iJ4 
Rawnsley, H.C.,36 68 
Rawson, Shane,217 
Raven. Rohert.164 190 
Redbank Plains, LTJ 
Red-winged Parrot, 135 
reform ,2 92 
refreshment rooms (see Exhibition 

regional museum services.29B 


aboriginal material.!' 12 
uiithropological,208 210 214-5 
donor, 225 

history and teehnoiogy.228 233 
library ,267 

MacGregor rollecliuns,21G-l 205 
reptiles. 168 
vertebrates, 168 
regil -'i ration. 162 167 158 

regulations, aitendants.48 

Renai- 1 

reptiles.45 147 162 

Republic Trucks 


restrictions on col lection, 163 170 

retrenchments,^ 47 50 56 290 

Rewan ( 147 147 

Rbiobatracktts sSkt$ r ti& 171 

Rhodes, S.,61 


R, 6rwwf,138 
Rice Bubbles,148 
Richards. Professor Henry Casseli.28 55 

126 139 142 192 230 294 
Richardson, UR.,196 217 

risen* Norma 

Richmond. 138 



show 1929,229 

Roberts, FJLSJ96 

Roberts. CmdrT.f I 
Robins, Richard.217-8 
Robinson. DJ..234 237 240 
Robinson, Lt Col J.A.,77 
Rotkhan.plon.71 148 177 313 
Ronalds, Ben£38 237 
Ronalds, Mrs H.M..237 
Roth, W.E..206 291 
Royal Anthropological Inst tall 
Royal Flying Doetur Service-,237 

Royal Geographic Society of Australasia 

(Queensland Branch). 192 314 
Royal Historical Society .82 229 
■ ■ -.245 
(ational Association (see also 

National Association, RNA),23 280 
Scbpd oi Mines, London,124 
Ro>al Society. London,302 

I Society Queensland,.'^ 135 137 262 

314 32i 

tociety, Prweeding5 f )26 

RtryaJ Worcester porcelain2256'237 
royalties (on restricted specks) ,164 
Rowan, Ellis (water colour paintings).79 
Rudd, 5teeie.3i8 
Russell. A.S..49 
Ryan. T.J.,104 

sales outlet (see also Queensland 

Museum, bookshop),114 
sales of specimens, 281 
Salting, insert collection, 175 
Samford Bora Ring (see also 


Bandars, UF.,190 
Sandercock, Ceclly^OfflJ 

Sanker, I.G..126 .23i 234 

Scanning Electron Microscope.i36.i9f 
Schevill. W.E..14 138 140-1 14) 
Schofield, MJ.,97 234 
school (see also educa lira 

programmes. Ill -2 114 

visits, l(.'fi miU 
School of Arts, Ann St 

building, 18 

library -258 

Bowen Bridge Rd,109 

East Brisbane,108 

Ipswich North Girls',108 

Kangaroo PtGirls',108 

Leichhardt SI Boys',108 



schools of arts.134 


South Brisbane,125 
Science and Art Dept. South 

Kensington f 225 
Science Museum. London,297 
Science Museum, Victor 
scientific reporting,V35 
Scientific Results o/thi Challenge* 

Expeditionist 266 

I ftit-nele (nee Neuhauser),167 
Semen E.G.E.2290- 1 293 293 
Seal Miss Pauline .70 
secretary for (see also minister) 

Public Instruction^? 288 

Public Lands and Agrieulture.289 

Wuiks,18 4 
Sei Whale,88 
Selling, Olof, 142 

M-it!cs,2 8 9 

ante 1 Home Ann St.18 
Service dfiS He. lunges lntern'jtumaux.258 
sextant (Kennedy's),82 229 
Shannon. Sanna (Heusster),142 
Shaw. Eland,186 187 
Shapcott, Thomas W.,90 
shell room, 188 
shell- (see also molluscs),174 1"" 



shipwrecks. 244-51 
shipwrecks legislation, admin' 

Shirley, John (see also coHecttonsj,. 

shortage oi Space 'see also storage, 

Siderops kchlt, 145 
signal station.16 
Silurian tossfts.137 

ids* John, 135 
Simpson, Cpt..229 
Sinnamon, Clance,272 269 54 
skeletal material (hunian),211 
Skertchly '.see also collectinns),212 
Sloane, Sir 9anfi,302 

■ museums 

grants scheme for.299 

workshop, seminar 1978,62 298 298 

workshop, Cairns,299 
Small-scaled SnakeJflT-J? 
Smeed, Valerie (see also War ij 
Smith, BJ.,213 
Smith Const. E..208 

Smith, Frank,21i/ 
Smith. C. 133 
Smith, JJV.,49- 
Smith, R.V.34-J 57 

tli and Pattrson,271 
Smithson, James,303 
Smithsonian Institution, 262 303 
snakes, 177 

i ■ uikc-s.177 

Small-scaled snake,169 
social anthropology ,211 213 
Solomon Is (see collections} 
Spjnersel, Cape York, 123 155 31H 
South Australia,316 
South Australian Museum ( 45 78 212-3 
Southern Cross t 272 
Southern Gtoss Jtftar.EB 92 236 

Southern Electric AuLhorilv,234 


Spalding. K.,41 43 47-8 52 71 160 

Spalding (gardener)^ 

Spanish influenza,103 

Spanish vessels,245 249 251 

sparrow, 161 



, i 


stord^ (see also separate entry), 152 


spice trade,244 

spiders (see also arachnology) 

Araneomorphue. U*9 
enquiries, 110 
jumping. 189 


Mygalomorphae, 189-90 
New Guinea, 189 

Northern Territory.t89 

Spilierjoseph.45 47 52 

sponges, 174 197 

sponsorship funding,299 

Sprent, Professor John, 190 

>Laff, Queensland Museum, 11 64-5 106 

293 295 

anthropology ,2 16 

honorary.55 143 IBS tt<7 


new appointments.297 

permanent, 182 

professional fernale,215 

qualifications,291 293 3dd 

volunteers,63-4 347 
StsUger, K.T.,17 19 36-7 3S 39 39-40 69 

106 123 133 155 174 222 254 2 

284 311-3 
St4n1sicJ.,29 IflH 
Stanley. F.0.G.18 2 1-2 
Stanthorpe,124 131 
starfish (see also eehmudennsU77 
starling, 167 

State Library, Queensland,21 290 
State Service Uniun,58 
Stegeman. M..62 
Stereoscopic microscope ,222 
stereoscopic photograph 
Stephenson, Mrs T.,223 
Stephenson. Professor W..193 197 
StradbrokeL.177 218 
Stnptupvlid chtriensiaAQl 
Stackyard) model of,85 
Stokes, H.G..43 45 47 125 136 
storage facilities, 170 
storage space, 156 167 279 305 

anthropol ogv.2 12 - 5 

geology ,31 

history and technology ,31 239 
Storey, G.,116 

3tt?ml& feee also ram damage),29 
stuffing irons.78 
Sturnkat, PauUW 
Stutchbury, Samuel, L30 
subsidy, state govemment,250 
sugarcane pesi 
Sullivan. Sgt,208 
Sunday opening. JQ3 383 

work, payment forjSfl 
Supreme Court.17 
survey office. 6 
surveys, estuarine, 194 
Swecrs 1,74 


Sweelser, HA.63 85 229 232 233 233-4 

sword sticks.235 

Sydney Umversity.41214 

Sylvania Station,137-H 

Symmynrical catalogue of Upidoptem.Z87 


Tahiti F 245-6 



TaltMma station.91 

tank, ATV Kampfwagon (see Mepfnsto) 

tapa cloth.213 

Tapeinottchemo diggk si. 175 

Tarnaro*. MrsP. 



Tate. G.H..163-4 

Taxation Incentives for the ftxtg 

taxidermists 156 

taxidermy,52-3 62 77-8 80 87-8 166 

Taylor, Un,61 103 223 
layJor, Norman,332 
Taylor, K..40 

Taylor. Ron and Valerie.247 
teacher lrainmg.102 112 114 

reacberV Training Coliege.ioy 187 
Tebble, T.P..62 81 86 91 95 141 214 

Technical Museum. Committee ka 1 1 

Development of.230 

. (logical branch,225 228 

depart ruent.225 
technological museum.22fr 230 
technology .222 

permanent home ,241 
technology workshop,239 
Tedford, R.H..145 
telegraph insulators,234 
telegraph station.16 
te in(e&Lation,29 31 
termite mnunds.88 94 
Tertiary fossils 


insects, 142 

marsupials, 147 


i: carnifexMS 

Thyfacotea audiovisual, 115 
Thulborn. RA.144 147 
Thursday 1..218 288 
fhoraaa Macleod Queensland Aviation 

Collei;rion^/T>27/27,2 272 
Thomas Tompion clocks 230 
Thomson, J.,62 
Thomson, J.M..295 
Thorn. George, MLA.279 
Thorpe, Jam, 
theology, 152 

thefts (see also specimen loss), 106 125 

Tiffin, Charle*,lfi 68 130 322 

Tillyard. RJ..182 


Toowoomba.297 321 

Toowoomba City Gmnui,212 

"Riowiximba Grammar Scliool,320 

Toowoomba Field Naturalist*' Club,320-1 

Toowoomba Scientific and Literary 

Torres Strait.246 251 

Torres Strait Islander-, 2 IS 
Town Hall (see also City Hall),19 27 

-uie,247 298 
trade food.318 
trade goods,248 
trade winds,244 
Transactions of the Palaeontograpiail 

Society ,261 
Transactions of the ZwHqshmI 


transport, energy and mining 

tSpOfl inuseum,297 
i ravel nverseas.63 93 
tl 8VI Hingexhibitions.298 306 
Treves, D.M.,295 
treadmill, 15 
trcr kangaroo.156317 

!l Ipswich Coal Measures,142 
Tnassic fossils 

cockroach. !■>(£ 



reptiles, 147 
■■ its. 147 

vertebrates. 147 
Tristrum, F.T.23b 
troops in Exhibition building.2H9 
TfOpidO$horU& tjm'vtrJanduu:, 15? 
Troughton. Ellis.163-4 
Trout Sir Lenn,228 


trustees (see also board). u 27-8 52 72 

293 4 


Tryon, rlenry,43 45-8 47-8 109 175 17? 

177-9 183 186 206 264 286 314 2 19 

Iully, Mrs Marv27Q 
Tully River. 159 

Turner. A. Jefferis.57 175 183 185 290 
Turner, R.,130 
Turner, S., 143 145 
Turtle. American Snapping.162 
turtles, fussii.133 4 
type spccimen.s.161 164 167-8 183 185 


invertebrates, 190 

palaeontology, 142 
typewriter.2 'i 
rvrunnitiiiunts n'j.,91 

UDT World Cup Rally. 92 
under secretary, f'ept od 

Agriculture.290- I 
. 9,276 

Public Instruct ion.286 
universities, Australian,63 
University Of MeIboume,139 323 
University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne.134 
Uhiveraity of NSW.U7 
Universitv of Queensland. 108 142 190 

192-4 2^229 

anthropology museum.213 218 

geologic;!) specimens, supply of,126 

rlamlyn-Harris lectures,320 

Longman lectures,139 

zoolog>'dept.,190 321 
urban cornmunities,3 
US National Museum,304 
US National Museum of Natural 

Utah Foundation.91 117 



Vanuatu (see collections) 

I aranus gOiddii,322 

Varey, E.,54 55 

Vernacular Names for Australian Birds 

Committee .3 14 
Vernon, Di\,59-62 62 78 78 80 80 S3 89- 

90 113 167-8 213 227 298 


Vernon, Mrs Mavis,89 
Vernon, J.E.N.,193 
vertebrate palaeontology (see 

vertebrate fossils (see fossils) 
Victoria and Albert Museum,230 
Victoria Station,25 
Victoria Downs station, 139 
Victorian Geological Survey, 122 
Victorian society, 152 
visiting scientists,58 
visitor behaviour,95 
visitor survey 1977,85 90 
volunteer staff,63-4 247 

Wade, Mary ,91 126 144-5 147 

Walker, G.,38 

Walkom, A.B.,55 139 

Wager, L.,232 

Wall, Patrick,44-5 

Wallace, Carden,i92 193-4 

Waller, Eli,36 68 155 

Wallman, H.F.,43 124 

Walsh River.132 139 

Walsh, W.H.,123 174 312 

Ward, Rowland,77 

Waring, V. (nee Smeed),81 

Warren, Anne,145 147 

water damage (see also rain damage),29 

Waterside Workers' Federation ,270 
Watson, G.W.,294 
Watson, Kathleen,^ 270 
Watson, Mary Beatrice,85 223 
Waugh, John,222 
Weatherill, W.E.,52-3 291-2 
Webber, Peter, 116 

Weight and Volume, standards of,226 
Wellesley I..218 
Wells, J.W.,193 
West Indian dry wood termite (see 

Cryptotermes brevis) 
Western Australia,244 316 
Western Australian Museum,244 
western Pacific 190 
western Queensland, 136 
Weston, Dame Margaret,297 
whales, 194 
White, T.E.,141 
Whitehead, Kylie.267 
Whitehouse, F.W.,139 
whitings, 168 
Wickham, Capt. RN,2 
Wild, CJ.,45 47-50 51 52-5 137 175 179- 

81 186-7 208 291 320 
Wight, Rev. George,122 131 
Wilkins, Sir Hubert,140 164 272 
Williams, A. and J.,135 
Williams and Norgate, booksellers,258 

William Street building^? 2i 21-2 124 

257 286 



displays in,71 

lighting^ 260 

move to, 103 280 283 286 

opening,70- 1 

overcrowd ing,71 
Willis, Henry and Sons,25 
Wilson, DA.,62 
Wilson, J.K.,68 130 
Wilson, J.S.,130 
Wilson, Sir Leslie,79 
Wilson, Robert,32 

Windmill, The,14-16 14-5 16 36 68 

museum opening in,9 
Winterbotham, L.P.,213 

Winton Shire Council,145 
Wippell.P.,62224 214 
Wixted, E.,85 92 235 270 272 
Wood, William,295 
Woods, J.T.,59 62 63 63 79 84 126 135 138 

142 143 167 213-4 228 
Woods, Rev. Tenison,43 
Woodward, Sir Arthur Smith,138 
Woodward, T.E.,185 
WoodWorks,238 297 
work experience,116 
work force,4 

Workers' Education Library,58 
Works, Deptof,133 297 
Works and Mines, Dept of,287 
workshop facilities^30 234 
World War 1,104 269 
World War 11,59 104 
Wragge, CIement,206 207 208 
Wright, R.V.S.,214 

Yongala, SS.247-8 

Young Australia League,112 

Yonge, C.M.,192 

Young, J. Edgar,57 79 164 

Zion Hill, Nundah,6 

Zoological Society, London, 154 311323 

Zoological Record,258 

Zoology of the voyage ofHMS 

Zoology of the Erebus and 

Terror, 261 
Zygomaturus, 133